Unit 2: The body and the Brain Study Guide 1. What is the difference between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system? 2. What is a neuron? 3. Explain HOW neurons send and receive messages. In your explanation, be sure to include the axons, dendrites, synapse, and the myelin sheath. 4. How might the message-sending process get disrupted? 5. What is a neurotransmitter? 6. Complete this chart: Central Nervous system Peripheral Nervous System 7. What is the difference between the Autonomic and Somatic systems? 8. What is the purpose of the spinal cord (how does it relate to human behavior?) 9. What structures of the brain deal with more automatic or involuntary functions (i.e. breathing)? 10. What structures of the brain deal with more voluntary functions (i.e. memory)? 11. What is the cerebral cortex? 12. How is the cerebral cortex divided? 13. What connects this division? 14. What happens if this connection is disrupted? 15. Defend the argument that supports the concept of brain lateralization (hemispheric specialization). What factors could you identify to oppose the existence of hemispheric specialization? 16. What are the four different lobes and what are the main sensory and motor functions that they control? 17. What is Broca’s and Wernicke’s area? 18. What is the difference between an MRI, a CAT scan, and a PET scan? 19. What is the endocrine system? Where is it located in our body? 20. Identify the MAIN purpose of these glands: a. Pituitary gland b. Thyroid gland c. Adrenal gland d. Testes and Ovaries 21. Explain the nature and nurture debate. 22. How might a biopsychologist (the biological perspective) view the nature/nurture debate? Use information that you learned in this unit to answer this question- meaning, don’t just write that they would explain behavior with human biology. 23. How this debate by studied? Hint: think about the reading on twins. 24. Do these studies reveal more validity in the nature or nurture argument?