Chapter Four Outline

Chapter Four Outline
I. Anomie Theory: Deviance is related to certain structural conditions in society. The
deviant must use deviance to adapt to strains of living that pressure the individual to
become deviant. Example: Christopher on page 71.
A. Adapting to Strain: Ritualism, Rebellion, Innovation, Retreatism.
B. Extensions of the Anomie Perspective: Cloward and Ohlin( 1960) and poverty.
Simon and Gagnon(1976) and greed. Agnew ( 2001), holds that there are other
types of strain that may produce deviance. Messner and Rosenfield (2007) speaks
to the devalued family.
C. Evaluating Anomie Theory
1. The Assumption of Universality: Definitions vary in time and place.
2. Class Bias: Deviance is represented more in the lower classes.
3. Simplicity of Explanation: There are other factors that influence
4. The Trouble of Retreatism: Alcoholism, drugs and mental illness come
not just from retreatism.
II. Conflict Theories
A. Deviance and Marxism: Continuous struggle between social classes.
B. Other Conflict Theories: Crime as a function of social class, elitism,
powerlessness, and the privileged. Crime is a rational act. Organized crime is a
function of capitalism. Law represses political threats.
C. Social Threat: The enthusiasm for crime control comes from perceived threats
from undesirables from certain groups( immigrants, lower-class etc), regardless of
their behavior.
D. Left Realism: Police do not control conditions that bring about crime but
merely do their job of crime control. The intersection or square of crime comes
from, offenders, victims, the state and public opinion. With the promotion of
social justice and a reduction of inequality there will be a reduction of crime.
E. Evaluating the Conflict Model: Society translates values into laws and other
1. Explanation of Rules or Behavior? Ignores socialization and assumes
that political consideration alone motivates deviants.
2. Who Benefits?: Elite property owners and white collar criminals
3. Powerful Groups and Social Rules.: They dictate the content of criminal
laws and rule-making.
4. Law and the Causes of Behavior: Since criminal law defines criminal
acts does law induce the criminals to commit crime.