Chapter Four Outline I. Anomie Theory: Deviance is related to certain structural conditions in society. The deviant must use deviance to adapt to strains of living that pressure the individual to become deviant. Example: Christopher on page 71. A. Adapting to Strain: Ritualism, Rebellion, Innovation, Retreatism. B. Extensions of the Anomie Perspective: Cloward and Ohlin( 1960) and poverty. Simon and Gagnon(1976) and greed. Agnew ( 2001), holds that there are other types of strain that may produce deviance. Messner and Rosenfield (2007) speaks to the devalued family. C. Evaluating Anomie Theory 1. The Assumption of Universality: Definitions vary in time and place. 2. Class Bias: Deviance is represented more in the lower classes. 3. Simplicity of Explanation: There are other factors that influence deviance. 4. The Trouble of Retreatism: Alcoholism, drugs and mental illness come not just from retreatism. II. Conflict Theories A. Deviance and Marxism: Continuous struggle between social classes. B. Other Conflict Theories: Crime as a function of social class, elitism, powerlessness, and the privileged. Crime is a rational act. Organized crime is a function of capitalism. Law represses political threats. C. Social Threat: The enthusiasm for crime control comes from perceived threats from undesirables from certain groups( immigrants, lower-class etc), regardless of their behavior. D. Left Realism: Police do not control conditions that bring about crime but merely do their job of crime control. The intersection or square of crime comes from, offenders, victims, the state and public opinion. With the promotion of social justice and a reduction of inequality there will be a reduction of crime. E. Evaluating the Conflict Model: Society translates values into laws and other rules. 1. Explanation of Rules or Behavior? Ignores socialization and assumes that political consideration alone motivates deviants. 2. Who Benefits?: Elite property owners and white collar criminals benefit. 3. Powerful Groups and Social Rules.: They dictate the content of criminal laws and rule-making. 4. Law and the Causes of Behavior: Since criminal law defines criminal acts does law induce the criminals to commit crime.