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Chapter 10 Copyediting Quantitative Materials Numbers Use figures for all quantifiable units of measure Do not begin a sentence with a figure Given a choice, use the metric system of measurement Set decimal fractions of less than 1.0 with an initial zero Convert treatment of numbers in a translation Measurement Use only numbers between 0.1 and 1,000 in expressing the quantity of any SI unit; use the derived units for smaller or larger numbers Never make abbreviations into plurals Mathematical Material Fractions When converting stacked fractions to solid (inline) fractions, use parentheses whenever necessary to eliminate confusion The preferred order for signs of aggregation or fences is parentheses, square brackets, and braces: {[()]} Equations displaying and numbering equations Number the equations if they will be referred to again in the document Number the equations sequentially either through the book or through a division of it Use double numeration (chapter number + period + equation number, e.g., 2.1) to allow future changes in the numeration breaking equations Break an equation before an operational sign (+, -) or relational sign (=, <, >) Never break terms in parentheses punctuating equations Equations are read as sentences, with operational signs taking the place of verbs, conjunctions, and adjectives. Punctuation or no punctuation depends on different style manuals grammar and punctuation Follows the same rules as prose Copymarking for typesetting Unknowns (x, y, z) and variables (a, b, c) in expressions and equations are set as lowercase italic letters. Numbers, symbols, and signs are set in roman type Vectors are set in bold Operational signs and relational signs are set with space on either side. Statistics Statistics: singular when referring to “the system of interpreting numerical data” plural when referring to specific numbers Data: plural of “datum” Tables Chapter 10 Supplement Figures or Words 1-100: spell out 100-10,000: if possible to be expressed in hundreds, spell out all the other numbers: use figures if too much cluster when spelled out: use figures Round Numbers (approximations) usually spelled out e.g., Her essay summarizes two thousand years of Christian history. large numbers: figure followed by million or billion First word in sentence Avoid figure If too cumbersome, rearrange sentence e.g., One hundred ten men and 103 women will receive advanced degrees this quarter. This quarter, 110 men and 103 women will receive advanced degrees. Physical quantities Scientific usage usually figures, e.g., 45 cubic feet 21 hectares 10 picas Nonscientific usage apply the same rules as for general numbers Quantities with fractions in them use figures, e.g., 8 1/2 by 11 inches Abbreviations If abbreviation is used for unit of measure, quantity should always be in figures. e.g., 3 mi 12 V 50 lb 65 MPH 137 km Symbols use a figure, e.g., 3” for two or more quantities, the symbol should be repeated, e.g., 3” x 5” Percentages and Decimal Fractions Usually set in figures in both humanistic and scientific copies, e.g., Grades of 3.8 and 95 are identical. Percentages In scientific copy: use “%” Of the cultures tested, fewer than 23% yielded positive results. In humanistic copy: use “percent” The five-year credit will carry interest of 3 percent. Decimal Fractions If capable of equaling or exceeding 1.00, use an initial zero. a mean of 0.73 the ratio of 0.85 If never equaling 1.00, as in probabilities, levels of significance, correlation coefficients, etc., no initial zero p < .05 R = .10 When in humanistic contexts, the above rules are seldom observed. The average number of children born to college graduates dropped from 2.3 to .95 per couple. Money Number and unit of measure should be consistent: both spelled out or figure + symbol. twenty-five cents $450 Fractions amounts Should be consistent in terms of how many digits to keep after the decimal point. Articles bought for $6.00 were sold for $6.75. The agent received $5.50, $33.75, and $175.00 for the three sales. If too cumbersome to use figures or to spell out in full, use dollar sign, figure, and units of millions and billions . A price of $3 million was agreed upon by both firms. Foreign currencies Fr 342.46 DM 45 million Parts of a book usually in figures except for preliminary pages: The preface of the book will be found on pages vii-xiv and the introduction on pages 3-46 in chapter 1. Dates Year: 25 B.C. A.D. 14 Year abbreviated: the class of ’84 Day 27 April 1982 April 27, 1982 Year and Month January 2000 Centuries and Decades the 1880s and 1890s the spirit of ’76