Macroscopic Anatomy of the Skeletal System Physiology 1 Name: Per: Background The word skeleton comes from the Greek work meaning ‘dried up body’ or ‘mummy.’ Despite this unflattering description, the human skeleton is a very complex structure. It is also a marvel of design, being ideally adapted for its protective, locomotive and manipulative functions. The present form of the human skeleton has been around for at least 3 million years, when our hominid ancestors first adopted an upright posture and bipedal locomotion. The skeleton is composed of bones, cartilage and ligaments, with bones making up the bulk of this skeletal structure. Altogether the skeleton accounts for approximately 20% of our body’s mass. An accurate study of this organ system cannot be accomplished without a basic understanding of its anatomy and the anatomical language that is used to describe it. The 206 bones of the human skeleton are organized into the axial and appendicular skeletons. The axial skeleton forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column and rib cage. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the hip and shoulder girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton. Bones can also be categorized by shape: long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid. In this activity, you will study and learn skeletal anatomy through the use of a disarticulated skeleton and the skeletal website http://www.innerbody.com/image/skelfov.html. Grab an ipad and let’s begin assembly. Focus Questions • • What are the major bones of the axial and appendicular skeleton? How do the bones of the human skeleton articulate with one another? What is the detailed anatomy of the human skull, hand and foot? Procedure Part A. General Anatomical Study: Trunk and Limbs Directions: Get into a group of 4. Unload the skeleton box and place all the bones of the human body on two tables in the front part of the classroom. Using an ipad, go to the Inner body website listed above. Find the bones that make up each of the sections of the human shown in the tables below. Group the bones together for the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle, the arms, legs, vertebrae, and rib cage. Identify the names of the bones, the skeletal division, the number of each bone found in the body and the type of bone. Use the website to help you. Complete the tables below. As you learn each of the bones, build your skeleton! 1. Identify and learn the bones of the shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle. As you identify the bones, place them on the table in the location where they are found in the articulated skeleton. Shoulder Girdle Name of Bone Pelvic Girdle Name of Bone Bone: Parts: # in Body Skeletal Division Type of Bone # in Body Skeletal Division Type of Bone Identify and learn the bones of the arm and leg. Articulate them with the pelvic and shoulder girdles. Arm Name of Bone # in Body Skeletal Division Type of Bone Name of Bone # in Body Skeletal Division Type of Bone Leg 2. Identify and learn the bones of the vertebral column. Articulate them with the rib cage, skull and pelvic girdle. Vertebrae Name of Bone # in Body Skeletal Division Type of Bone Skeletal Division Type of Bone 3. Identify and learn the bones of the rib cage. Rib Cage Name of Bone # in Body 5. Check your knowledge by working with a partner to conduct a ‘simulated’ laboratory quiz. Conduct this exercise with both the articulated skeleton and the loose bones. Part B. Labeling the Human Skeleton Directions: Label the major bones of the axial and appendicular skeleton. Part C. Detailed Anatomical Study: Skull Directions: You will be assigned one of the following body regions to learn. Use all available resources (textbooks, charts/diagrams, articulated skeletons and loose bones) to label the diagram of the region you have been assigned. You will need to be able to identify the bones on an articulated skeleton or diagram. 1. Skull: Label the lateral view diagram of the human skull. Analysis and Conclusions Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper using complete sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Define the term foramen. Name the largest foramen in the skull. What is its purpose? Name 2 processes found on the skull and describe their location. What characteristics help you to distinguish the different types of vertebrae? Name the first and second cervical vertebrae. Name the three types of ribs (costals). How many total ribs are there? What part of the humerus articulates with the scapula? What is a fossa? What characteristics help you to distinguish between the radius and the ulna? What characteristics help you to distinguish the tibia and the fibula? Name the only bone that does not articulate with another bone. What is the largest bone in the body? What is the smallest bone in the body? How many bones are there in the human body? Are you born with more or less bones? What did you learn about the human skeleton while you were building it? Write a conclusion.