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Student Name
Low Brass Lectures
Brass Techniques
Music 146
DR. MARK S. COX
CENTRAL MICHIGAN
UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF MUSIC
ROOM 270
989.774.3445
[email protected]
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
COURSE INFO
 SYLLABUS
3
 HOW TO TEACH LOW BRASS
 BREATHING
 OVERTONES
 FINGERINGS/SLIDE POSITIONS
 MOUTHPIECE BUZZING AND WARM-UPS
 GENERAL MAINTENANCE
 THE MOUTHPIECE
5
6
8
9
12
GENERAL
14
16
COMPACT DISC
 TROMBONE CDS
 EUPHONIUM CDS
 TUBA CDS
18
19
20
 TUBA HISTORY
 THE EUPHONIUM AND BARITONE
21
24
 MUTES
 LOW BRASS REFERENCE BOOKS
25
27
HISTORY
ACCESSORIES
MARCHING BAND
 THE SOUSAPHONE
28
METHOD BOOKS
 TROMBONE METHOD BOOK EVALUATION SHEET
 EUPHONIUM METHOD BOOK EVALUATION SHEET
 TUBA METHOD BOOK EVALUATION SHEET
30
31
32
 SOLO SELECTION FOR FESTIVALS
 EUPHONIUM MUSIC RECOMMENDATIONS
 TUBA MUSIC RECOMMENDATIONS
 TROMBONE SOLO EVALUATION SHEET
 EUPHONIUM SOLO EVALUATION SHEET
 TUBA SOLO EVALUATION SHEET
33
34
35
36
37
38
SOLOS
WHITENER NOTES
 WHITENER LECTURE NOTES 1
 WHITENER LECTURE NOTES 2
 WHITENER LECTURE NOTES 5
 WHITENER LECTURE NOTES 6 & 7
39
40
41
42
 DR. LINDAHL’S LECTURE
 DR. LINDAHL’S HANDOUTS
43
44
DR. LINDAHL
2
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
EXTRAS
 EXTRA NOTES #1
 EXTRA NOTES #2
57
58
 NOTEBOOK GRADE SHEET
59
GRADES
3
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
CENTRAL MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY
BRASS TECHNIQUES - MUSIC 146
 SYLLABUS
• REQUIRED MATERIALS:
• Standard of Excellence, Book by Bruce Pearson
•Book 1, Conductor’s Score
• A Complete Guide to Brass, Scott Whitener
•Other music and materials required for the course will be supplied by the instructor; either by
photocopies or through the CMU Computer Network
•COURSE DESCRIPTION:
A. Lecture and Performance Lab Schedule:
1) Lectures are Mondays and Wednesdays (no instruments are needed unless otherwise instructed). 1st week will be all
lectures. Last week two weeks will be all playing; 2) Performance Labs are Tuesdays and Thursdays (subject to change)
B. After completing the brass techniques course the student will:
1) Have some of the education for teaching brass instruments through the actual learning and performing of these
instruments, which include: cornet/trumpet, horn, trombone, euphonium and tuba; 2) demonstrate a knowledge of the
similarities and differences between brass instruments; 3) demonstrate skills in teaching specific techniques on each brass
instrument through constructive comments to and from peers in the class; 4) demonstrate basic care and maintenance of the
instruments played in class; 5) know how to fix specific problems concerning each of the brass instruments to the
satisfaction of the instructor; 6) be able to identify from the notes and/or handouts: a) quality brass instruments; b) sources
for brass music; c) suitable mouthpieces for beginners on all brass instruments; d) discount supply houses for instruments
•COURSE REQUIREMENTS:
1. Class attendance - Mandatory. Please be ON TIME for class. After 3 unexcused absences, each subsequent absence
will a reduction of a grade. Ex.: A- to B+; B to B-; 2) five playing evaluations - at the end of each cycle there will be a
playing examination (Pass/Fail); 3) reading as assigned (see attached page); 4) homework assignments; 5) written exams
(graded): A) one at the end of each cycle; B) midterm; C) final; 6) active class participation in both playing and discussion
7) you will need to take notes on a daily basis. There will be periodic handouts distributed which must go into your
notebook.
•GRADE DETERMINATION:
1. Attendance - Mandatory. (see above course requirements).
Total %
Breakdown:
Low Brass
High Brass
2. Notebook
20%
10%
10%
3. Midterm
20%
20% (Low Brass Final)
0%
4. Final
20%
0%
20% (High Brass Final)
5. End of cycle Exams
20%(4 exams @ 5 % = 20%)
10% (2 exams)
10% (2 exams)
6. Assignments*
20%
10%
10%
7. Playing Exams* Pass or Fail
(you must PASS all brass instruments to pass the class)
*All examination and assignments are due by the date given by the instructor.
•GRADING SCALE:
100-93 A
89-87
B+
86-83
79-77
C+
76-73
69-67
D+
66-63
0-59
B
C
D
E
92-90
82-80
72-70
62-60
Final Examination:
Date:
Time:
Locations:
ABCD-
CMU provides individuals with disabilities reasonable accommodations to participate in educational programs,
activities or services. Students with disabilities requiring accommodations to participate in class activities or
meet course requirements should contact me as early as possible.
4
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 LOW BRASS LECTURE OUTLINE
(SUBJECT
TO CHANGE)
LECTURES:
READING:
L1
L2
L3
L4
L5
L6
L7
L8
L9
pp. 133-147; 152-164; 165-176
pp. 359-366; 370-371
How to teach/Breathing
Fingerings/Slide Positions; Transpositions; Overtone Series
Breathing (cont.); Mouthpiece Buzzing; Warm-ups
General Maintenance
Mouthpieces; Special FX; multiple tonguing
Trombone, Euphonium and Tuba CD’s (homework)
History of Low Brass; Method Book Review
Mutes (All Low Brass instruments)
Sousaphones
pp. 322-328
p. 353
pp. 346-347
pp. 117-123
•INSTRUMENT ROSTER•
NAME
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
(F)
(G)
(H)
(I)
(J)
(K)
(L)
(M)
(N)
(O)
(P)
(Q)
(R)
(S)
(T)
(U)
TRB
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
EPH
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
5
TBA
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 HOW TO TEACH LOW BRASS
• GENERAL “HOW TO TEACH”
Beginner
O
• TUBA (PLACEMENT; POSITION; RANGE; ETC.)
O
O
Intermediate
O
O
• EUPHONIUM (PLACEMENT; POSITION; RANGE; ETC.)
Beginner
O
O
Intermediate
O
O
• TROMBONE (PLACEMENT; POSITION; RANGE; ETC.)
Beginner
O
O
Intermediate
6
O
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 BREATHING
• MOST IMPORTANT ASPECT OF BRASS PLAYING:
• INTERNAL QUANTITY
• QUICK BREATH
• PRESSURE
•BREATHING REFRESHES THE BODY
• POSTURE
•BREATHING EXERCISES (PLEASE LIST ALL EXERCISES)
7
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 BREATHING (CONT)
EXAMPLE OF AIR 2
EXAMPLE OF AIR 1
o
u
n
d
=long phrases
S
O
U
N
D
= short phrases
Extra Notes:
8
= BIG SOUND
s
= thin sound
= length of time
= Sound
AIR
EXAMPLE OF AIR 3
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 OVERTONES
OVERTONE SERIES
1
Fundamental
2
P8
3
P5
4
P4
5
M3
6
m3
(7*)
(m3*)
* 7th partial
is too flat do not use
Partials = overtones
 TROMBONE
1
2
3
4
5
6
(7)
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
(7)
8
 EUPHONIUM
 TUBA
10
8
M2
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
1
2
3
4
5
6
11
(7)
8
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 FINGERINGS/SLIDE POSITION
TUBA
TUBA
EUPHONIUM
EUPHONIUM
TROMBONE
TROMBONE
• DETERMINING FINGERINGS AND SLIDE POSITIONS
12
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
13
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 FINGERINGS/SLIDE POSITION (CONT.)
•VALVES
Individual Valves:
1.
2.
3.
Valve Combinations: 1&3
4.
2&4
1&2
2&3
• 4TH VALVE
• TROMBONE SLIDE
Trombone Position:
1st 2nd
3rd
etc.
14
4th
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
15
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 FINGERINGS/SLIDE POSITION (CONT.)
• COMPENSATING EUPHONIUMS
• LOW BRASS TRANSPOSITION
• CYLINDRICAL BORE INSTRUMENTS
• CONICAL BORE INSTRUMENTS
Extra Notes:
16
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17
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 MOUTHPIECE BUZZING AND WARM-UPS
• WHERE SOUND IS CREATED
• AREAS OF THE MOUTH
•SMILE EMBOUCHURE
• PUCKER EMBOUCHURE
• PLACEMENT
•60-40% VS. 40-60% LIP PLACEMENT
•DOUBLE BUZZ
• MOUTHPIECE BUZZING
18
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
19
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 MOUTHPIECE BUZZING AND WARM-UPS (CONT.)
• LISTEN TO SOUND OF THE MOUTHPIECE
•VISUALIZER:
Horn-Trumpet
Tuba Visualizer
Extra Notes:
20
Trombone-Euphonium
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
21
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 GENERAL MAINTENANCE
• SUPPLIES
• VALVE OIL
• MISTING BOTTLE
• SLIDE GREASE
• SLIDE CREAM
Snake
• SNAKE
• MOUTHPIECE TRUER
Mouthpiece
22
Truer
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
23
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 GENERAL MAINTENANCE (CONT.)
• MOUTHPIECE PULLER
• MOUTHPIECE BRUSH
Bobcat Brand Mouthpiece Puller
• MORE GENERAL MAINTENANCE
DEG Magnum Mouthpiece Puller
Mouthpiece Brush
24
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
25
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 THE MOUTHPIECE
BASIC OUTLINE
1.
2.
3.
5.
4.
1. RIM
2. CUP
3. THROAT
4. BACKBORE
26
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
5. SHANK
27
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 MOUTHPIECES (CONT.)
• MOUTHPIECE MANUFACTURERS
• ALLOYS
• RECOMMEND TUBA MOUTHPIECE
• RECOMMEND EUPHONIUM MOUTHPIECE
• RECOMMEND TROMBONE MOUTHPIECE
28
 TROMBONE CDS
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
• GENERAL NOTES AND WHERE TO PURCHASE:
SOLOIST
CD NAME
RECORD COMPANY
29
SIGNIFICANT SELECTIONS
OTHER
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
30
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
CD NAME
 EUPHONIUM CDS
SOLOIST
SIGNIFICANT SELECTIONS
• GENERAL NOTES AND WHERE TO PURCHASE
RECORD COMPANY
OTHER
31
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
32
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 TUBA CDS
SOLOIST
CD NAME
SIGNIFICANT SELECTIONS
• GENERAL NOTES AND WHERE TO PURCHASE
RECORD COMPANY
OTHER
33
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
34
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 TUBA HISTORY
• HISTORY OF TUBA
• SOLO
• VALVES
•KEYS OF TUBAS
• Bands
•BBb (Contrabass Tuba)
• Eb (Bass Tuba)
35
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
36
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 TUBA HISTORY (CONT.)
• ORCHESTRA
• CC (Contrabass Tuba)
• F (Bass Tuba)
• TUBAS AND TRANSPOSITION
• MANUFACTURERS
• B & S (VMI)
• Besson
• Cerveny
• Hirsbrunner
• Kalison
• Meinl-Weston
• Mirafone
• Perantucci
• Rudolph-Meinl
• Sanders
• Willson
• St. Petersburg
•PURCHASING A TUBA
Concert Bell
Recording Bell
37
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
38
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 TUBA HISTORY (CONT.)
•ACCESSORIES FOR TUBA
•WALL HANGER
•TUBA STANDS
Extra Notes:
39
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
40
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 THE EUPHONIUM AND BARITONE
• HISTORY
EUPHONIUM
BARITONE
• TREBLE VS. BASS CLEF EUPHONIUM
DOUBLE BELL
EUPHONIUM
•MANUFACTURERS
• Besson
• Cerveny
• Hirsbrunner
• Mirafone
• Perantucci
• Sterling
• Willson
• Yamaha
• CASES
• STANDS
41
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
42
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 MUTES
• TWO BASIC TYPES
• MOST COMMON
TYPE
Straight
CHARACTERISTICS
Humes and Berg
Straight Mute
Cup
Jo-Ral Metal
Straight Mute
Cup Mute
Harmon
Harmon Mute
Practice
Practice Mute
Plunger
Plunger Mute
43
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
44
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 MUTES (CONT.)
• LARGE VS. SMALL MUTES
• TROMBONE
• EUPHONIUM
• TUBA
• CORK
• YAMAHA SILENT BRASS MUTES
45
Yamaha Silent
Brass
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
46
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 LOW BRASS REFERENCE BOOKS
Program Notes for Solo Tuba
Bird, Gary
Indiana Press
The Low Brass Guide
Griffith, John
Jerona Music
Studio Class Manual for Tuba and Euphonium
Rose, William
Iola Publications
The Art of Euphonium Playing; Volume 1
Lehman, Art
Tuba Press
Brass Bibliography
Fasman, Mark
Indiana Press
The Art of Euphonium Playing; Volume 2
Lehman, Art
Tuba Press
The Art of Tuba and Euphonium
Phillips, Harvey and Winkle, William
Summy-Birchard, Inc.
Euphonium Music Guide
Louder, Earl
The Instrumentalist
The Tuba Handbook
Mason, J. Kent
Sonate Publications
Musical Instruments, A Comprehensive
Dictionary
Marcuse, Sibyl
The Norton Library
Tuba Music Guide
Morris, R. Winston
Instrumentalist Publishing Co.
Arnold Jacobs, The Legacy of a Master
Stewart, M. Dee (collected by)
Instrumentalist Publishing Co.
The Tuba Source Book
Morris, Robert and Goldstein, Edward R.
Indiana Press
The Art of Brass Playing
Farkas, Philip
Wind Music, Inc
A Treatise on the TUBA
Stauffer, Donald W.
Stauffer Press
Arnold Jacobs: Song and Wind
Frederiksen, Brian
Wind Song Press, Limited
Euphonium Music Guide
Werden, David and Winter, Denis
Whaling Music Publishers
Practical Hints on Playing Tuba
Little, Donald
Warner Bros.
Scoring for the Euphonium
Werden, David
Whaling Music Publishers
KID”S BOOKS
Tuba Lessons
by T. C. Bartlett, Monique Felix(Illustrator)
Harcourt-Brace
I. T. E. A Journal (T.U.B.A. Journal )
Tuba Press
Little Boy with a Big Horn No. 12
Jack Bechdolt, Aurelius Battaglia(Illustrator)
Golden Books Publishing Co
The Brass Player’s Guide
Robert King Music (sheet music catalogue
retailer)
47
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 THE SOUSAPHONE
BELL
• ORIGINAL SOUSAPHONES
• CHARACTERISTICS
MOUTHPIECE
• FIBERGLASS VS. BRASS
Fiberglass
Brass
Pro:
Pro:
Con:
Con:
EXTENSION
NECK
BODY
• MAIN BODY PARTS
•ASSEMBLY
48
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
• DISASSEMBLE
 THE SOUSAPHONE (CONT.)
•ACCESSORIES
•SOUSAPHONE STAND
Sousaphone Stand
•SHOULDER PAD
Sousaphone
Shoulder Pad
•YAMAHA SOUSAPHONE PROTECTOR PADS
49
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
Yamaha
Sousaphone
Protector Pads
50
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 TROMBONE METHOD BOOK EVALUATION SHEET
TITLE:
COMPOSER(S):
ARRANGER(S)/TRANSCRIBER(S)
PUBLISHER:
DATE OF PUB.:
CRITERIA
EL JR HS AD Y N
COST:
DESCRIPTION
1. Range
2. Technical difficulty
3. Original music or transcription
4. Scale-wise passages
5. Arrpegiated passages
6. Variety of meters
7. Variety of tonalities
8. Accompaniment
9. Overall appearance
10. Measure numbers
11. Clear dynamic markings
12. Written instructions
13. Arranged for other instruments
14. Overall evaluation:
Comments:
El=Elementary; Jr=Junior High; Hs=High School; Ad=Advanced; Y=Yes; N=No
51
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
52
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 EUPHONIUM METHOD BOOK EVALUATION SHEET
TITLE:
COMPOSER(S):
ARRANGER(S)/TRANSCRIBER(S)
PUBLISHER:
DATE OF PUB.:
CRITERIA
EL JR HS AD Y N
COST:
DESCRIPTION
1. Range
2. Technical difficulty
3. Original music or transcription
4. Scale-wise passages
5. Arrpegiated passages
6. Variety of meters
7. Variety of tonalities
8. Accompaniment
9. Overall appearance
10. Measure numbers
11. Clear dynamic markings
12. Written instructions
13. Arranged for other instruments
15. Overall evaluation:
Comments:
El=Elementary; Jr=Junior High; Hs=High School; Ad=Advanced; Y=Yes; N=No
53
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
54
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 TUBA METHOD BOOK EVALUATION SHEET
TITLE:
COMPOSER(S):
ARRANGER(S)/TRANSCRIBER(S)
PUBLISHER:
DATE OF PUB.:
CRITERIA
EL JR HS AD Y N
COST:
DESCRIPTION
1. Range
2. Technical difficulty
3. Original music or transcription
4. Scale-wise passages
5. Arrpegiated passages
6. Variety of meters
7. Variety of tonalities
8. Accompaniment
9. Overall appearance
10. Measure numbers
11. Clear dynamic markings
12. Written instructions
13. Arranged for other instruments
16. Overall evaluation:
Comments:
El=Elementary; Jr=Junior High; Hs=High School; Ad=Advanced; Y=Yes; N=No
55
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
56
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 SOLO SELECTION FOR FESTIVALS
• WHO SHOULD TAKE A SOLO?
• WHAT SOLO SHOULD THEY TAKE?
•DEALING WITH COMPETITIONS AND JUDGING
57
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
• ADDRESSING JUDGES COMMENTS
58
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 EUPHONIUM* MUSIC RECOMMENDATIONS
BEGINNING LEVEL
COMPLETE METHODS
√ Arbans -Famous Method
• Lafosse -Posaunenschule
• Saint-Jacome - Grand Method
ELEMENTARY METHODS
• Beeler -Method Book
• Bordner - 1st Book of Practical...
√ Bowman - Practical Hints on...
√ Grunow -Jump Right In
√ Pearson -Best in Class
√ Ployhar -I Recommend
• Rubank - Elementary Method
• Yamaha - Band Student
SOLO WITH PIANO
√ Bach-Figert
- For He That is Mighty
√ Bach-Fitzgerald -If Thou Be Near
• Barnes – Trombone Album (collection)
√ Benson -Aubade
• Chopin-Marsteller -Nocturne
• Gluck -2 Classic Airs
• Handel-Buchtel - Cantilena
• Handel-Gower - Saraband
√ Haydn - Aria and Allegro
• Johnson - Lyric Interlude
√ Johnson - Sacred Solos
• Laube – Contest Album (collection)
• Lotti-Smim - Arietta
• Mendelssohn - On Wings of Song
√ Mozart-Powell - Arietta and Allegro
• Ostrander – Easy Trombone or Baritone Solos (collection)
• Smith – First Solos for the Trombone (collection)
√ Smith-Falcone - Andante con moto
√ Strauss - Allerseelen
• Strauss-Reger - Festival Procession
√ Tchaikovsky-Fote - Sweet Dreams
• Weber – First Solo Album (collection)
• Weber - Two Piece
√ Voxman - Concert and Contest Collection for Trombone
INTERMEDIATE LEVEL
STUDIES
√ Arbans - Famous Method
√ Blazhevich - 30 Legato Studies
• Blume - 36 Studies, Vol. 1
√ Fink - From Treble to Bass Clef
• Fink - Introduction to the Tenor Clef
√ Kopprasch - 60 Selected Studies
• Marsteller - Basic Routines
√ Rochut - Melodious Etude, Vol. 1
• Uber - 1st Etudes in Tenor Clef
SOLO WITH PIANO
√ Barat - Andante & Allegro
• Blazhevich - Concert Piece No. 5
√ Capuzzi - Andante & Rondo
• Corelli - Prelude & Minuet
• Ewald - Romance
√ Galliard (Brown) - 6 Sonatas, 2 Vols.
• Handel - Andante & Allegro
• Handel-Ostrander
- Honor and Arms
• Handel - Sound an Alarm
√ Marcello-Merriman - Adagio & Allegro
√ Marcello-Merriman - Largo & Allegro
• Mozart-Voxman - Concert Aria
• Purcell-Maganini - Suite in F Major
• Pryor - Annie Lauri
• Pryor - Blue Bells of Scotland
• Rossini - Largo al Factorum
√ Senaille-Catelinet - Introduction and Allegro Spiritoso
√ Telemann-Ostrander - Sonata
• Vivaldi-Ostrander
- Sonata in A minor
59
• Voxman - Concert and Contest...
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
√=Favorites
• Trombone music included
60
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 TUBA MUSIC RECOMMENDATIONS
BEGINNING LEVEL
COMPLETE METHODS
√ Arbans - Famous Method for Slide...
• Beeler - Method, 2 Vols.
• Bell - Complete Method
√ Gieb - Method
ELEMENTARY METHODS
√ Arbans - Method, 1st & 2nd year
• Bell - Foundation to Tuba. P..
√Grunow - Jump Right In
• Hovey - Rubank Elementary Method
√ Kuhn/Cimera - Method
√ Little/Ployhar - Practical Hints on...
• Pearson - Best in Class
√ Ployhar - I Recommend
SOLO WITH PIANO
√ Adams - The Holy City
√ Bach - Air and Bourreé
√ Bach - Gavotte
• Bell - Gavotte
√ Bell - Russian Medley
√ Bizet - Toreador's Song
√ Buchtel - Ajax
• Buchtel - Attila
√ DeLamater - Rocked in the Cradle of the Deep
√ Grieg - In the Hall of the Mountain King
√ Handel - Honor & Arms from...
• Isaac - In the Garden
√ Isaac - The Jolly Dutchman
√ Jacobs - Tuba Suite
• Kreisler - Rondo
• Petrie/Teague - Asleep in the Deep
√ Schumann - The Jolly Farmer
√ Wekselblatt - 1st Solos for the Tuba...
INTERMEDIATE LEVEL
STUDIES
SOLO WITH PIANO
√ Benson - Arioso
√ Capuzzi - Andante & Rondo
√ Catozzi - Beelzebub
√ Davis - Variation and Theme...R. Schumann
• Fletcher - Tuba Solos
√ Haddad - Suite
• Haddad - Two Pieces
√ Galliard - Sonata No. 6
√ Lebedev/Ostrander - Concerto in one
movement
√ Marcello - Sonatas No. 1 & 5
√ Ostrander - Concert Album
• Reed - Fantasia a due
• Senaille - Introduction and Allegro Spiritoso
• Uber - Legend of Sleeping Bear
√ Wekselblatt - Solos for the Tuba Player
√ Blazhevich - 70 Studies, Book 1
√ Bordogni - 43 Bel Canto Studies
• Concone - Legato Studies
√ Fink - Studies in Legato
√ Grigoriev - 78 Studies
• Knaub - Progressive Techniques
• Little - Embouchure Builder
√ Parès - Scales
√ Schlossberg - Daily Drills...
• Uber - 25 Early Studies
UNACCOMPANIED SOLO
• Arnold - Fantasy
√ Hartley - Suite for Unaccompanied Tuba
√ Muczynski - Impromptus
√ Persichetti - Serenade No. 12
√ Stevens - Triumph of the Demon Gods
√ Lebedev - 3 Pieces
• Tuthill - Tiny Tunes for Tuba
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
√=Favorites
*Tubas may also choose from euphonium literature.
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 TROMBONE SOLO EVALUATION SHEET
TITLE:
COMPOSER(S):
ARRANGER(S)/TRANSCRIBER(S)
PUBLISHER:
DATE OF PUB.:
CRITERIA
EL JR HS AD Y N
COST:
DESCRIPTION
1. Range
2. Technical difficulty
3. Original music or transcription
4. Scale-wise passages
5. Arrpegiated passages
6. Variety of meters
7. Variety of tonalities
8. Accompaniment
9. Overall appearance
10. Measure numbers
11. Clear dynamic markings
12. Written instructions
13. Arranged for other instruments
17. Overall evaluation:
Comments:
El=Elementary; Jr=Junior High; Hs=High School; Ad=Advanced; Y=Yes; N=No
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 EUPHONIUM SOLO EVALUATION SHEET
TITLE:
COMPOSER(S):
ARRANGER(S)/TRANSCRIBER(S)
PUBLISHER:
DATE OF PUB.:
CRITERIA
EL JR HS AD Y N
COST:
DESCRIPTION
1. Range
2. Technical difficulty
3. Original music or transcription
4. Scale-wise passages
5. Arrpegiated passages
6. Variety of meters
7. Variety of tonalities
8. Accompaniment
9. Overall appearance
10. Measure numbers
11. Clear dynamic markings
12. Written instructions
13. Arranged for other instruments
18. Overall evaluation:
Comments:
El=Elementary; Jr=Junior High; Hs=High School; Ad=Advanced; Y=Yes; N=No
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 TUBA SOLO EVALUATION SHEET
TITLE:
COMPOSER(S):
ARRANGER(S)/TRANSCRIBER(S)
PUBLISHER:
DATE OF PUB.:
CRITERIA
EL JR HS AD Y N
COST:
DESCRIPTION
1. Range
2. Technical difficulty
3. Original music or transcription
4. Scale-wise passages
5. Arrpegiated passages
6. Variety of meters
7. Variety of tonalities
8. Accompaniment
9. Overall appearance
10. Measure numbers
11. Clear dynamic markings
12. Written instructions
13. Arranged for other instruments
19. Overall evaluation:
Comments:
El=Elementary; Jr=Junior High; Hs=High School; Ad=Advanced; Y=Yes; N=No
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 WHITENER NOTES
LECTURE 1: HOW TO TEACH/BREATHING
(PAGES 133-147; 152-164; 165-176)
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 WHITENER NOTES
LECTURE 2: FINGERINGS/SLIDE POSITIONS; TRANSPOSITIONS; OVERTONE
SERIES (PAGES: 359-366; 370-371)
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 WHITENER NOTES
LECTURE 5: MOUTHPIECES; SPECIAL FX;
72
MULTIPLE TONGUING
(P. 353)
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 WHITENER NOTES
LECTURES 6 & 7: TROMBONE , EUPHONIUM
AND
CD’S (PP. 346-347)
1) Compare the list that is in Whitener with the MRC collection. Write the ONLY the CD title
and performer of those that are found in both locations.
2) Listen to at least two (2) of each instrument’s CDs (total of at least six [6] CDs). Mark an
asterisk (*) next to the CDs that you listened to.
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 DR. LINDAHL’S LECTURE
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 CENTRAL MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY
TROMBONE GUIDE FOR EDUCATORS
DR. ROBERT LINDAHL
Brass Tech Summary:
TROMBONISMS (ROBERT LINDAHL’S PET PEEVES)
IMPORTANT IDIOMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TROMBONE, HOW TO TEACH THEM, AND HOW TO AVOID TEACHING BAD HABITS.
1.
Slide Technique – the best slide technique is needed when playing slowly and smoothly, the trombonist must move the slide at
the last possible instant and get to the next position as quickly as possible. In order to do this well the best posture is required,
and the grip of the slide is very important. Grip the slide between the thumb and index finger of the right hand, put the
middle finger of the right hand next to the index finger on the sleeve of the slide. The index finger will be right in the corner
of the brace and the sleeve. The palm of the right hand should be facing the floor. This will insure that there is not too much
bounce in the wrist, and keep the muscles of the forearm from twisting. This grip helps the player get to 6 th and 7th position
with greater ease, prevents bounce from affecting tone, and gives an overall better consistent slide technique.
2.
Breathing – Trombone players must develop great breathing habits. Because of the slide it is very common for young
trombonists to learn to use the breath in articulating rhythms. In this way they cover up the gap while the slide is moving,
however, they develop a terrible breath pulse habit which takes more time to correct the older they get. Teachers need to be
patient with the young student and allow them to sound ‘a little sloppier’ than other students when playing legato passages in
order to insure that their air is continuous and the tongue is doing the articulating.
3.
Lip Slurs – It is critical that trombonists are taught to utilize lip slurs in every day warm-ups and practicing. Lip Slurs help
develop both the embouchure muscles and the correct air stream.
4.
Slide Protection – There is nothing more important than taking care of the slide, both inside and outside. Students should be
warned often about making sure that they don’t bump the outer slide on hard surfaces. The only time the outer slide should
come completely off the inner sleeve should be when the slide is being cleaned. The slide needs to be cleaned with a snake or
a cleaning rod once a month in warm soapy water. The best slide solutions are Trombotine brand cream, Slide O Mix (for
older students), or slide oil (for beginners). Without a good slide one cannot develop good technique.
5.
Tonguing – The tongue should use the minimum amount of movement possible. The back of the tongue needs to remain
basically motionless – almost like being anchored in the back of the oral cavity. The front flap of the tongue should utilize an
up and down motion and remain at the bottom of the mouth most of the time. When using the tongue the tip of the tongue
should touch the back of the upper teeth. When playing in the high register the tongue may be more comfortable higher than
the teeth on the gums, and when playing in the extreme low register the tongue may even come between the teeth, or at least
be at the bottom of the top teeth (low F below the staff and notes below). While tonguing the air should never stop so the
player must make sure that the tongue is being used to start the note and not to stop the note. Almost never is a player
required to stop a note with the tongue.
6.
Scale Patterns – are very important to the trombonist. Because trombones don’t have buttons or keys we rely upon more
abstract patterns developed best through consistent habits. The elbow is the key ingredient to slide technique as it moves the
most. The shoulder, the sternum joint and to some extent the wrist also must be relaxed and flexible. It takes longer for a
trombonist to master a scale pattern than a musician with fingering patterns.
Chewing – is one of the biggest problems with brass players. When we are young we grow up learning to speak and when we
speak we always move our jaw. When we play brass instruments we shouldn’t move our jaw at ALL in an up and down
pattern. In general the jaw will lower the lower we play and come up the higher we play, however, great care should be taken
to keep the jaw from moving like it does when we say Ta Ta Ta. Try saying Ta Ta Ta without moving your jaw with your
tongue touching behind the upper teeth and you will have the basic brass attack. Since it is so hard to tongue without moving
the jaw we must practice this, and constantly remind our students to watch this. Great air support will greatly enhance this
process.
7.
8.
Slide Positions – Since trombones are C instruments (see a C, play a C, hear a C) that are built with a Bb fundamental in 1 st
position, the overall tube needs to be about 12 ft. in length to achieve the Bb fundamental. When moving the slide to 2 nd
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
position the tube needs to be lengthened by a percentage of the entire tube. Then while in 2 nd position sounding an A
fundamental the tube is about 6 inches longer. To change the pitch down 1/2 step to 3 rd position the tube needs to be
lengthened by the same percentage. Hence the distance between 2 nd and 3rd position will be slightly (very slightly) wider than
the distance from 1st to 2nd. This principle holds true all the way out to 7 th position so the distance between 6th and 7th position
is noticeably longer than from 1st to 2nd. This is why many students have a habit of playing sharp when playing in 4 th position
or beyond. Also, due to this principle, the F Attachment trombones are affected.
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146

9.
The F Attachment - When the F attachment is deployed the tube is lengthened the same length as if the player were in 6 th
position. So, with the F-attachment the same notes can be found in 1st position as can be found in 6th position without the Fattachment. Because the tube is much longer there are only 6 positions with the F-attachment. 2nd position with the Fattachment (used for B natural and low E) is a little lower than normal 2 nd position. F-attach. 3rd (Bb and Eb) is about halfway
between normal 3rd and 4th. F-attachment 4th (D and G) is closer to normal 5th than normal 4th. F-attach. 5th (Gb and Db) is the
same as normal 6th position, and F-attach. 6th (C and G) is as far as the trombonist can go.
10. Different sized Bore affect positions – When increasing the bore size from small bore beginner horns (.500 bore) to
intermediate (.525 bore) or large bore tenor (.547 bore) the tube must be shortened slightly to allow for the larger bore and still
sound a fundamental Bb. Therefore, depending on the design of the particular trombone the bells are of different length. To
check this, hold small and large bore horns next to each other with the bottom of the slides aligned. You will see that in most
cases the larger bore horn bell doesn’t come down quite as far. Therefore, 3 rd position on the small bore horn will be visually
farther from the bell than on the larger bore horn, and 4 th position on the small bore will be closer to the bell on the other side
than on the larger bore horn. The teacher needs to tell the student when they buy a new horn to check each position with a
tuner so they don’t automatically play sharp 3rd and 4th position notes.
11. Bass Trombones – Bass Trombones are usually .562 bore, and come with 2 attachments, usually F attachment and D
attachment. If both attachments are depressed the resultant note fundamental would be D. Some Bass Trombones come with
double in-line triggers which means that each attachment can be operated individually. Normally, when a F/D attachment
bass trombone is used there are 6 positions with the F attachment as described above, and 4 positions with both triggers
deployed. The 4 bass trombone double trigger positions would be D in first, Db in second (normal 3 rd), C in third (normal 5th
or thereabouts), and Cb in fourth (normal 7th or thereabouts). The player must utilize a tuner when discovering where all of
these positions sound the true pitch.
12. Overtone Series – On most trombones the following intonation problems arise. The 3 rd partial (middle F) is almost always a
little sharp. The 6th partial (high F) is always sharp so the student must be trained to lower the slide slightly when playing any
note in that partial in each position, the 7th partial is so flat that it is unusable in 1st position (very flat high Ab in 1st is
unusable, high G in second needs to be raised to be in tune, high F# in 3 rd needs to be raised, F in 4th, etc.) Other intonation
problems could happen depending upon the make and model of the trombone so it is best to use a tuner a lot after buying a
new trombone.
TYPICAL TROMBONE PROBLEMS/CAUSES/SOLUTIONS
Problem
• Slow Tonguing
• Sloppy Tonguing
Possible cause
'Chewing'
Slide Technique
• Consistent Tonguing
• Clear Tonguing
Breath Support
Tongue Placement
• Rapid Tonguing
Tongue Movement
• Sound
• Sound
• Range
• Low Range
• Low Range
Breath Support
Embouchure
Not Enough Low Work
Not Enough Space Between
Teeth
Volume of Air
• High Range
• High Range
Forcing Air
Direction of Air
• Flexibility
• Flexibility
Embouchure
Embouchure
80
Solution
-Tonguing exercises; Careful not to move jaw
-Work on scale, don't move slide until
you absolutely have to get to next note
-Tonguing exercises; Proper use of tongue & air
-Tip of tongue should be about where the upper teeth
meet the gums; varies a little with register
and speed
-Tip of tongue should articulate in a downward
motion, not front to back; Back of tongue
should not move much
-Warm-up exercises using lots of air!
-Try less lip inside diameter of mouthpiece
-Develop low range daily for better high range
-Long tones in low register at loud & sustained
levels
-Allow more air to move through horn; take more
Frequent breaths
-Use air support, not air force to play high
-The higher you play the more the air
should be directed downward
-Try less lip inside diameter of mouthpiece
-Make sure embouchure is open
Teeth may not be set far enough apart
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
• Flexibility
'Chewing'
-Don't move teeth in chewing pattern when playing
passage, Practice passage with no tongue
first; Also, practice holding your finger
between teeth and then tonguing to get used
to tonguing without moving teeth up and
down
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
Problem
•Flexibility descending
Possible cause
Air usage
Solution
-The lower we play the more air we need, be careful
to allow lots of air for lower notes, practice
scales and arpeggios crescendoing while
descending and de-crescendoing while
ascending
• Endurance
Breath support
-Improper breathing leads to early stress of
embouchure muscles
• Endurance
Posture
-Use large back muscles; hold horn fairly upright;
don't squeeze horn in left hand
“GOOD HABITS”
SOUND is the most important aspect of any instrument. Without sound you have nothing. Therefore, a GOOD sound is our
primary goal. To get a good sound we must practice good breathing habits. If you have poor breathing habits you must
replace them with good habits. Good habits take much repetition over a course of time to develop. The biggest problem with
one day clinics is that students learn how to do good habits, but they do not go home and develop them. It is safe to say that
ALL students who practice correctly on a daily basis will develop a better sound.
A good sound will result from:
1. Developing good breathing habits
a. Warm up every day making sure you stretch your rib cage
b. Begin the day with beautiful long tones
c, Make sure that every single note that you ever play is the best it can be
d. Breath in tempo musically
2. Developing good embouchure formation habits
a. The straw technique
b. The muscles and their strengths and weaknesses
c. Flexibility exercises
d. Air direction
3. Developing good posture habits
a. Air chamber
b. Support
4. Developing good slide technique habits
a. Grip on slide
b. Elbow or wrist?
c. Where is sixth position?
5. Developing good articulation habits
a. Can you play any passage without using your tongue?
b. Can you connect any passage?
c. Can you perform staccato passages that truly sound good?
d. Is your tongue tied to your lungs or torso? I hope not
e. Where is your tongue when playing marcato? legato? staccato?
As you can see, so much of what we do depends on good habits that it is essential that we develop good habits. You
must convince yourself that the best procedure in developing good habits includes: a) replace bad habits with good
ones, b) work on good habits every single day, c) never allow yourself to utilize a bad habit knowingly just to get by.
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
When you get nervous performing your most normal habits will surface and greatly affect your playing. Wouldn’t
it be nice if you had good habits? Good habits do not just happen because you understand them. They happen
because you constantly reinforce them when you are practicing or rehearsing. Most of the items that we have talked
about cover the physical aspect of performing. Just like in athletics, to develop control and technique we must
practice on a very consistent basis for best results. Only after you have developed good physical habits will you be
able to truly enjoy developing your musicianship skills.
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
ALTERNATE POSITIONS
Alternate positions sometimes aren’t alternate. There are many phrases that are much easier to play if we know our trombone
well.
• Keys of Bb and Eb major - use fourth position for d above the staff (lower it a little)
• Key of B major - use fifth position for top of staff A#, and third position for high A#
• Keys of Db and Ab major - if you have a trigger use t-3 for low Bb
• Key of Db - use sixth position for middle F, sharp fourth for high f, third for high Bb
• Key of Gb - use sixth position for middle F, fifth for tuning Bb, sharp fourth for high f
•In general use alternate positions when it will fit one of the following:
a) make note to note transition smoother
b) make slide technique easier
c) enable you to change directions less often
SCALES AND ALTERNATE POSITIONS
Practice all of your scales throughout the entire range of your instrument!! Be able to play any of them from any starting note.
Take great care to play them in tune and use practical alternate positions
THE BASICS OF TROMBONE PLAYING
• LEFT BRAIN
1) The efficiency of the breath
2) The efficiency of the embouchure
3) The efficiency of the tongue
4) The efficiency of the slide arm
5) The efficiency of reading music
• RIGHT BRAIN
Creative Musical Performance
TO ACCOMPLISH THE ABOVE WE MUST DO TWO THINGS:
A. PRACTICE TECHNIQUE DAILY
We practice daily so we can learn how to control the Left Brain so that our motor skills are as effortless as
possible. The more we practice correctly, the more we play without thinking. Develop good habits in all
physical areas of playing and you will be able to be much more creative.
B. LISTEN TO GOOD MUSIC OFTEN
This will develop the right brain-creative side of your intellect. Listen to great trombonists like Christian
Lindberg, Alain Trudel, Joseph Alessi, Mark Lawrence, J.J. Johnson, Carl Fontana, Steve Turre, etc. Keep
their individual sounds in mind when you are trying to create your own sound.
MOUTHPIECE BUZZING AS A TOOL
In our ongoing struggle to become better musicians we often forget about some of the bare essentials. These fundamentals
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such as breathing, embouchure, tonguing, fingering, and reading music are often ignored in our practice sessions, especially
when we get close to a performance.
I would like you to think of working on these things especially hard right up until the day of the performance, for it is these
things that are going to give you the ability to play music from the heart.
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
If you want your solo for festival to be as musical as possible, you must work on fundamentals constantly to develop good
habits and create the thoughtless physical skill required to perform freely.
One of the best techniques that I know of for developing good embouchure control, the proper embouchure for every player,
good tone quality, and better intonation is mouthpiece buzzing. I buzz my solos, exercises, etudes on a regular basis. I also
buzz often in the car when I am driving long distances as a substitute for practice.
To buzz correctly, first find a pitch in the middle of your range and buzz it with lots of air and think about how consistent and
nice you can make the note. Then begin to buzz a little siren pattern up and down slowly. Do you feel comfortable? It helps
to cover the end of the mouthpiece a little with your pinky. If you don’t feel comfortable try changing the amount of lip that is
inside the mouthpiece, i.e. try a little less lower lip or upper lip. You may find that it requires a little more air. Do not assume
that your embouchure has to change, merely think about how comfortable you are, how good you sound, and do you have
flexibility?
Now try buzzing the mouthpiece exercises on the next page. If you are lucky enough to own a tuner, use it for the entire
exercise. Check all your notes. Remember to keep a great supply of air and let it freely flow through the mouthpiece. When
you are comfortable doing this, go ahead and buzz scales, etudes, and solos. Alternate between buzzing and playing.
“CURING SLOPPY SLIDE TECHNIQUE BY IMPROVING LEGATO TECHNIQUE”
I have found that, because of the uniqueness of the slide, young trombonists do not master a legato technique until much later
than other instrumentalists. With no valves or keys to move, trombonists are prone to playing shorter notes, pulsing their air,
or stopping notes with their tongue. Because of these methods of covering their flaws, they tend to develop very sloppy slide
technique and poor usage of air. If you have students with any of the above problems, try the following exercises.
First, have the student play quarter note scales (q.n. = 60) without tonguing any tone but the first. When they are coming in
and raising the pitch, or going out and lowering the pitch there will be a natural glissando. To achieve better slide technique
tell them to wait as long as possible before they move the slide and then move it to exactly the right place as quickly as
possible. At first, they may fight the tempo, get a jerky sound effect, pulse with air, or all three. Keeping a very steady air
flow throughout the phrase will cure all of these. Rising intervals played by moving the slide out, and falling intervals played
by moving the slide in, should both sound like natural legato tonguing. When the student has mastered this technique, have
them apply the same to any etude they are working on. The Bordogni/Rochut etudes work beautifully for this. When they
can perform a phrase of an etude flawlessly with no tongue, then they can add just a little tongue when necessary to cover up
the natural glissandi. Some students like to use a little legato (doo) tongue on every note in a slurred phrase, and others can
achieve a consistent attack by matching the natural slurs with the tongued attacks.
By working on phrases with no tongue the student should achieve a better, more natural fundamental air support. At the
same time they will be improving their slide technique, flexibility, legato style, and probably tone.
GUIDELINES FOR MOUTHPIECE TROUBLESHOOTING
CUP
The shape of the cup can affect performance. A funnel shaped cup will produce a darker tone but will not project as
well as a cup shaped cup. A cup shape will improve attacks. brighten tone, but can cause tone splitting. Most
mouthpieces today are cup shaped but the Remington model mouthpieces (funnel) work great.
In Bach terms an A designation would mean a deeper cup and a C would be a shallow cup. Generally you
should stay away from C unless you want a bright sound or you are using a different mouthpiece for jazz. I
recommend against the usage of a 12C, a 7C works better for beginners, and a 6 & 1/2 A or AL sometimes
works for beginners.
In Schilke/Yamaha terms an A designation would mean a shallower cup. This is why a Schilke 51D and a
Bach 6 1/2 A are similar in size.
• Pro-Deep cup will darken tone, improve low register, increase volume.
• Con-Deep cup can cause flatness in high range and decrease accuracy.
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
• Pro -Shallow cup brightens tone, increases accuracy in pitch, easier high register
• Con-Shallow cup will decrease low register tone quality.
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146

RIM
• Pro-a wide rim promotes endurance, high range, accommodates thick lips.
• Con-a wide rim will decrease flexibility and control.
• Pro-a narrow rim improves flexibility and control.
• Con-a narrow rim sacrifices endurance and strength
BITE
• Pro-a round bite increases flexibility, comfort, legato playing.
• Con-a round bite reduces brilliancy and accuracy.
• Pro-a sharp bite produces a brighter sound and increases accuracy.
• Con-a sharp bite may decrease flexibility
BORE
• Pro-a wide bore will provide greater volume, richer sound, reduce resistance
• Con-a wide bore will make upper register more difficult
• Pro-a narrow bore requires less air and strength
• Con-a narrow bore creates intonation problems and can choke high register
General Mouthpiece Practice - I do not mess too much with rim, or bore with my high school and junior high students. They
all play one of the following: 6 1/2 AL, 51D, or 5Gs. Some students take to the Bach mouthpieces better, they seem to have
more accuracy and students with good flexibility to begin with are successful with the Bach. Students who do not have very
good initial flexibility (ability to play wide intervals quickly as lip slurs or legato) may have better luck with the Schilke or
Yamaha product as they seem to have a little rounder bite. High School Bass Trombonists should use a Bach 3G or a
Yamaha/Schilke 58; or go as big as a 1.5G.
• UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
All college students should be playing on the following or the equivalent:
• TENOR TROMBONISTS
Bach 5G or 5Gs
Schilke or Yamaha 51 or 51D
• BASS TROMBONISTS
Bach 1.5 G, 1G
Schilke or Yamaha 58, 59, maybe 60
TENOR TROMBONE
STUDENT MODELS FOR GRADES 5-10
King 606, 2102 or 2103, Benge
INTERMEDIATE MODELS FOR GRADES 8-12
King 2103, 2102PL, 607F (f-attachment), 606 Benge 165-F, .547 Bore
INSTRUMENTS APPROPRIATE TO ANY AGE LEVEL ARE LISTED BELOW
• Tenor Trombone college majors should own a .547 bore instrument, Bass trombones a .562 bore double rotor
RECOMMENDED TENOR HORNS FOR GRADES 10-COLLEGE
• Conn 8H - Rose Brass Bell (straight horn)
• Conn 89H - Rose Brass Bell (Convertible to f-attachment)
• Conn Christian Lindberg F attach. 88HY .547
• Model 88H-0 Rose Brass Bell
• Model 88HY-0 Yellow Brass Bell
• Model 88HT-0 Thinwall Rose Brass Bell
• Model 88H-0-SGX Sterling Silver Bell with 24K Gold Trim (what I am playing now)
• Benge 190-F, .547 bore - darker sound than Conn
• Bach 42 – with Hagman valve or Greenhoe Valve, .547 bore
• Edwards – Custom Horns, .547 bore
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
BASS TROMBONE
Conn 112H - Double rotor .562 lightweight slide, new linkage
Conn 62H - Double Rotor, .562 bore, 3 leadpipes, 9 inch rose brass bell
Edwards – Custom Double Rotors, .562 bore
Getzen – Double rotor .562
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146

LITERATURE RECOMMENDATIONS
RECOMMENDED ETUDE LITERATURE FOR ALL LEVELS
There are many fine etude books available for use by trombonists of all ages. The following recommendations are
possible courses of study for trombonists assuming that the trombonist is not taking regular private lessons. A
trombonist studying privately may work more quickly through this material, or supplement the material with a
wider variety of books.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL – GRADES 5-6 (GRADE 1 LITERATURE)
Apon, Saskia. Beastly Trombone.
Beeler, Walter. Method for the Trombone Book I.
Froseth, James. Do It! Play in Band.
Legge, Steven. Brass Mania – Bass Clef Tutor.
Roberts, Stephen. U-Play Brass, Bass Clef Edition.
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL – GRADES 7-8 (GRADE 2 LITERATURE)
Beeler, Walter. Method for the Trombone Book II.
Bordner, Gerald. First Book of Practical Studies.
Nightingale, Mark. Easy Jazz ‘Tudes.
Sieber, Ferdinand. Ed. Raph. Introductory Melodious Etudes.
INTERMEDIATE HIGH SCHOOL – GRADES 9-10 (GRADE 2-3 LITERATURE)
Crist, Michael. Warm-Up Exercises.
Gresham, W. Jonathan. Plainchant for Trombone.
Nightingale, Mark. Get Prepared! Trombone Tutor.
Raph, Alan. The Double Valved Bass Trombone.
Remington, Emory. The Remington Warm-Up Studies.
Snedecor, Phil. Lyrical Etudes for Trombone.
HIGH SCHOOL – GRADES 11-12 (GRADE 3-4 LITERATURE)
Arban, J.B. Ed. By Alessi and Bowman. Complete Method.
Baker, Buddy. Tenor Trombone Method.
Blume, O. arr. Fink. 36 Studies for Trombone with F Attach.
Bordogni, Marco. Arr. Rochut. Melodious Etudes Vol. I.
Colin, Allan. Contemporary Etudes for All Bass Clef Instruments
Fink, Reginald. Introducing the Tenor Clef.
Quick, Bob, Ed. Trombone Practice with the Pros.
Schwartz, David, trans. The Bordogni Vocalises. Vol. 1
Snidero, Jim. Jazz Conception, 21 Solo Etudes.
Tyrrell, H.W. Advanced Studies for Bb Bass.
Tyrrell, H.W. 40 Progressive Studies for Trombone.
COLLEGE – FIRST TWO YEARS (GRADE 4-5 LITERATURE)
Blazevich, Vladislav. Clef Studies.
Delguidice, Michel. Douze Etudes pour Trombone-Basse.
Gale, Jack. 24 Jazz Etudes for Trombone.
Gane, Peter. Circuit Training.
Gregoriev, Boris. 24 Studies for Bass Trombone or F-att.
Bordogni, Marco. Arr. Rochut. Melodious Etudes Vol. II & III.
Sauer, Ralph. 20 Orchestral Etudes for Tenor Trombone.
Schwartz, David, trans. The Bordogni Vocalises. Vol. 2-7
Teele, Phil. Advanced Embouchure Studies for Bass Trombone.
Vobaron, Edmond. Selected Studies for Trombone.
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
RECOMMENDED SOLO LITERATURE FOR ALL LEVELS
Even to a greater extent than with etude literature there is a wide variety of solo material available to young trombonists. Due
to the large quantity of available materials this study has been limited to recent publications, acknowledged standards of the
repertoire, and favorites of the reviewer.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL – GRADES 5-6
Boyle, Rory. Six Gargoyles for Trombone and Piano.
Burney, Charles. Arr. Lennie Niehaus. Pastorale.
Hutt, Alan. Four Simple Pieces for Trombone.
Wagner, Richard. Arr. Leonard B. Smith. Song to the Evening Star.
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL – GRADES 7-8
Faillenot, Maurice. Introduction et rigaudon. *Bass Trombone
Mendelssohn, Felix. Arr. Ostrander. If With All Your Hearts.
Mozart, Wolfgang. Arr. E.A. Wienandt. Two Arias.
Olson, Curtis. Michigan Legends for Trombone and Piano.
Smith, H.C., ed. First Solos for the Trombone Player. (compilation)
Toulon, Jacques. Hymn, cadence et danse.
INTERMEDIATE HIGH SCHOOL – GRADES 9-10
Bach, Johann S. ed. Vern Kagarice. Sheep May Safely Graze.
Galliard, J. Six Sonatas. (originally for bassoon)
Hasse, Hasse Suite
Majewski, Martin, ed. The Symphonic Trombone. (compilation)
McKay, George F. Concert Solo Sonatine.
Smith, H.C., ed.Solos for the Trombone Player. (compilation)
HIGH SCHOOL – GRADES 11-12
Albinoni, Tommaso. Sonate en re majeur. *Bass Trombone
Barat, Joseph. Andante et Allegro.
Blazevich, Vladislav. Concert Piece No. 5.
Curnow, James. Fantasy for Trombone.
Delguidice, Michel. Danse de l’elephant pour tuba. *Bass Tbone
Galliard, J. Six Sonatas. (originally for bassoon)
Guilmant, Alexandre. Morceau Symphonique.
Jackman, Andrew. Bone Dances.
Marcello, Benedetto. Six Sonatas for Cello.
Rimsky-Korsakov, N. Concerto for Trombone.
COLLEGE – FIRST TWO YEARS, OR ADVANCED HIGH SCHOOL PLAYERS
Berlioz, Hector. Arr. Vern Kagarice. Recitative and Prayer.
Blazevich, Vladislav. Concert Piece No. 5.
David, Ferdinand. Concertino.
Mozart, W.A. arr. Fote. Concerto in Bb K191 (Rondo).
Saint Saens, Camille. Cavatine.
Shostakovitch, Dmitri. Four Preludes.
Stojowski, Sigismond. Fantasie.
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
AVAILABLE BORDOGNI AND CONCONE MELODIC ETUDE BOOKS
Since trombonists have long used the Bordogni Studies for development, utilizing mainly the Rochut edition. In recent years
there have been new publications of the same Bordogni material, as well as the publication of some new etudes and duets that
are not in the Rochut edition. Here is a partial list of available publications.
The Bordogni Vocalises
7 Volumes, includes CD Piano Accompaniment
Transcribed by David Schwartz (bass clef solo part)
Some volumes use tenor and alto clef, start with Vol. 1-3
Melodious Etudes for Performance, Marco Bordogni
Trans. and arr. By Alan Raph
This includes the piano parts for ten Bordogni etudes taken from the three Rochut/Bordogni Vocalises.
There are also 6 duets in the back of the book.
Bordogni/Rochut Melodious Etudes
Book I, II, and III
Rochut transcribed these etudes years ago and they are still the standard etude books used by just about
every trombone player in the world.
Of the above 3 publications one may wish to start by purchasing Bordogni/Rochut Melodious Etudes Book I and Volume One
of The Bordogni Vocalises transcribed by David Schwartz. The player can also purchase piano accompaniments that coincide
with the Rochut book; They are published and arranged by Mark Tezak and come in six volumes. There are between 12 and
36 etudes in each edition. The player should start with Volume One because it coincides with the first 24 etudes in the Rochut
edition.
• Another great melodic etude book is as follows:
The Complete Solfeggi, Concone, Giuseppe
Transcribed and Edited for Trombone by John Korak. This book has a piano accompaniment Book with it – they are
very fun to perform for church, community events, and possibly even solo/ensemble festival. These etudes are
similar to Bordogni in style.
WARM-UP STUDIES – INTERMEDIATE THROUGH PROFESSIONAL
Warm up with a CD accompaniment that helps intonation, sense of time, patience, discipline, and control. There is a
relatively new warm-up method published by Hip-Bone music that includes a CD accompaniment, both with and with-out
trombone solo track. There is a complete warm-up that includes long tones, tonguing, flexibility, scales, and warm-down.
The complete exercises take about 15 minutes.
Davis, Michael. The Hip-Bone Music 15 Minute Warm-up Routine. NY: Hip-Bone Music, 1997.
Highly Recommended for All Players!!! I use this several times a week as my warm-up, several of my
college students use it as do some of my high school students. This builds really good fundamentals.
CLEF STUDIES
By the time they are a junior or senior in high school the player should learn how to read tenor and alto clef (C clefs). There
are several good books including:
Clef Studies for Trombone. Transcribed by Ralph Sauer
Published by Wimbledon Music. These are melodious etudes by a variety of Composers.
Clef Studies by Blazevich. This is the old traditional book used by
Many players to learn clefs. Some of the material is rather difficult so make sure you are pretty well
rounded before you use this book. It is also wonderful for sight-reading practice.
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
Tenor Clef by Reginald Fink.
This is the easiest method for learning tenor clef. There is also an alto clef book by Fink.
The player should also try playing Bordogni etudes in tenor clef. Just change the clef, and change the key (up a fifth, take
away a flat or add a sharp). This is a great range builder, the player must be careful not to do too much at one time.
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
LOW REGISTER DEVELOPMENT
For low range the player should play all of his/her etudes and solos down an octave, and/or buy a book like Selected Studies
for Trombone with F attachment by Kopprasch. This book will help them learn how to use their trigger and make them more
comfortable in the low range.
JAZZ BOOKS
Gale, Jack. 24 Jazz Etudes for trombone.
Musicians Pub. These are fun and this has a CD with rhythm section play along!
Nightingale, Mark. Eazy Jazzy ‘Tudes (bass clef).
Warwick, England: Warwick Music, 2000. Nightingale is a tremendous jazz player who has written many
great books for trombone
Rae, James. Progressive Jazz Studies.
For trombone, easy level. England: Faber ff Music, 1995. Start with this book!
Rizzo, Jacques. Reading Jazz.
New method for learning to read written jazz music. With CD demo and accompaniment
Snidero, Jim. Jazz Conception, 21 Solo Etudes.
Includes CD. Tubingen, Germany: Advance Music, 1996.
Winkler, Klaus. 60 Jazz Etudes for melody instrument (bass clef).
Germany: Mark Tezak Verlag, 1991
DUETS!
Contrapunctal Duets. By Richard W. Bowles
Published by Editions Musicales Europeennes, Paris, 2000. There are 7 volumes.
Very good duets based on the Bordogni studies; one line is the actual Bordogni and the second line is
contrapuntal accompaniment. These are really fun!
15 Top Jazz Duets for Trombone. (available for all instruments).
Milwaukee: Hal Leonard, 1995. Recommended Repertoire for Trombone
COLLECTIONS
• These collections would be great material for a public school to own!
• C.B. Co. Contest Album (11 class 1 solos)
Cundy-Bettoney Includes: Cords, Romanze; Grafe, Grand Concerto(Fisc) Weber, Romanza Appassionata
• Henry C. Smith-First Solos for the Trombone Player (Class 2 & 3 solos)Schirmer (HL)
• Henry C. Smith-Solos for the Trombone Player (16 Class 1 & 2 solos) Schirmer (HL)
Includes: Rachmaninoff, Vocalise; Guilmant, Concert Piece; Bach, Arioso Handel, Sarabande; Berlioz,
Recitative and Prayer
• Gerard Billaudot, Ed.-Pieces classiques
(Multi-volume transcriptions of famous works) Volumes include 5-8 short solos each and are grouped by
difficulty Billaudaudot
(Presser)
• Lawton-The Young Trombonist (Class 2 & 3 solos) Ox
• Lethbridge-A Handel Solo Album (Class 2 & 3 solos) Ox
• Concert and Contest Collection for Baritone (Class 3 solos) Rubank
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
CLASS 1 SOLOS
• DIFFICULTY GRADES 4-6, ADVANCED HS STUDENTS- UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS
•D = Difficult (Univ. level) unless the student is taking lessons and really advanced, stay away from these
* = Winners, these are standards
TITLE
Bach/Marsteller-Suites 1, 2, 3, or 4
Barat-Andante et Allegro
Barat-Piece en Mi Bemol
Bassett-Sonata
Bernstein-Elegy for Mippy II (unaccomp)
Blazhevitch-Concerto No. 2
*Blazhevitch-Concertpiece No. 5
Boda-Sonatina
Bozza-Ballade
Bozza-Hommage a Bach
Casterede-Sonatine D
Corelli/Ostrander-Sonata in F Major
Corelli/Ostrander-Sonata in g minor
*David-Concertino, Op. 4
Davison-Sonata
Defaye-Deux Danses D
*Galliard-Sonatas 1-6
George-Concerto (bass trom) D
George-Sonata
*Gouinguene-Concerto
Grafe-Grand Concerto
Grondahl-Concert D
*Guilmant-Morceau Symphonique
Handel/Marsteller-Concerto in F Minor D
Hartley-Sonata Concertante
*Hindemith-Drei Leichte Stucke (bass trom)
Hindemith-Sonata
Jacob-Concerto D
*Larsson-Concertino
*Lebedev-Concerto (bass trom)
PUB
SMC
SMC
Led
King
Boo
IMC
Bel
King
Led
Led
Led
EM
EM
CF
Temp
Led
McGinnis
ACM
SMC
Bill
Bel
Sam
Rem
SMC
FM
Schott
Schott
Gal
Gehr
Edm
TITLE
Lieb-Concertino Basso (bass trom)
Marcello/Ostrander-Sonata in a minor
Mazellier-Solo de Concours
McKay-Sonata
Milhaud-Concertino d’Hiver
Mozart/Ernst-Concert Rondo
*Mozart/Marcellus-Sonata in Bb Major
Mueller-Praeludium, Chorale, Variations
and Fugue (bass trom)
Ostransky-Concertino
Pergolesi/Sauer-Sinfonia
Presser-Sonatina
Presser-Three Folktales (bass trom)
Pryor-Thoughts of Love
Ragwitz-Sonatina Deut
Reiche-Concertpiece #2
*Rimsky-Korsakov-Concerto
*Saint Saens-Cavatine (high Db)
Serocki-Sonatine
Stevens-Sonatina
Stojowski-Fantasie
Sulek-Sonata D
Telemann/Raph-Twelve Fantasies
(unaccomp)
*Vaughan-Williams-Six Studies in English
Folksong
Vivaldi/Ostrander-Concerto in a minor
White-Sonata
White-Tetra Ergon (bass trom)
Wilder-Sonata (bass trom)
PUB
CF
IMC
Led
Rem
AMP
Ken
Ken
EM
Ru
Wimb
TP
Ten
Fisc
Bel
HL/MCA
Dur
Moeck
Peer
Led
BRP
CF
Gal
EM
SMC
BP
MMI
CLASS 2 SOLOS
• DIFFICULTY GRADES 2-3, STUDENTS IN GRADES 8-12
TITLE
PUB
*Ades-Londonderry Air
Sha
Bach/Kent-Arioso from “Cantata No. 156” CF
*Bach/Figert-For He That is Mighty
Ken
Bach/Fote-Sinfonia
Ken
Bach/Ostrander-Patron of the Wind
EM
Bakaleinikoff-Meditation
Bel
Barnes-Arioso and Caprice
RM
*Beach-Suite for Trombone
AMP
Berlioz/Ostrander-The Unknown Isle
EM
Bizet/Smim-Agnus Dei from “L’Arlesienne” EM
Boerlin-Multi-Moods (bass trom)
Sha
*Borodin/Conley-Polovetzian Dances
Ken
Bullard-Colnford Suite
BH
Christensen-Meditation
Ken
Cimera-Joan of Arc
NAK
Cimera and Sares-Concertino Petitte
CPP
Corelli/Dishinger-Suite
MMP
TITLE
PUB
Corelli/Powell-Prelude and Minuet
SMC
Dedrick-Petite Suite (bass trom)
Ken
Dedrick-Shadows
Ken
Frackenpohl-Pastorale
AC
*Galliard-Six Sonatas D
IMC
*Handel/Fitzgerald-Arm, Arm, Ye Brave
TP
Handel/Maganini-Two Pieces
EM
Handel/Ostrander-Honor and Arms
EM
*Hasse/Gower-Hasse Suite
Ru
Haydn/Treutel-Concerto
JS
*Hutt-Four Simple Pieces for Trombone
ABRSM/Presser
Johnson-Lyric Interlude
Ru
Joubert-Ballade de la Puissant Dame Celestre Martin/Presser
Klughardt/Muller-Romanze
JS
Koch-Expectation
SMC
Lotti/Smim-Arietta
EM
Mozart/Ernst-Mozart Sonatina
Ken
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
Nicolas-Primo concertino
Bill
Purcell/Maganini-Suite in F Major
EM
*Rachmaninoff/Brown-Vocalese
IMC
Saint Saens/Whear-Amour Viens Aider
Lud
Scubert/Masso-Entr’acte from “Rosamunde”Ken
Schumann/Fitzgerald-Adagio
MMP
from “Concerto for Cello, Op. 129”
Solomon-Dramatique (bass trom)
Stradella/Felix-Pieta, Signore
Toulon and Verier-Hymne,
Cadence et Danse (bass trom)
Tuthill-Concerto Op. 54
SMC
EM
Led
King

CLASS 3 SOLOS
• DIFFICULTY GRADES 1-2, 5TH-8TH GRADERS
TITLE
Aubin-Un soir a Leningrad
Bach/Dishinger-Menuet in G
Bach/Krane-Bach for Trombone
Boyle-Four Miniatures
*Boyle-Six Gargoyles for Tbone
Daniels-The Proud Oak
Dishinger-Medici Masterworks, Vol. 1
Fote-Waltz for Juliet
Gabaye-Complainte
Gluck/Clark-Two Classic Airs
*Handel/Barr-Sarabande
Handel/Buchtel-Cantilena
Harris-King’s Jester
Lully/Post-Gavotte in Rondeau
Marpurg/Dishinger-Menuet
Martini-Plaisir d’Amour
PUB
Martin/Presser
MMP
JS
BH
Roy/Presser
Ken
MMP
Ken
Led
EM
Lud
NAK
Lud
MMP
MMP
EM
TITLE
PUB
*Mendelssohn/OstranderIf With All Your Hearts
Morrissey-Song for Trombone
Mozart/Powell-Arietta and Allegro
Mozart/Wienandt-Two Arias
Niehaus-Brattleboro Anthem
Pinard-The Crusader
Purcell/Maganini-Suite in F Major
Purcell/Vedeski-GavotteHarpsichord Suite No. 5
*Rameau/Dishinger-Rigaudon
Schwartz-International Folk Suite
Seguin-Chanson D’Aout
VaderCook-Ruby
Ward-Impressions
SMC
99
Pied
SMC
SMC
Ken
CF
MMP
MMP
MMP
SMC
Led
Ru
Ken
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146

BRASS QUINTET LITERATURE
BRASS QUINTET COMPILATIONS
• The Canadian Brass Book of Beginning Quintets. Arr. and Ed. by Walter H. Barnes, The Canadian Brass
Educational Series, 1986. Gordon Thompson Publishing Co.
• The Canadian Brass Book of Easy Quintets. Arr. and Ed. by Walter H. Barnes, The Canadian Brass
Educational Series, 1986
• The Canadian Brass Book of Favorite Quintets. Arr. and Ed. by Walter H. Barnes, The Canadian Brass
Educational Series, 1986
• The Canadian Brass Book of Advanced Quintets. Arr. and Ed. by Walter H. Barnes, The Canadian Brass
Educational Series, 1986.
• These volumes are fantastic, they give biographical and historical information, they provide stylistic advice, they come with
a cassette tape, and they each include 10-15 selections of various styles. Anything from any of these will work for you!!
INDIVIDUAL SELECTIONS
• Bach, J.S. Chorale and Fughetta. Arr. Richard Fote. Kendor Music, 1963.
• Bach, J.S. Fugue in G Minor. Arr. Charles Decker. Kendor Music, 1976.
• Bach, J.S. March, Chorale, and Fugue.
(4 parts, you can double Trumpet or Horn). Robert King, 1958. It never hurts to have some quartets in your
collection in case you have to play a long gig. You can take turns playing to spell each other.
• Bach, J.S. Two Chorales. Arr. Uber. New York: Edition Musicus, 1959.
Chorales are a must for any chamber ensemble. Through these we learn about balance, style matching,
articulation, and intonation.
• Brahms, Johannes. Four German Folksongs. Ed. Gary Olson. Denver: Canzona Publications, 1978.
• Ewald, Victor. Symphony for Five Part Brass Choir. Robert King Music, 1957.
This one hundred year old work is one of the gems of all time for quintet. Requires good range and
endurance for all parts.
• Gabrieli, Giovanni. Canzona Prima a 5. New York Brass Quintet Series. NY: Sam Fox Pub., 1961.
Every good brass ensemble should play Gabrieli!! This piece can be done with 2 trumpets and 3 bones, or
with the standard instrumentation; and can also be done with organ.
• Holborne, Anthony. Two Pieces. Ed. Robert King. Robert King Music Co. (1599)
• Passereau. Two Sixteenth Century Chansons. arr. Marsha Ward. Kendor, 1977.
• Pezel, Johann. Sonata No. 2. (Leipzig, 1670) Robert King Music Co. 1957.
• Susato, Tylman. Renaissance Dances. arr. John Iveson. Chester Music, Just Brass Series (Philip Jones)
Anything from this series will work.
Notice that everything on this list is from the Renaissance (c. 1450-1600) or Baroque (c. 1600-1750) except for the Brahms and
Ewald? This ‘old’ material works extremely well and is fun! There are many available pieces in the 20th century style, many
transcriptions of pop tunes, and many transcriptions of the classics.
BRASS QUINTET REHEARSALS: WHAT DO WE PRACTICE?
Begin every practice session with chorales. Work on non-verbal communication within the group. After a few rehearsals you
will have no trouble beginning pieces without verbalizing. You will also start finding a blend for your group. All parts are
usually meant to be equal! You must take into consideration that lower notes may not carry as far. Bring out the moving
parts. Subdivide, Subdivide, Subdivide!!!
Tune up key chords. Pick a section of the piece to work on during the next
rehearsal - that way every one in the group can be responsible enough to practice that section beforehand. Quintet rehearsals
are not for learning notes, they are for ensemble balance!! Go prepared.
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 EXTRA NOTES 1
102
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
103
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 EXTRA NOTES 2
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Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
105
Class Notes for Brass Techniques – Mus 146
 NOTEBOOK GRADE SHEET
√
POINTS
√
√
NA
NA
√
√
√
√
√
√
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
LECTURES
How to Teach Low Brass
Breathing
Overtones
Fingerings/Slide positions
Mouthpiece Buzzing and Warm-ups
General Maintenance
The Mouthpiece
Trombone CDs
Euphonium CDs
Tuba CDs
Tuba History
The Euphonium and Baritone
Mutes
Low Brass Reference Books
The Sousaphone
Solo Selection for Festivals
Whitener Lecture 1
Whitener Lecture 2
Whitener Lecture 5
Misc. 1
Misc. 2
Dr. Lindahl Lecture
COMMENTS:
Do not write in this section!!!
For Teacher Use ONLY
NOTEBOOK GRADING SYSTEM:
5 Points – Excellent Work
4 Points – Some information missing
3 Points – Considerable information missing
2 Points – Very little information
1 Point – At least you typed something
0 Points – Nothing provide or completely incorrect
Notebook Grade:
Overall Low Brass Class Grade:
(1/2 of semester grade)
106
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