US History Midterm Review

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US History Midterm Review
Native American Societies
o Regional difference
o Religion
o Law/government
Age of Exploration
o Reasons for Exploration

Three G’s (God, Gold, Glory)

Other factors making exploration possible

Challenges of exploration

Portugal

Christopher Columbus

European competition
English establish colonies in America
o Early Colonies Have Mixed Success

Roanoke Colony
o Walter Raleigh
o Problems

Jamestown
o Goal/objective
o Problems
o Captain John Smith
o John Rolfe & tobacco
o indentured servants
o House of Burgesses
o Conflicts with the Powhatan
o Bacon’s Rebellion

Nathaniel Bacon vs. William Berkeley
o New England Colonies

Pilgrims

Puritans
o John Winthrop
o Great Migration
o Dissenters in Zion

Roger Williams

Anne Hutchinson

Thomas Hooker
o Puritans in Conflict

King Philip’s War

Issues back in England
o Salem Witch Trials

Causes
o Founding of Middle & Southern Colonies

Middle Colonies
o New York (New Netherlands)
o New Jersey

Quakers
o Pennsylvania


William Penn

Holy Experiment
Southern Colonies
o Maryland

Refuge for Catholics

Lord Baltimore
o Carolinas

agriculture – rice, tobacco

North Carolina

backcountry
o Georgia

Debtor rehabilitation experiment
The Colonies Develop, 1700-1753
o New England: Commerce & Religion

Subsistence farming

Coastal resources
o Fishing
o Shipping/shipbuilding
o Trade

Navigation Acts
o The Middle Colonies: Farms & Cities

Agriculture – grains & cash crops

Diverse population
o tradition of craftsmanship (guns, wagons, ironwork, etc.)
o Quakers

Cities
o Philadelphia
o New York
o Africans & African-Americans
o The Southern Colonies: Plantations & Slavery

Climate & Agriculture

Plantations & Planter Class

Slavery
o The Backcountry

Geography

Who were the backcountry settlers?

Relationship with coastal settlers

Life in the backcountry
Beginnings of an American Identity
o Early American Culture

Land, Rights, & Wealth

Women & the Economy

Young People at Work

Colonial Schooling

Newspapers & Books

The Great Awakening

The Enlightenment
o Roots of Representative Government

Rights of English Citizens
o Rights to:


trial by jury

no arbitrary arrest

right to elect representatives
Parliament & Colonial Government
o House of Lords/House of Commons
o Colonial representative government

Shared Power in the Colonies

Zenger Trial
o French & Indian War

France’s claims in Western Lands

Native American Allies

Conflict in Ohio River Valley
o Major George Washington

Treaty of Paris

Proclamation Line of 1763
Creating a New Nation
o Tighter British Control

The Colonies & Britain grow apart
o From benign neglect to active control

British Troops & Taxes
o Quartering Act
o Sugar Act

Britain Passes the Stamp Act
o Indirect vs. direct tax
o Parliament blamed by colonists

Colonial Protest of Stamp Act
o Newspapers & colonial assemblies
o Stamp Act Congress
o Boycott of British goods
o Sons of Liberty
o Repeal of Stamp Act & Declaratory Act
o Colonial Resistance Grows

Townshend Acts

Colonial Response to Townshend Acts
o New boycott
o Daughters of Liberty
o John Hancock & his ship the Liberty

Boston Massacre
o Causes

The Tea Act
o Committees of Correspondence
o British East India Company

Boston Tea Party
o Road to Lexington & Concord

Intolerable Acts

The First Continental Congress
o Declaration of Rights and Grievances

The Decision for Independence

Lexington & Concord
o “Shot heard around the world”

Advantages & Disadvantages of American position

The Second Continental Congress
o Continental Army is formed
o George Washington as Commander-in-Chief
o Printing of money

Battle of Bunker Hill/Breed’s Hill

Last attempt at peace
o Olive Branch Petition
o American Declaratory Act

Common Sense is Published
o Thomas Paine

Declaration of Independence
o Thomas Jefferson
The American Revolution
o Early Years

Deciding on loyalties

Strategies of war
o Creating an army
o Challenges
o Advantages

Struggle for the Middle Colonies
o Burgoyne’s Three-Prong Plan
o Washington retreats to Pennsylvania
o Winter Quarters

Battles at Trenton and Princeton
o Saratoga – a Turning point

Benedict Arnold
o The War Expands

Help from Abroad
o Benjamin Franklin
o France

Marquis de Lafayette
o Spain
o Other help
o Winter at Valley Forge
o War on the Frontier
o War at Sea

John Paul Jones
o Path to Victory – War Moves South

Savannah & Charles Town

Swamp Fox & Guerrilla Fighting
o Francis Marion
o Charles Cornwallis

The Tide Turns
o Nathanael Greene – in charge of Southern army

End of the War
o Battle of Yorktown
o Surrender of Cornwallis & the British forces
o Treaty of Paris
o Legacy of War

Costs of War

Issues after the War
o Individual rights
o Property rights
o Religion
o Social Equality & Slavery
o Role of Women
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