Chapter 3: Rocks Study Guide

Chapter 4: Rocks Study Guide
Section 4-1 Classifying Rocks (pages 94-97)
Name _______________________ Period ____
1. Earth’s crust is made of __________________________.
2-4. Circle the letters of the characteristics that geologists use to classify rocks.
a. Texture
c. hardness
b. mineral composition
d. color
5. Rocks are made of mixtures of ______________________________ and other materials.
6. Geologists can test a rock sample for carbonates by testing it with a(n) _____________________.
7. True or False? Most rocks can be identified by color alone. ____________________________________
8. Particles of minerals and other rocks that make up a rock are called ___________________________.
9. The look and feel of a rock’s surface is its ______________________________.
10-12. Geologists (people who study rocks) describe a rock’s texture based on the grain ____________________,
grain _____________________, grain __________________________ or in some cases, no grain at all.
13-18. Fill in the concept map below.
19-22. By observing a rock’s color, texture and mineral composition, geologists can determine the rock’s
________________________, which is how the rock formed. Then geologists can classify the rocks into one of 3
major rock groups: _______________________, ______________________ & ____________________.
23-25. Each rock group is formed in a different way. _______________________ rocks are formed as lava
and magma cool. ____________________________ rocks are formed when tiny particles are packed together
tightly under a large body of water. ______________________ rocks are formed deep underground when an existing
rock is affected by intense heat and incredible pressure, that causes the elements inside the rock undergo a chemical
reaction, forming a completely new rock.
Section 4-2 Igneous Rocks (pages 98-101)
26-27. ___________________________ rock forms on top of the earth’s surface. The most common type is
_____________________________, which makes up much of the ocean floor.
28-29. Intrusive rock forms _______________________________________________________________________.
The most common type is ________________________________, which forms the core of many mountains.
30. The texture of an igneous rock depends on the size and shape of its _____________________________.
Match each igneous rock texture (left column) with the way it forms (right column).
_______ 31. fine-grained
a. magma cools in two stages, forming large and small crystals
_______ 32. coarse-grained
b. lava cools rapidly, forming small crystals
_______ 33. porphyritic
c. magma cools slowly, forming large crystals
34. True or False? Intrusive rocks have smaller crystals than extrusive rocks. __________________________
35-36. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about the silica composition of igneous rocks.
a. Igneous rocks that are low in silica are usually dark-colored.
b. An example of an igneous rock which is low in silica is granite.
c. Igneous rocks that are high in silica are usually light-colored.
d. An example of an igneous rock which is high in silica is basalt.
37-39. People throughout history have used igneous rocks for tools and building materials because they are
_____________________, ____________________ and ______________________________.
Section 4-3 Sedimentary Rocks (pages 102-106)
40. True or False? Sedimentary rocks form from particles deposited by people and animals. ________________
41. Small, solid pieces of materials that come from rocks or living things are called __________________________.
42-44.Three forces that can carry sediments are ________________________, ________________________ and
45-48. When water or wind loosen and carry away fragments or rock, it is called ____________________________.
When the sediments settle out of the water or wind, it is called __________________________________.
______________________________________ is when sediments are pressed together in layers. When dissolved
minerals glue sediments together, it is called _________________________________.
49-52. Name 4 examples of sediments. ______________________________________________________
53. True or False? It takes millions of years for sedimentary rock to form. __________________________
Fill in the table below to show how geologists classify sedimentary rocks according to the type of sediments they contain.
Classification of Sedimentary Rock
Type of Sediment It Contains
Clastic Rocks
Organic Rocks
Chemical Rocks
Section 4-4 Rocks From Reefs (pages 107-109)
57. Skeletons of living coral grow together to form a structure called a ____________________ ________.
58-59. Coral animals absorb the element _____________________________ from the ocean water, but their
protective outer shell is made from ______________________________________.
60-62. Coral animals are very delicate creatures. They cannot survive in waters below ____ meters deep in the ocean
because they need sunlight to live. They must also be in ___________ (temp.) waters, which limits the area where
they can survive (but the water can also be too hot). Coral animals are mostly located on the ________________
coasts of continents because the waves are less destructive.
Section 4-5 Metamorphic Rocks (pages 110-112)
63-64. ____________________________ and _____________________________ are the forces that cause rocks to
change into metamorphic rocks.
65-68. What 4 things change when a rock undergoes metamorphism? ______________________________________
69. True or False? The deeper a rock is buried in the crust, the less pressure there is on that rock. _________
70. True or False? Geologists classify metamorphic rocks by the arrangement of grains in the rock. ______________
71-72. Metamorphic rocks with grains arranged in parallel layers or bands are said to be _________________. If the
grains are arranged randomly, the rock is said to be ___________________________.
Section 4-6 The Rock Cycle (pages 114-116)
73. The series of processes that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another is referred to as the
_______________________________ _____________________.
74-77. The 4 forces that move rocks through the rock cycle are volcanic ___________________________,
_________________________________, _____________________________ and
78. True or False? All rocks follow the same pathway through the rock cycle. _________________________
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