Informative Speech Transitions •Moving from the introduction to the body of the speech Once you have previewed your main points and you want to move from the introduction to the body of the Farm Aid speech, you might say: "To gain an adequate understanding of the intricacies of this philanthropic group, we need to look at some specific information about Farm Aid. We'll begin by looking at the administrative branch of this massive fund-raising organization." • Moving from one main point to another • An effective transition summarizes the points preceding it. For example, "What I have done up to this point is identify what I think are the goals of this course. • An effective transition previews the following point. For example, "Unfortunately, using pesticides does just that. Let me show you how." •Using a variety of transitions To be effective with transitions, it's best to use a variety of them. Don't fall into the rut of always saying, "Now that I have told you about...I will next talk about..." Here are some different types of transitions: - In addition to being slow-moving, cricket is a very complicated sport. - Although some people think that history is boring, it helps us to understand the future. - Those are the two main problems, now let's see how they can be solved. • Placing Transitions in the speech Transitions should appear in the following places in the speech: (1) Between the introduction and first main point of the speech; (2) Between each main point; (3) Between each sub-point; and, (4) Before the conclusion of the speech. • Using different types of transitions Signposts are a type of transition that alert listeners to an important point. A signpost announces some new idea in the speech. As a transition, they make speeches easier to follow for your listeners. A signpost may be merely a number, or it might be a direct question. Here are a few examples: - Hold onto this idea. The thing to remember is... - The first major objection is. . . The final problem... - Try to remember this! How can we best manage this financial crisis? Internal summaries remind listeners of the ideas you have already discussed in the speech. They too function as transitional statements. They are often used at the conclusion of a major point in a speech. Example: "Up to this point, I have discussed the major causes of delinquency among juveniles in our large cities. I have attributed juvenile delinquency to 1) poverty; 2) lack of parental supervision; 3) lack of healthy recreational facilities; and, 4) lack of proper religious training. Now let us consider some of the effects this problem has had on the moral fiber of our country." Internal previews are used to preview the parts of a main point. Internal previews are more focused than, but serve the same purpose as, the preview you will use in the introduction of the speech. For example, you might create an internal preview for the complex main point dealing with Farm Aid performers: "In examining the Farm Aid performers, we must acknowledge the presence of entertainers from different genres of music-country and western, rhythm and blues, rock, and pop." The internal preview provides specific information for the audience if a main point is complex or potentially confusing. • Using Delivery to emphasize transitions: Transitions are effectively indicated by using direct eye contact, pausing before moving on to another main point, by changing the rate of your speaking, varying your pitch, or using statements that tell an audience you are moving on. I. Suntans are not as good for you as they look on you. Transition: Let’s examine some of the evidence A. Too much sun causes skin cancer. 1. According to a 1995 report by the American Cancer Society, prolonged exposure without protection is responsible for about 90 percent of all skin cancers. Transition: Let’s look at an example of one person who suffered from overexposure. 2. Jane sunburned easily, but felt that no harm would be done. a. At the age of 45, Jane has been diagnosed with skin cancer. b. She now cannot go outdoors without being covered from head to toe. Transition: Moreover, exposure without protection also accelerates the aging process. B. Too much sun also accelerates the aging process. 1. According to Dr. John M. Knox, head of dermatology at the Baylor University College of Medicine, “If you do biopsies on the buttocks of people ages seventy-five and thirty-five, you won’t see any differences under the microscope. . . protected skin stays youthful much longer.” 2. Jane was mistaken for a 50 year old because of the excessive wrinkling of her face. Transition: What does all this information mean? Internal summary: A suntan may make you look healthy, but it is not healthy. Overexposure to the sun causes cancer and premature aging. Are you willing to take that risk just to look good for a brief time? Transition: Although the sun is harmful, you can learn to protect yourself from its harmful effects and enjoy the benefits of the sun. II. Awareness of the sun’s harms as well as taking time to protect yourself will keep you safe even as you are enjoying the sun. Here’s what was actually said in the speech based on the outline above: Suntans are not as good for you as they look on you. Transition: Let’s examine some of the evidence. According to a 1995 report by the American Cancer Society, prolonged exposure without protection is responsible for about 90 percent of all skin cancers. Transition: Let’s look at an example of one person who suffered from overexposure. Jane was a fair-skinned blond-haired girl who loved the sun as a child and teenager. She would sunburn often but didn’t think there would be any effects other than the short-term pain. Lying in the sun seemed so healthy and appealing, she didn’t dream it could harm her. Now at forty-five, she knows better. She couldn’t believe her ears when her doctor told her she had skin cancer. She felt that she took good care of herself. Now she cannot go out into the sun, even for a few minutes, without using a sunscreen and wearing a hat, a long-sleeved shirt, and long pants. Transition: Moreover, exposure without protection also accelerates the aging process. According to Dr. John M. Knox, head of dermatology at the Baylor University College of Medicine, “If you do biopsies on the buttocks of people ages seventy-five and thirty-five, you won’t see any differences under the microscope. . . protected skin stays youthful much longer.” When she went to McDonald’s to get a cup of coffee and received the senior citizen discount. When asked why her coffee was 15 cents cheaper than she normally paid, the cashier said, “Well, you are over 55 aren’t you?” Since Jane’s face was the only visible sign of her age she concluded that her excessive wrinkling had prompted the cashier to make the mistake. Transition: What does all this mean? Restatement: A suntan may make you look healthy, but it is not healthy. Overexposure to the sun causes cancer and premature aging. Are you willing to take that risk just to look good for a brief time?