Chapter 6 Perception - Wheeler World Psych

advertisement
6
Perception
Selective Attention (pp 2’ -24fl!
CHAPTER OVERVIEW
Chapter 6 explores hon v c select organize and
interpret our sensatic xc into meaningtu pc rceptions.
I he chapter mt )duces a xx ide range of terminologx,
especialh in thc I erceptual Organization section.
Each of the txvo sections that toilow deals with an
important issue. The first issue h the role of experi
ence, as opposed to heredity, in perception, Make
sure von understand the results of studies of recox cry
from bhndnes sensori deprivation, adaptation to
distorted enx ironmentc, and perceptual set, Note also
the rolc of psych ilogists in human tactors design.
The second i,suc cons dered in the chapter is the
possible existcncc of t SP, or perception xx ithout sen
sation You should be able to discuss both the claims
made for pcp and the criticisms of these claims.
Dax id Myers at times uses idior i t ct i in
xx
familiar to sonic reader If you o r c
the meaning of any of the folloxvr g xx irds
phrases, or expressions ‘n the contcx n xx hich
they appear in the text, reter to page lIn tor an
explanation: i/eli r ahic;lt:oia1 NLxaiig!u izJN; iCii
mien, drum a bia;ik sziimmteicd; Jkm[? CUt.
entor
Objective 1: Describe the interplax’ hc Ii c
and perception
1. Our tendency to focus at a xy momc
c r c oh a
it
limited aspect of all that xx e are capahlc ol experi
encing is called
NOW: Ansxxer guidelines
begin on page l6N.
for
all Chapter
(m
questions
cube.
figure called a
2. An example of this lim’ted focus is th
CHAPTER REVIEW
n t og hcadrngs and boldfaca
e t
I ust skim a
react tIn section, rcxiew cach
items ktter
crmng thc ff1 in and essax tx pe
obje t xc bx a
quetionc thar to1lou t \c ‘nu proceed, cx aluate
your pcrtt’rmince bx o’nsuitll’C the anwer begin
ning on page inS Do not continue xx ith the next sec
tion until ou understand each answer. It you need
to, rex ion or reread the section in the textbook before
continuing.
fc
1, fhc phil s 1
Pus is mllrstrated using a
first
tkcablit
r
c
selecth el t i c nIx onc i c among
3. One e\anxpe ot our lack ot axx aronn—’
F
h ioc:i
ings around u A
xx’hich—after a brict
ruption xx e fail to notic’
ronment
lxx o forms “f th c
hauge in
hat
pimo’ ‘i
5
mx oRe x ision and hearmg espo
f that wc p ercc i c oh’ects through the
se ses, xx t I
iind,
inc on’
I
d
prop ic
Another cwmiiple
is
mi
1 8
ap
6 Percepti
Perceotual IllusIons (pp. 240
)
yot do not ki’cns the meat ta t
n r .e
tnllowang isords. phrd%c%. or tpt ,
in
tnt’ context in is hkh they appear m th- text,
rt4ei to page 17 for an epLanaton
a ‘it! iz?.1t’i%i ‘.&id;IiIk ‘i.c’’ t i,. w.:, • “ZL’?N
t
!; d;
Objectii e 2: 1 xplain hon illusions help i. c to under
stand ‘nw of the is av Ur organh/e stmuli ink’
n.eaningrul ett eption%.
lions. 1k di ti
ception in tc r.
processing r’
cut tu;;i.
)
‘t
i
s
t it)
ensation and per
pes of information
Ct lear
Objective 4: Fpldin the r3’are—greunl relationship,
and identit prh’ipie’ et per.eptual grouping in
torn’ pen.eption.
3. flhen tcr tic t a s.eat’. is e ‘ee the central object,
or
a distinct tiorn sur
rounding stimuli, or tine
•
Identifi the mapur tuntribution’- ot t estalt
gi to vu’ tinden..tandm’ or pert v’ption.
1. il’usions reseal the wa- vie nrps!I.
and
Our sensations
2 The tendeni of’. kioa to dorm atc th
cholo
ther
fl’gs is referred to as
3 li (r estbc’tweenh
dc
rp r It
iatc.
Perceptual Organization
t
242 254)
oudc otknois it nai ,of nziv ftic
,low i words,ptri c orcc) siors the
ntcx nishtchthe’ape r r etext Kr
top ges l-17bforan çJ.era no’- ‘
t cti;nes Iwu ret they 1 c s
iai rio I
w:u utcd ti,.en; 10 traal uut
loat’i fiay %z1iag:; 45 we nin t
that
un •,rtui11q ta1’1c .nau .7y’vnzs to o c’ caIiiiW
rpeiztt.rnf.
1
24 411! r fz;rc tii. a$l. ‘?!Ufl’l’ t.iL’’ r.
I
ObjectIve 1: l)esriht Cf stdlt psvcho’t’g’.
tion ti’ our ui’dti’$anding it perception..
I.
\s.
.srding to the
vit trd
ps’ tn”knr.
‘.ct(lIj’. ‘rLto
to ‘nganLe’—
‘-
contribu-
‘it hovl ot
clu’-tc: jp[ ..,n.
..
form
2. Our teuicknc’ to percen onnplet’ru ol’. c’S sei”.O’’ rrah’-is, ‘ir
.‘
ccssing ot stintuli, a- is cli
rs
1
t.’n
4.P
filet
it
COflflC CC it
Y C.
)tSO
tiutv,and
C’staltrulesof
5. iheprinc pl’tictw )t annstimuli into
smooth, con w
s aft r is called
he principle that use till in
g.ips to create a oi p tte us hole object J%
The grouping of items that
other is the principle of
are clo,e to
the wouping of item’ that
look alike i. the j’i ir:ple
The ter
cn; to Petteis C
4
uiiift’rtn r’ aftahe¾! ‘wm as i -ir’ele v.nit s the
pnnc.iplt’ ‘•
Objective : F.plaan k iniportancr nf depth percep
tion. arid discus’— thcor.rit”ution oF ual cliff
‘e-& arch to our undt rtar j: 1 or thk ability.
6. 1 t’c .ihihts t s
despite th
our rct.r
‘
at use wr
“
mu
t
L ci
toree dimension”.
s ) i i presentations on
ii
0
estirrate
I
idW11 lexel ,cdth
(I
t(
d ptl
te’-t
c
cs
nirinfints B
p
rha agO irfants
icr
13. \s an objc bctt r c
appears prog
xc
c
r
a c
16. Objects owe
nc arc r
sr ,(cstaftpcrception
f
F
17. \siscnovc
Sunir a c e c n
xr
cfdc
ci (
sin and Wilks studies
h nor
tditc
18. IraIe1 in
a
ay
t
19. Dimmcr cm h
Objectn c 6 Dcs nF c trio binocular cues for pen cii
ingdp i in nLinhn tiy hnlpthehra.nio
comput distantc
For gut tions 3 1) dcnt fy th
that
I fined
8. \r
Ieptt perceptron cue
Objective 8: State thc ba m a i
our pcrceptions of mit ) a B
perceptions can be dcc i r
20. In gencral rs c ar
nethatreqni csbcth ye
good notrerygo That
9. Ite
°
speed of me’ ‘n
te tin diff r’ncc bet scen thc images
rccc rca b thc tsr
n
fooled hec ruse lar3t
es thc niarer the object’
3D
snot
r
is
icrt i c on stta ni
thc nst ucti scrom
10
arc
21
id
Obje I’ve
bir u
Fe
11
F
ear
d
ilownc )
I ci
r cue Iifti n fron
n 3n ula uc
is
‘
22. Ihe illusion elm
adjacent -,tatmonan
I
in quick so
I
23 0
c
c
I
it
mu
xci
c sue
Objective 9 1 xp
)i st i
a
12. 1
a
ra ci
r
bc I is iresiac
tu
imagc spcr
ii
Ic
tic ‘I rum
frghtncss
it
cd
24. Ibis
uce
i
tI t r
i
seen as
pro csscuaBe’
I ic
14
ii
r anving images as
Ift roccu
r
13
n
I hc brain intenpnc F
phenomcn n
nsf) s nrardrrhenweniew
tic ic icr thc object
r
smaller object
s in’
at I ns cut bt photographing each
ft 1 o c mcras Fhrs h rpter s fnnda
a
i
I
r
160
Chapter 6 p ception
Objective 10: Describe thc shape and size constam
cies, and cxplain hon our expcctations about pen
ccix eu siac a in distancc C mtrioutc to son c sisual
diuPons
Perceptual Interpretation (pp. 234 264)
It ou do not know the meaning ot any of the
following in ords phrases, or expressions in the
context in which then appear in the text refer
to page W6 for an explanation Ping Pong bill’
ci ft Is Ii y thsoilc it’ll eocn d’r:y’ to sec
js to bclinc
to be’ie e i’ to sec a rnonstcr in
Fcc (In ill’ Loc i \css’frcin rhnf s bclnnd our
a Fat u i r airs ni tlit’ cuts of their hehol lets
25 Dot to shapc and’ ac c onstanc an iliar objc cts
do donct ppearto
change s iapc n sizc dcspite changes ir our
,
images of them
26. ‘excra
lusions i icludi ig the
i
and
illu
sions are expla ir ed by the interpla beD cc n per
at d perceived
ccix c d
When distance cues are
remor ed, thcse illusions are
(diminished strengthenc d)
I xplain hon the size-distance relationship accounts
for the Moon illusion.
Objective 12: Dcscribc the contribution of restored
r isbn and senso v depnn ation research in our under
standing of thc nature-nurturc interplan in our pen
ceptions
1, Thc idc a mat knott ledge comes rrom inborn
is ays of )rganizing sensory experiences was pro
posed hr the philosopher
2. On the othc r side were philosophers who main
tained that we learn to perceive the world by
experiencing it. One philosopher of this school
was
3. Studies ot cases in which r isbn has been restored
to a pcrson who ivas blind from birth show that,
upon seeing tachlely familiar objects for the first
(can can
time the person
not) recognize them
27. People xi ho hare lived ti eir In cs in uncarpen
tered rural em ironments are
(more less s isceptible to thc Muller-I vet
illusicn
4. studies of ‘c n’ern deprh ation demonstrate that
isual experic nces during
are crucial for perceptual development. Such
cxperic ncc s suggest that there is a
for
normal sensory and perceptual den elopment. For
th s reason human infants born w ith an opaque
typicalls
°r s callcd
han orr ‘ot xc s gery ig n ivay
Objective 11: Disc us’ lightness constancy and its sim
ncf,, ,irs
n
iIarit
28. Il c
sun
u
cs ar
irp
l t icss
0
i
cc
clabx t
idcpc ide t
und ng 0)1 ct
29. lhc amour t ci igi a i thjc t
its ,orrc und ss i, called
c ts rclatnc to
Oblective 13’ Expia F ins be rcscai F oi distortu
ogglcs ncrc ses )u undcrstandir g of thc idptab I
y o perceptio
t ii glasses that shift or insert the
Ham rs
(will u ill not)
visual f’eld
adapt tc din distorted pcrception. I his is called
30 Iharl’s tc
c rst
Fu
at
wc sec cbjects as hat ing a
to’ rcicd ioblccts.
6.
Dir s
a p d
)
hi k
ad pt)t
iortrf cncs
161
a
ft t aggogglcsrelir tremoxcdrrost
brief per eptual
ca
as the pcrccptual sstcn s
c
on pc isat fo the shilted visual
t
16
isc ts
C
5
fainh
1
c iv 14 I fi fCi cptualsct andcx
I a
s s [aacdodonotperctnc
t
C’
i
4)li,
Cull
t
kit
nf’utr
i There Ext
crc
tor
I
I
1
ptrte
ta
Id
t
h
Xf
‘?
cne ace pcople acquire perc ptual
as reflected in children s
nx r s tdaftcrcnt ages lhWcxplainswlr w
r )r accuratch recognize
of I
au fa es than thc se people s actual faces
C’
I cc reco,nataon is espccialh attuned to the
and
ar as of the
e s
Objectivel7 ft
ISP ani
re n
s
1 Ikrc
i
bjcc
e 13 I xplain why the same stimulus can
I lureni pc ption ‘n different nntexi
i rubs is pcr en ed depends oia our per
ial chc nas and thc
hi iti experienccd
12
2
c ‘lior
i’
1
t
I
tio r
t
I
I
sa
)
e
i
V
Ia t
I SI
bh
also influenced by
about gender and the
c ntext ot our experiences
)nsat
t
c
0
P lh
cap I
o t xtota stimulus reatesa
op downbottom up)
p c ii a mar influences our perceptiou as wc
(topdon n bot
ou
up)sigralagainstit
t
)
8
tr
a
a cd
r 5
a aethe
Jiic fr
a a I bc
r
tIc
IC
I
C
as
1
r
16
tc
c
Ich naif
scrf en
n
rpsy
aiacs
c
or
tidy th mlcrt nc
aciplcs
the
gr
p1 Ip
n
dcs
C
p aces and as ork settings are
4
a
t
sv holog st’
a
i
sc )f kn )wledgc,’ ted n k gr
rat otlcr
C tao
ra
t
C
cia
dc g
I
I
5
c
6
6
ot
r 6
Percepto
archers n 110 tried to reducc extcrnal distraw
is betnier. a sender’ an Ta receiser in an
I SP cspennlent. reported perfo mance let c’Is that
(heat, did not beat) chance
s\J’ \le’u’ “t’sent tucncs,
rcpl1catt’ the
results.
tounJ ecuallv high
B. relatir e motion.
c. linear perspechs e.
d.
6. Which of tile tollowing illustrates the principle of
visual capture?
a. We tend to form first impressions of other
let cu of o’rtorinaike1.
people on the basis
B.
PROGRESS TEST
TIiiltipI(hojt c
i
QIIL’stlo;ls
an-xer 0’ toe roIIoc ing question and
tech thorn n ith the ansc uw beginning on page 169.
P r ow answer is ncorret read the explanation tot
o hr it o nicorrost and then consult the appropriate
pages ot the tc\t (in parcnthesw follow ing the correct
r O or).
S oor
historical moseinerit associated w th the
rcnt “Tile whole may exceed the nm of its
i
a
c
d
2
3
r psvchoiogx.
i oral psx choogy
r
3
i r
ionrl pss ho’o
C, sta t pc I ologs
i
point repre
C.
tile ‘-acne stInnlus can tripger more than one
d.
ciitfcrcr’
go’
\ iOi’ mg
‘-cr110.
‘plo
sec
d’tfferent things when
‘e’0dft
ar di, sheet. each we recedes a
shi’th d.tr rco.i ;iage pros ichrg a cieptil 00
10
appearance.
is
automatic,
we
is
7. A person claiming to he able to read another’s
mind is claiming to has e the ESP ability of:
a. psychokinesis.
c. clairvoyance.
B. precognition.
d. telepathy.
8. Which philosopher maintained that knowledge
comes from mborn way s of organizing our senso
c. Gibson
d. Walk
9. Dr. Martin is using natural mapping to redesign
the instrument gauges of automobiles to be more
“user friendly.” Dr. Martin is evidently
a. psychophysicist.
B. cognitive psy chologist.
C. human tactors ps chologist.
d. experimental psychologist.
a(n):
10. The visual cliff te—ts an infant’s perceptual sensi
tivitv to which depth cue?
a. interposition
b. relative height
c. linear perspechve
d. texture gradient
f.ntcnil
4. \\‘ie
S As
of
processing
can par attention to a r isual image and any
other sensation at the same time.
c. We cannot simultaneously attend to a visual
image and another sensation.
a conflict between s isual infor
d. When there
mation and that from another sense, r ision
tends to dominate,
a. I orke
a. perceptton is largely innate.
simply a pont-tor
B. perception
sentation ot consaton,
B.
vIsual
B. Kant
II e hgnre-uround relationship has dcnronstra ted
that.
a,
Because
ry experiences?
ignrc tcnd to hr pcrc ‘is d as whole complete
c c t c en if space or saps exist in the repre
crt tror thus demor strat ng the principle of:
mectedness,
c conhnuitt
b imilarity,
d losure
n
continuity.
Lon \eYgense
inear
pespcstne.
c. relatrs e n(1’1t)0
d. retinam arsparitv.
nior e. vie’s ed object’- Last changing shapes
ow retinas, althongh is e dc i It perceive the
Is as chao”ing. ‘this l fart if thc phcnome
ox
‘toal
c
10
t
I
11. Kmttens and monkeys reared eeing only diffuse,
unpatterned light:
a. later had difficultr distinguishing color and
brightne’-s.
b. later had difticultr perceiving, color and
brightness, hut or entuailv regained normal
sensitiviti,
c. later had ditficults peneiving the shape of
objects.
d. showed no impairment in perception, indicat
ing that neural feature detectors develop er en
in the absence of normal senorr experiences
es
Pr
12. Adults ss ho are horn blind hut later have their
vision restored:
a. are almost rinmediateh able to recognize
familiar obje ts.
b. typ c lly tail
c. are unahl t
ieco ,n zc familiar objects.
lion noving objects ix if their
tt
I
dies
d. has e escelknt cx ehand coordination.
13.
protes-.ing refers to how the phi s
ical haracterstics or stmujh mtluence their inten
pretat on.
c Paraps chological
d. Human factors
a. I opdoxx
Bottom u:
B
14. Which of the folioss ing is not a monocular depth
cue?
a. texture gradient
b. relatix e height
c. retinal dispariti
d. interposition
15. [he M iou illusion occurs in part because distance
cuts at the bob ion make the Moon seem’
a. tarther an ay and therefore larger.
b. closer and theretore larger.
c. farther axvav and theretore smaller.
d. closer and therefore smaller.
16. Figure
to groo id as
is to
a. night iar
b. top bottom
c. cit ud; ski
d. sensation; peiception
17. fhe study ot perception is primarih concerned
xx ith hon WC’
a.
b.
c.
d.
detect sights s )unds and other stimuli.
,cnse ens ir inmental stimuli
develop s nsit’s it} to illusions.
interpret ser sc ri stiniuh,
18. ‘A inch or tie rnifns ‘ng inf!ucnces perception?
1
a. biob gico
b.
mairiration
tS- tontast
c. c
cttitio
d.
hca
nit h
“
uh ore perccis ed
ct
m
a bi h 1
of teI na’ dreams that predi t
tuturo cx ents. f f J,riins to has e the pox’ er ot:
c. precognition.
a. teiopathx.
tiairxoxance,
d. pss chokiue’-is.
b.
19. lack
t
20. Researchers who Ins esrigated tclepatb\ tound
that:
a. xvhen external di—traction’- are educ’-’d, OOi
e moth
the “sender” and the recvei hcc
more a c irate hi dc nons at g I S
r it i
b. oni senders be rt a
c. only ‘ retch ers become a a .nor
d. or er mans studies none or I e hex t
ate.
‘
Trite—False items
Indicate whether each statement
placing f or I in the blink ne\t
i, truc ol
1 Orcexsepecwc
is impossible to see
h
Hise
item
t
t
it
a
s
I
grour c
i
2. Lahorators e\perinlents has e laid to
rest all crhicisins oi Ftiif
3, Sixmaonth-old infant’- xvii! cr0’-’- a x
k.
1
diii if their mother ca
e n’
4. Unlike other animals human
critical period for s isual Un xli vi
5. Immanuel Kant argued tha xpcncnt.
determined how xx e f rc en e the a orld
6. People who hi e in a carpentered xvoi id
are more likely than others to c\pcri
once the Mhlierj icr illusion.
7. Alter a period of thaw, humans ire able
a is r d nade
to adjust to hi ing
upside downhy dis ) tr g
8. &s our distaue Iron a obje ch ges
the object’s size omns to chanc
9. Perception is nfhentcct hi pn noiopn
cal tactors such as set and expectation
xveh as by phi ‘-iologrcai cx cuts
vi
hat port option
is
10. John I ocke argued
inborn.
PROGRESS TEST
2
nn,l
Progress Test 2 ‘-hould he completed otu og
chapter reviest Ansi’ or rhe toilo’vi’iv qoestronc $tei
let t ii
in fir
( u thoroughh understand tbt
the section rn icr ‘s and Pie res’
.
‘
)tF
ur
to o it ii’
1. [he tend r
uninterrupted patterr s is ralle
c. iu,tiiaritx.
a. clo’-ure
d. pi vomits.
B. continuity.
2. Il hich of the foiloxx ing a a moi ocular di piti
a. light and shad,
B eon eree cc
c retm I pan
o
d. Ml oft c ahox t r mount w d ‘ptl
t
Lit
164
Chapes b Perception
of thc 1 1 ‘is ing
3. Wh
i&t
I
:t.,t
t
a
LIC
b.
t
()ti
men’
eptcr
t’Ofl’il’
th
at
gc
1
t
d
r.t’,
d%Lor
t’c
tlc ad
b.
t’. C
eactdy
hum
I;i.’l,dfl’.
C.
di c eth
c
d
itt
a
,
COil
not
b. intt.q
‘.sl.ili— l’.’.it’i UL!fl.ck
ti pi..alh do siot.
’ada
tati’.’n is pc”sib1e during.’ ‘.rti.aI period
d. 1
½. :.ltJflc% ha: riot thereafter
Ttcotc’nmnrtat c I thc
a ud
uo
F Itt s 3m
i
rnslc
ccci i
‘..
a. percc’ptual ‘at.
b. retwal di%paiit.
c. o’nvergence.
d. visual captors.’
rio and
6. Ihank% to
the I retord
flRh,tsesoIsed
‘usod i the c r
problcr
pj
t
tt(Ic.
a.
b.
e
mdl
i object a& being it
d4taiie j’. krr’n n a’..
Thi’. F’
depth 4
ut.
a. Iir.’ar pcrspe.t1 e; bincrnar
b.
C ifiC “F
tt mc.
lar
Li
fl
d.
n
9. lhej
tin. U
(fliflilellO
....
.
•‘r.
a
(0 ..1/t CC Stcfl
bet.
tic’.’
..it1
t’
c’H$ l4”fl
}
ttn
‘•‘jt’
17.
s.flJLitC
p.
b 1
ed
lt.%
fl”.
‘I..
i,
1’..
18.
i
Ii
mjpe%..
.
.a r
an’. length ‘.n ‘mc ‘.it d’ ct.
g ..“.i
V. ‘P human t Mit n
for
,lS
iecloity
tiiemo
i
cn.
d. re t
C.
s.C.
it;o:i
imc
r
C
iii 1
Qt’X. 1
d. is ole.
urn
tie
ci
1
lb.
S
est
ft,,ClLV1ai
4
ides of c sisu€i
It hne n i’cid c dcns.t’
ht Iflu’ Ii c’t .itptl. p rceptioi
a. nn.%
ii. Icarnec!
jfl,%
iflflatc
‘al’. ...
d in 1w an’,.
d. nn
tic
t ot
10. W
the I
a. it
tchstabk
1
lb. ihe perceptual etror in is hkh tie tail to see an
object is hen our attertion F. dii cited (.fl’efl here is:
a. s bital apture.
math. ‘nalbir ‘‘S%.
‘er
it!
c
‘s.: bra.ntne.
hapc
S lit
C
iCV%
‘I’
eler
a
b. sons
rcr. itt d
a.
b. sicdktaru
e
tS
IS.
we learn
.i
ui’.
a-hti
oisc’cvcu car tpojectsadifferent
Ito ‘in
I iou cy
c.zc
wt you do not
peceii
ha
his
b
a. tie ual d.
b. retinal disparit.
C. rø” ontanc
d cons ergtiice.
d. Gestalt p’.. cnologi.ts
8. lIar tcidenc tc rer’eise 1
h
14
gst
7. \cor.1ing to the phiio;pher
top( civethei uld.
a ici
ctt’sc
b.
alk
d
tlmcr
13. 1% hicli or the k1los.vin statementS.. s.oncernnig
PSI’ n. true?
a Iost SI’ ieseai ez’areqi ‘ks.
b. Ihex
‘w F
a largc
in her f rdiable
des o ‘atlo
F I’
c Mo I
arch
holo’is dC skq tical of
ths. claims of deft deN ot LSP.
d. Ihere ha e been wli.tble Idboratory demon
‘..trations of [SI’. but the results are no difter
ent tn.m those that would occur hi hancc’.
s
‘n fat
psitlic
c. i’s hokinetci’J’.
dl
o
U
11. l”.s choIoz.%ts who .tud I’d’ ,v ‘.alied:
a. tiainovant-.
c. p’..’ap’. thologkt,..
b. ttiepatn’.
d. irs.
irc’nlntr
vi%LlclI
t
diet
e
4. 1 ‘p’
dc
1% s.shei cperi
It has now do 6.mg cI
eric
‘ptior
I ‘proc
,f here
C. I :.e :‘n’nd O1tfl1/t’ .t’fl’.QtIo1l% iitti iilt’JflWI.,
tu i’irc t pt;n.
d. Preptk’n result’.. di r....Jli rrt’rn ‘t. fl%dtlL ut
1%
c
or iF
i/ tion
a.
1.
is,
rcept
I:
C. ,si..i1’illtt.
r
1
4
,
1
d.
s.”l;st
rgei.se
)
ga
b. ink rposit on
perceive the diagram above as
three —eparate ub!ec ts due to the principle of;
c. closure
a. pro\lnnc\
ci. onnectcd ness.
b. ccc tinniti
19. 4 ou p ohahh
20.
refers to hon our know ledge
in’0ce’511Pi
and cxpcLtations int!uence perception.
a.
b
I
)
c tt
c Parapsi chological
ci, tin nan factors
dcix n
iv ip
PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED
\nsn er t e c q a stions ti c d v before an exam as a
tinal chc k r our nude standing if the chapter’s
terms an
4 c n opt—.
AIultrplccCIzoicc’
Qztcstwns
1. Although carpenter Smith pc’rceh ed a brieth
x inn ed obiect as a screw drh er, police otficer
A esson perceived the same object a— a knife. Ihis
ii!rrstrate that perceptron i— guided hi;
a. lin ir perspectn e.
c retinal dispariti.
b. shape constancy.
ci perceptual set.
2. Be ause thc flow cr5 it thc toreg ound appeared
c misc and gr tim y the phc tographer decided that
the pictu c vas takcr too near the subject. Ihis
on Iusion w s based cn which depth cue?
a. r aM c size
c retinal disparits
h.
ci
H terpusition
texture gradient
3. I tic’ tact that a n hite object under clint illumma
tron appears lighter than a grat cibject under
bright iiluruinahc’n jc called;
a. re!anxe luminance.
h. percr’ptuai adapratnn.
olnc intract
d. I i if’s cuntant v
C.
4.
mu ii
s
linac
r
‘
he
it x oc; —ton x br’nc x our finger
anti! it i-n r’ntIa!! rouchec i
u” called
cc nrc tirn,
a. rei’at i’ disuntc
ton ard our face
flflsi’, i-H o’-ruusele
cr’r,\ cx depth inti rrna uo to
c. continutt
i-au
o-i con
8. In the tiLacI’, of perceptual contt nci.
a. objects would appear it cnanae ri/c
i
+
hi- ir
distance from us hangec!.
b. depth perception ould he aa.’a: ‘cu—n cli
on monocular cues
c. depth perception n ou!d be ‘a. ed e\c!c,-ix cix
on binocular cues,
iNn.
ci. depth pcrceç tion would i
9. Thc .ilusior tt at th
x
appcars taller tha i it
c
5 are eq
height and s idt
tix ity to whic i nonocular c
C.
a. relatn c sizc
c
b. interposition
d. c
u
0’l
t
ici ht
I dpi- ‘ti
10. flow done perceive a po!c that
iva?
a. a farthcr awax
b. as neater
c.
a— larger
ci. I here iv not eniulg’c i;uh’mn,
the Nc s size 01 di ta’ c
tox
e
ieoti r
c
rc
,it than thc ) her objcct.
b
c.
cr I in the othi r h cct.
d. sir i icr than the other ohlec t.
.n
\riki r
.
1
3C a sc
tui
7. As her en Mdc walks
ccii es his ci e s reinaimr
percen cd d
her rctinal i gc )f hr
a. incrcaccs dccreasec
b. increisc ircrcaser
c. decre is a, dcc ceases
ci. deccea,cc, increarer
11. An
sizc
-cc;sati
perception heih note thati
a. sen—ation A horronup pricci-sr;;’c.
b. perception is topdorc n proccsnu-m
c. a. and b. are both nut.
d. sensation and p-er- c’ptiorr o ‘-ci at
tinuous proee—.
ast
qua!
ace
c
6. Concluding her presentahon 0
ac t that cts the
cc cda heir;
o
ci
“
ti i-lct” “a
rcc orc
c rce
t
t
s
-
tic
Pink
rc
a. irtc o s
b. iclatisc
-
12. Objects h gh in our tic’? o! s
due ti’ the pniic’vt
as
a.
h.
c,
d.
c
d cat
v
nearer; rekrix c !acccht
nearer; l’nea cccii- in,’’
tarther awax; relati\c heat,:
!a tner an at lear ‘.pr- u
cc
tic-
cd
166
C haptcr 6
Perceptio
13. According to he prir ciplc o light and shadow, if
onc of two idc ntical objects rcllects mo e light to
your eves it rL bc pcrccircd as:
a. larger
c. larthcraxxax.
b smaller
d nearer.
14. Your tricr d t sses rou a f isbc c. You know that
is gcttrng closer instcad ot a ‘ger becanse ol
a. shape c nstanc
c. size onstancx.
b. relathemi ion
d all if thc ahoxe
it
15 Which explanation of the \4uller t ter illusion is
offc red F r the text?
a. lhc corncs in cu carpcr tc ed irorld teach i
to intc rpret outix ard or inn ard pointing
arron heads at tF e cud of a line as a cuc to the
linc s distance troin us and so to its length.
b. 1W draring r iolation of ‘inear peNpettiw.
makes one line seem longer
c. 1opdown processing of thc illusion is pre
r ented bc cause of thc stimuli s ambiguity
d. UI ot the abox e ir crc otfered as explanations
b. is u rpr dictable.
c. is influenced br cultural experiencc.
d is charrctenzed by all of the aboxe.
I ssay Question
lr inant
cx ic s Irom thc 193 s danccrs perlormed
seemingly meaningless mox cments xx hich xx hen
x icu ed tr xx i abox c xx crc transformed into intricate
patterns and dc signs. Simrlarlx the formations of
marc’ung ha ids t rren create pictures ano spell
words ldent t
s and describe at least four Gestalt
prmciples ci orouping I rat explain thc audience s
perception )f ti e images crcated hy these types of for
mations (Ust the space below to list the points you
want to makc and organize thc m. I hen xx rite the
essay on a sep irate piece of paper)
16. When the traffic light changed from red to green,
the drir crs on both sides ot Leon s rehicle pulled
qokklt furvr ard, g’ ing F eun th disork nthrg
fecling that his car n as rolling backward. Which
principle explains I con s m sperception?
a. relatir e motion
c. usual c upturt
b. continuity
d. proximity
17. Regina claims that she can bend spoons, levitate
furniture and perform many other “mind or er
matter’ teats, Regina apparenth belier es she has
the powc r of’
a. telepathy.
c. precognition
b. clairvox ance.
d. psx chokmcsis
18. 1 hc predictions of eading psy hics are:
a. ohen ambiguous prcpheci s later h terpicted
to mat F actuaicr
s
b. it r
c u t
ra p csscs rad
(thcrs
v ysn
c. icr
d. a rt’c
‘
KEY TERMS
Writing Definitions
Using r our ow n xx ords on a separate piece of paper
xx rite a brief dehnition or explanahon of each of the
folloxx ing terms
1. sc lectn c attention
2. nattcr tional blrndncss
3.
sua c ptur
4. cs ft
5 hgucgo
6. nrc
d
‘i
19. Stu ring thc
ad a b f re er trp. (clccn
had ni trc ubie fo ft n irg hc route of IF c hint
v ax sh planr od to tr
I C ollot n’s ab’ I il us
trates the principle of’
a closure.
c. contit uitv.
b sir ilarit
d. a oximit
10. retinal disF ant
20
11.
r
id
it
e
lus
ab
c
\n
)
0
n
aprctc
FIre
t
nr
7 depth p ‘reel t
0 i
8. xnucl “If
9. binocular uc
12
cr c
cc
y
Is
pt
C
167
ii
t
19
ti)fl
i th P olo xi.
id
ne mn ml. of
r in )rtant I th
o a tS \tteryouh xc
h inti nsotthtkev
r
t s iiptr x mshould
CO
C 10 n and pozzle
mat you an mx enso
n ‘oy niie tin term
pro s
fmmton
2
A
I
1)5
i
c
S
I
L
th
msua field that
n,un’
0 1
u
‘in In n t ) perceive tin
o off aralfol lmnns
atm p do maim in dii
C
nJ
Sm
S
tf
eCtn
that depCnd on
Ii xfnnboth acs
n that v teno to
AC
a
x
S
thitaneneam
on
C
i,uilftldtha
tf on Is
Jr
ma
ibn icr d h
n
at Sn irledge
on
it
I
f
etnnt
ytC
f
f
mm
o
r
of un
et
t
f
U
t
10
C
2
m-,ms ire
ndm I t
(C
C
H CflSlO ii
nat r maces
tn
tCn
‘CnCef inns from
that stnik° h ret na
n it
nftr
the
11
12
1 n
Ct
nl
ii
ira
0
168
Ic cplioi
(h.otc
16. relath e height
17. relatix e motion (motion parallax)
18. linear perspectixe
ANSWERS
Chapter Review
19. light and shadon
1, Plato
20. x cry good; more slowh
21. mox ement; stroboscopic movement
Selectiee 3ttentioa
1, ewc U’. c
2. corstii
attontton;
22. phi phenomenon
\eceo:
23. perceptual constancy
a ix ettccc
.
-
K
inattixtiOoa hnones; vuual; change hlcndness;
change deatnms; ohuico blindness
23. do not; retinal
26, Moon; Ponzo; MhlIer—Lver; size; distance; dimin—
ished
Perceptual Illusions
A partial reason for the illusion that the Moon at the
horizon appears up to aO percent larger than the
\loon directly ox erhead is that cues to the distance of
objects at the horizon make the Moon, behind them,
seem farther away and therefore larger. When we ee
the Moon ox erhead in the sky, these misleading cues
are lacking.
1. oramzo Interoret
3. hearing
Organization
1. (lo1t whole
2. bottom up; top d wn; c xpcriences; expectations;
Iuzzx
3. ngure gtou ro
lhc ( estalt p v hol gists descri )ed some ket pnnci
p e ) per ptna crganization and in so doino,
den ors r i c d ti a prception jc far more than a sim
rocess Ihc rex.crsible tigure-ground
e sois
p c
rc a it nship. or cxamplc demc nstrates that a sinale
Pus can tnggcr nore than one perception. As
( cstalt pvcholo sts shoxxed. we continualh tilter
ensory iotormatior nd ccnst ct on perceptions in
u ax s that make ens to us
4. grouping
5. continultx; closure I rox nitv similarity’ con-
27. less
28. relative to
29. relative luminance
30. color constancy
Perceptual Interpretation
1. Kant
2. locke
3. cannot
4. infancy; critical period; cataract
5. will, perceptual adaptation
6. do not adapt
i.
iK ctedncss
isn.I .n;rt;
‘
i5U,
tin a[’;iitv to
iu
crc
s
tnt
per- en t-
--1
umt
‘—Urwost’-
n—un n
-
‘
10. onr
.
or’ooco
r.unoccnar
10. exes; mouth
11. context
12. top-down bottom-up
‘
enOo-’,’ hran’,
ru’r.
r
p
‘
14. human factors
—
1. expertise
16. assistix e listening
-ize
13. intnpoitiou
14. c’k4r-c ci otv
-
ta. text
maw
13. stereon pe; emotiona
P i,Or nt-
12. rePro o
in
d.efh sprccut at, or
nih ar;c’c h’rta.
hiniva! r-’
LU
I
9. schemas; caricatures
rmntn
tie
atteiertect
8. perceptual set
b. OttO perception; Or-Vance
—
—
,
2. x nuac capture
Perceptual
24. top-down angle; distance; illumination
itt a
ad tent
Is There Extrasensory Perception?
1.
extrascnsc ry perception
2 parapsnhologrsts
1)
ws
3. tclcpa
nesi
4. cha
i
c
n cxc
ii
c r nc
prc cognition, psxchoki
ter r tcd (rctrofitted)’ re onstruct
5. rqr dncb
6. be t
i
c
tcatith esults
1
Progress Test i.
Mult’,’Ie
(‘hou Outs iOn’,
1. d s th ans icr Ccstih psvcholog3 which
dcx c pcd ir (ermany carlv in the twentieth cen
t i x was i it sted m hc xx lusters of sensations
arc ‘rg n t F into v hc Ic perceptions. (pp.
2T2 ‘T )
a. Paraf syci Pogx is thc stndy of ISP and other
para ormal phenomena
b & c. Beh iv mral md functional psychology
developed I iter in th L nited States
2. d. is thc answe (p 244)
a. C onnectednc ss refers to the tendency to sce
uniform and linked items as a unit.
b him larity retcrs to the tendency to group simh
far items
c. Continuity rcters to the tendency to group
stimuli into sm )oth continuous patterns.
3, c. is the ansxx e Although xx e alway s differenth
ate a stI nulus into figure and ground, those elm
ments of thc stiniulus xx e perceix e as figure and
thosc as gro nd m iv change. In this way, the
same stim mlus can tnggc r more than one percep
‘p, ‘4
a. The idea ml figu e ground relationship has no
bearing on the issue of xx hether perception is
innate
b. Pc rcei tion cannot be simply a point-fonpoint
represc ntati if of sc nsation since in figure
g our d rd tic nsl ps a single shmulus can trigger
morc thin o ic p
gti i
I
u
0
i
r
,
d
c
at c nships dernonstr ite the
d.
al
r
t r t mar indn idual prm
c stc
c e
ri en / hon Signiti antly,
f es
cn
r
e
t c
c pc
a i see diffcrcnt hgure
grc id
i r
men vic ing scene.
p
he neater thc retinal dispa ill
4. d. s thc
six c
or d tferer cc mciv cc n the images the less the dis
toncc p ‘4o
a. (mx c rgen c is the xtent to which the eves
move inward xvhcn looking it an object
b. line r pc ocitixe is he monocular distancc
m
e
F’ ci xc aapcar to converge in
‘P di r
i
i
r
i s
r ular distaimee cue
c
in rrhi h obects at hf
their relatn e 05 tic n
those c losc st movinu i 10
x
ii
‘c
r
5. a. i, the a isrrer Pcr
ist i s
hke pc icepti n c
nomenon of pcr cptua c
t i
in Refatn motion is n a c
s
which object at Ii tcrc it 1 s
more at ditlercnt iates
)
c. I men perspccn c s rr
inwhichhiesvekrov tob are
the di,tancc thus mdi i in,
d. Cont nuity is the pcrccpti Ii
items into cc ntinuou r a
6. d. is thc ansuer (p N’
t r
a., b., & c. Visual cap ui i
forming impressions h neonle
us it
attend in morc than o ic n
7. d. is the ansxrer p 263)
a. Ps chokinesis iefcis to f
perform acts of mind ox e r
b. Precognition reters o t
perceix e tuture cx cnts
c. Clairvox ance refers in t i
percen e remote cx cnts
5
r
ci
t
lai
m
t
ci
F
cain
iiy
m
ity
8. b, is thc answer. (p 251)
m
a. I ocke argued that k moxvlcd e
0
comes through Iearnin
c. & d. Cibson and Walk stud cd deg t
ade o
hon using the x isual cliff they
about the source o kno x ledgc
a
9. c. is the answer. (p 261
10. d. is the answer. There is ot
ou
cc
dropmff Ihc tcxtnrc gradient of t
board pattern beneath thc ‘las I blc
s
r ic
impression of depth Ihc oth
to r
would not bc icier ant tc tic s
cxrer ient (p 215 ‘17)
i
d
11. c. tic aisixcr
3
a.&b,Tfekitt ‘s id
r
the’, had ncr i n r’
r ormal scnsit it
d. BotF per çtua nd t u
went resnlttd fr i xi c d p
12. b. is the ar swcr Be ansc thc F i
risual expericnccs t csc a
difficultx learning to percc P c Ije
a. Snch patients typicall cc u
ogniie object ix ft v F h t c
touch md in nc asc t n
c
c Bc iig Fl tc
I
a
I
r
I
c
(.h.
ro
b t
hip’.. pat
bjet ts
their e
i t
d. Ibis t1fl.i
s
c
eiehand
coo,dination i’
d requies
1
1
much l’tctttict.
13. b. 1% the an%wer. jp. _L,
a. [op dos:i p,ie;ng !t.( .5 to hO%% OUI kiios 1—
edge and epeaatioris I ±deflte ptrctpt’fl.
cho!og’% is the kai of perteption out
c.
side n,)nnal ‘-eItS)fl input.
d. Human factor’. p,’ J1oigs I’. concerned ‘slUt
h&k be’.t to desL,,n niati.iii c. rid n ork ‘.eftings to
take into ac nunt human p rception
14. c. 1% the
a Retinal cii%pantv I a !‘bzL; iil,i
cue all the otr’t— tUt incflttt;iled are mano.u1ar.
jp 2-IN
is ith
Proures Tnt a
b.
a C c t c
fi
he’d
c. Sirn’a .
cIitflCt rite -luon oppedrs larger at the
than in erhead :r the slc because i’hject’
at the horLc’n pros ide &snzL e cue’. that mak
the.. tonn seem tarthe a
nd therefore larger.
In the open sky, o oiis the c ar’ no such cUes.
(p. 2M)
hon,on
16. c. is the anss
I
s c i lotd as a figure
‘
B
niird_.
again’t Ih t
a.,b.,&d I
ucgrnd eatnt reters
0 the org. r £ 1) oftlc isis
ldt objects
fpires tia aia ou fro ‘iei stir oi dngs
W
r.
1
d.isthea sver (ç 2
r dwith
dyotscn o
t&b.lhc
c.
thee proces c
1 g
c. %lthough s
u 10 s a
oed ps
chologists tindet a d c d r ar wa ptual mccli
itusms, it is not the. or a ‘, aus of the tickt S
pert eption.
18. d. is
tnt’
ansss
er. (p1’ ‘34 N
19. c. :- the JPsi’ e:. p. 2r’
a. T!i’ cIi%;CT tsi’aki be . .‘rrc. t hao 1ak Ja’nwd
tob- bk to rI--qi .q.flftSfl; c
’.’’’ mind
1
b. lius aflstst’
“ild h,. c--rrectPaJ )ak claitnp.1
to b. ak et e.qc remote cstnt., such d% .1 tnt-cd
• di’.tre’ø..
d. Ibis oncXtr .t.n;t eu .stna,1 i.ck• iatrqnj
1
to h.- able’ t
itm. cibfrs.t— .r tercl Oufl ith—
‘ut applying ..m ph ‘ca! rure.
-
.
20. d. k the mnej. .p. 2n7,
t
ip.
n,
3. 1 (p. 2—3)
4 1 i 236)
3.
6
r
S. I (p 2;fl’
pp. 27 p5.
lSIj
in
t ri .er’. to
‘s
the tendtnt to group item’
d. l’rv n:t’ rt.res t.’ the tendtncs to group itttns
that are i•r une another.
2. a. is the answer. p. 2-i$J
b. & c. L. oris ergente and retinal disparits are
hoth t’no War cues that depend on information
tin—n beti ni’s.
3.
% the a’’s er. (p. 243i
a. & b. Tee (.sstalt p.s chologists did not deal
lt
1
of peritptii’n; thes s cre more
‘tth t
concerned ss tb its turin.
d. It, oi.t the’i argued just the oppoiltr Per
ceptior i
)F than mere sensors e\pcriente.
C.
%.rigin.
4. c.
such a
dcv
C
Is
.
-
a d tI
c ck n
r swe Humans and certain animals
c t en ue able to adjust to upside
lis r d icr sisual distortions fisur
iii
betis een di’ pcrcei’ ad
a
Cu rcal h
iser aninals such as
it
ally unabk to adapt
d
a Hymn aid etani r’as eabletoadapt
lutC vcI’ to dstcrtad is al ensiounents and
Lien c ‘adajtl
s r )rie’t becaust. hunans are
b. I s at y
t1E1 Os
i catures.
oaçra
adapt at any age to d stort
d fusai rcabl
on ‘c ts.
edusu i
5. a.isth a sw 4.257)
6 d sp iv i’ a binoc. u
b. Rttin
ar depth cue based
1
on the faa that e3d1 eye ret dies a hghtiv differ
sic” i’tt.’rti.)rld.
t.Cnnverc.-’nce 1’- nims.ular di ptl” cut based on
fhe. faa that the c”. —ssing iiirard ti. tocu. oh
t
cii
near
“bjets
vr to the tendcns ot siqon
4
Wr’: re
1
d. ‘stir ca
to do”Lina e the other senses.
6. b. t%4h,,.ar.,4%tr ‘p 2i,z,
a. Pazap-s rhologi%ts tuds dain.s ifl FSP.
. P,. h. :. t;ti .ae people sthc’ l.irn IsP hj
the pin; e’ ‘r m’nd user fldttCi.
d. (test 1
t r’ hologists emplia.iie the organiza
tion wits tioi into ineaninglui pert eptiuns.
.fpfl,4,
7.ai I
cn
1
b
.tknutsledgt I n
% alt maxe ro clair
-i
cc
-
lrue—False firms
1. 1 (p. 2I’)
t
III)
he tendet cs to perceptua lv
the suc I
)puzablc obleds
that Jtt ‘ahdt.
Par ips
13. a. is the
er
8
(p. 24Th
0. is iie ans
a. & b. Linear perspectix a which is a monocular
ue. rcfer’ to the tendency ot parallel lines to conS
‘erge m th wstance.
jrth requires onh one cx and is
c. Retain e
therefore n )nwular cue
9
p. 230 2 1
Hi r ao ar to be x critcal
th
r
10
dt r
e Laid scion nhinthatscrso
rest! LI
sex err cstr permanenth dis
o e 5
t
ette a hen it occur in infancy but not
a p
xx hen it ‘xccn— Liter n life (0. 2%
a. & d. S n’erx restr icton does not hat e the same
etteew at all ages. and is more damaging to chd
5 a erita
5 because there i
dma than to adults. I his i
the
cr
ii period to perreptual dcx elopment whether
ft rthonai b indress nil re u t depends in part
or enat rc F tt’se scrvirst ittion
0 Resear 1 str d e have not ndicated th it senso
nort d a gin to human’ than
suit )
C animals,
the answer. ip. P4r
a., h., & 0. These ps’cchas claim to exhibit the
phenomena studied Ox arapsx chologists.
12. 0. r- the answer. Hhen we move, stable objects
xc see also i apear to mox e, and the distance and
ed of
ai parent notit ix rue us to the
je ts’ r tue distances (p 48j
i
b, & c I sc depth rues are unrelated to
noxeInert P thus no k exen when wc are stin
tionarv.
13. c. is the an—”. ar p. 2tdii
IL a
is
a. \ianx’ Phd researcher’ are sincere, reputable
Insearilters.
h. & d. T’here hat e been no roliahie demonstrin
dons of PSP
14 e is the amsx
it
s’e H
m Because I emeeptual constancy,
ha e and sic as alxxaxs he
m
a
Irspont or ti tin
a tnt
reep
i r
nduota
t xc ‘tried
b. Ltc’una’ dsp it’ mcuns tnat ‘ur right and left
exeL card ‘ecer xc siighdx diheren,t imap.’s
0. cccx “t’gert ‘ is a form oi new omuscular teed
hack rn ‘Sh th’ exes ‘.x’Hnu in. or out. a—
x ex’ ett:acts at rt’t’crrati distances,
tht ar
d xx F
15. c.
t r
esta
53
p
•
a ‘Lorir
o
‘
rgin
42)
s
tie
p .2 8
sual
stf
a.
u
t dccx hi i onto
or sense
inmate tI
ust to
1
c. ia’r,i pm’. actepration is Fe tOt mix to ad
ox t’rtcd x anal
it .rrttfiaahx disptared or exert
16. b
‘
tied
0. Dix ergerce
dix e
or
.
Ia nk’n
it
.
cussed in this chapter
17. a, is the answer. \dt rhint— a ‘-ci In naxx
oxer the “ciitf’ “on x d.’n coax’ 5 suxica t:’’t
55,
that much it depth orccphon
.
-
0mg ot
243)
with the
snne thu
18 d ‘s Fr
m
r
lr
urn
ix
itt
p
we i.
19 d,rcthe
C
the ter.
a at
a. Paints ty
or era e
to one another. ilrr’ drag, in
distinct units exen monad itS p”nu an.
s tear
—
spa ceO
0. Continuiix a the to’ C ‘idxi 4’
into —nxooth, unrnter rupmei ,aa’tern’
mx
such eontm itt in the d
c
(lemro
saps im
ed no ts
i
‘lr
tead
‘he p’
ira hi H
p cix
I
‘It
at
20. a. is ha am sit r. (p. 2.
5
b. Bottom up pror m ss’n,
at x -5 ‘1
rhamacterisucs ot stimui mISer titan 4 sin pbr_en
tual interpretation.
C. Parapvehomogx a the suadx tit ner, pu. ‘a ott
side normal sensorx lop
d. Ho mat tactors nsx rh logi is to e eel xx rIf
ug— Ic
aod x
mow be to d sign a
it!
take irt ace urth m
efe
I
t
Psychology Applied
.XIzrltijnc—Clzozce Questions
1. 0. is the answer. The ax o a ode ; ‘r rctP t
brietIx pemceix ed object in terra— o in’ n not p.
a spns’t’o’t’ in m’s mse
5
tual sets or mental pr
t5
pemien
v
hx’
their
conditioned
di
xsttm
d
Vt
a Both Sm th and
i
x
t
expc tea
of
ties t ci ci I ac— ‘
I ‘e F
us tnxx
b. Shal
ohiects it r un a instant t P ic c’ (1
retinal inx.ge— or th
n’ rl’r,r,a
5
dispa:t;
- a ia’na ear d5pt’
c. Ret,nai
!nd” lOcal dtrm5-c t
xx
itO
nod’xinc to d’
t’
“
i’!—
,
r. ‘x
F
-
‘xi,
-
S
I,’
ecptron.
2 0. is the am sx er. \ dt.
md
eamse 0
em than it he
ins xx
I Ic
mextuu’
c tF.
dc
t
5
tic
pt’s’tr
x,
‘xi
(p 24c
a.&b.le
fudge the
rp’e,
last’ dish
ietts; because ,‘nlx
tire—c rues art’ imcclt’x at,!
‘‘‘0
—
0’ .5
‘,
,1
172
(hapte 6 Ptrceptior
c. Retinal d’sparits refers to the ditferent images
(U cyt 5 recc is c whether the photograph s tex
ture was coarse cr fnc the rct’nal drspar’tv
U ould be the same
sw er Xlthoug r th. ii ount of light
3. d. is the
retlcctcd from white oh ect is le’s in dim light
than in c igh liht a id may be less than thc
an onnt I light reflected from a brightly lit gray
object the brij tncss ot the vs bite objett is per
vs remuinnig constant
a vi ite
obje ‘t reflet ts a higher percentage of the light
talhng on it than does a gin object and the
brightness of objects is perceh ed as constant
despite v ariations in illumination vs bite is per
ceived as brig ‘ter than gray even nnder dim ilk
iv ination. (p 253)
a. Relativ e luminance refers to the relath e inten
sity ot light falling on surfaces that are in proxini
itv Lightness constancy is pcrceiv ed despite v an
ations in illumination
b. Perceptual adaptahon refers to the ability to
adjust to an arhficially modified perceptual envi
ronnient su h as an ins erted v isual field,
c. Color contrast is not discnssed in this text.
9.
10.
11.
4. b L the anse er The phenomenon described i,
the basis for the monocular cue of relativ e size
(p 246)
a. The object casting the larger rehnal image
vs ould be perceived as closer,
c, & d. Because of size constancy the perceh ed
size of familiar objects remains constant, despite
changes in their retinal image size.
S. d. is the answer &s an object comes closer in onr
field of v ision, the eyes svv ing inn ard (converge)
and provide muscular cues as to the object’s dis
tance (p. 246
a, Retir al disparity refers to the slightly different
images of an object received b the two eves due
to their difier nt angles of viewmg.
b. lnter usi’ i is a niu ‘C cui cue to d’stai cc ii
hicf an oh c t that pait
i Iv fli ks nothe s
1
se vas lcsc
c hot’
t
s a ( stat groupug yrr ipic
atic thin d s n c cu
6. d.i tfcai’ c
p 24
7 d.istheanswcr, p,25l
8, a. is t v ansv er Becruse vie perce ye the size of a
finul’ar ebjcct as constar t even as its rehnal
‘mane grows sirafiei we perceive the object as
be’ng a tlerav y pp 2)0 251
b &
vssa yisac
it e
t
12.
13.
than sensory phenomenon. I heretore, the ab
sence of perceptual constancy vs ould not alter
sensitiv ity to monocular or binocular cues.
d. \lthough the absence of perceptual constancy
would impair depth perception based on the size
distance rd t onsi ‘p other cues to depth such as
te xture gradient could still be used,
c. is the answer, Wt perctne objects highei in our
field of v ision as farther away Thus, the brain
perceivec a scriual line the same length a a hori
zontal Ime to be more distant and mentally ad
justs its apparent length to make it seem longei
(pp. 241, 247
a. & b. These monocular cues are irrclev ant in
this particular illusion,
d. Rehnal disparity is a biaacalar cue to depth.
b. is the answer This is an example of the princi
plc of interposihon in depth percephon. (p. 246)
a. The partially abscared object is perceived as far
then an ax.
c. The perc civ ed size of an object is not altered
when that object overlaps another,
c. is the ansvven, (pp. 248, 249)
a. Interposition is a monocular depth cue in
vs hich an object that partially coy trs another k
perceiv ed as closer.
b. flad five artist painted the trees so that the
images of some were sharp and others hazy, the
anhst vs ould have been using relath e clarity.
d. Had the artist painted the trees so that there
was a gradual change from a coarse, dishnct to a
fine, indistinct texture, texture gradient would
has e been used to cons cv depth.
c. is the ansyeen, (p. 247)
b. & d. Linear penspeeth e is the apparent eons en
gence of parallel lines as a cue to distance.
d. is the ansvs en, Nearby objects reflect more light
to the cv e’ Thus gn en hi o identical objects the
brighten one seems nearer, p. 248)
a. & b. &cause ui tnt prmciple it s ze constancy
an object s pe i ed size i, unaffected by its dis
tance angle f v ‘w r
)r illu nnahor,
14. c. is the ar swer Ihis s in mllustratiot of the size
dista c
dat e sf ip in deptf pence ption y r
25j 251
a, Although t ye frisbee s shape is pereeiv ed as
constant (eyer as the shape of its retinal image
changes), this is nc t a cue to its distance,
b. Relative motion is the pence phon that when we
nvov e stationary objects at different distances
A a vgc tf e r rd itive posit’ons ‘n r n v ‘sual
i ig
v’tF t seccses
m s’s nost In t
t
73
‘4.
a’ian’plt. onh tl.c trishec lb rnoi big.
15. a. t ‘h ansier. :p. 251)
te answer. Although I eon’s other .enses
t
Lb. c.
i.o I 1ia e toI ‘tini his car is as not mn big, thc
otter carc tin n° for bard
ii
cs I
‘c renssnd rcitedthcpcrcp
F
i.e is s o hag bickisard. o 212)
tin
a. RL Li t’ mohc n ic a distante cut that otcurs
i’i’en ,tationars objects appear to me.we as is e
nc; e I’; the ej.posite is happeii’ng to Leon
b. & d. Cont’ri’uts and promntv are Gestalt
Pr,
s of ‘oupinv r ther thu tues o
d
as
, 6S
d
he dined ahi1it to “rt d
s
a
Faths
th.
of
iflC’itX.—
1
COstUflie
3. Cc:’t
U ut
Li
...g
Jn..
.‘
reics’ e
ic
.hsnictnt
.‘
t
srnot’tl.
to’itinu
‘nCfltJQUs Oflfl,
ther
as
in’ ‘a
i’
-
I
i
4.
di
Li in
itrer
iser
ric’ .iei
.
ii.
u’
,iar
a’.
ca
).
I
‘—
iniz iii
I
t..e
“.‘ie
t.a;s
r
..
c unplet
.
ti’ crti.e • ..t
peicept..’a’!. i’ll
sic
flitI.fl
pating
1 order
n
t.. .v r
r torir
1 v are
L. cli
it.
ar
.
nil—
it,
e. Thu.
‘:
u. tnt.
‘ietiseni .1a.j’s
he or
t peict
:i
.
e
4
tin
Key Terms
fl’ .flij%.
an n ante refers to the claimed ability to
b. t 1
rtiwist’ rernc’te esents.
t. Precognition iefer to the claimed ahiliti to
tutur
c its.
1”
taisiscrp26 26)
d
I answer She pcrccnes t c line for bc
c
road continuous, ci en though it is nterrupted
Liv lines indicating other roads. ip. 244)
a. (locare retei to the perceptual filling in of
gaps iq stimulus to treate a complete. is hole
itjec
rity i the tendency to perceive similar
b.
bdorgirgtogcther Onaroadmap,afl
o j
the
c repic sentmg roads appear similar. Thus
this te could not be the basic for Colleen’s abili
fl to Pace the route of a particular road.
d. Proiniitv is the tendency to group objett. near
to cue anothei as a single Unit.
20. c.ist ansiscr (p 25H
en entucly based on fr pIns
a
c pro
ar K istics of a st mulus ‘bottom-vp
c
carpente ed ens iron
xpei itt C with
lack
n. nt t oLild not ‘educe censiti; itv to the illusion
b. J”ncipIts of grouping, depth perteption. and
its to iIluson- al’ demonstrate that per
OVCfl i pn.dictable
.)i:%ti
.
IVritwg Defrnitwns
ti
.s. .sfl1 et tt’tisCiOus
1. Selectise attention
(us cut
all of
tila ‘,ti
n ... ps arenc
237
ire
id
ci
ncr in
i’.
pt
bI
n ter
‘isil.
3jECt Ft i ow
I to
‘.
attention .iirec tiM CC% here p 23
3. Visual capture i. the ttfl.itnt’. for; I-.Iufl t’ domi
nate the other sQfl.’ :. 2421
estult
lh
1
1
Uict
n
4 C estalt
Ia
nte
d
-Ft
aripful
c
a
e
ioles
2;
5. Figure-ground rete:.. ;. i tlic . .‘nwatio’ cit the
tnt.’ zv
1
L
4
isuai !k
p r% etc figure, which
siixnui.dii-gi.
?rd the stir
.i’i
Ire
its
‘.tand. ut?
‘-
.
‘
‘oui’i’ng
6 (oup’ g
U
i,
ide.
K H
dincers or mcmberc of a marchirg
L’.’nd ,na’ epatate tlwrnsls Cs from the larger
s.roup in order to form part of a particular image.
2.
st
.i
.r
Lx
y l3eca c
d
s, il
per e ic similar figures a
cloco,ipt ‘ i I t
iso
er
‘t
e I-u
t
ndor
5
c
e
r
t
,u
.i
b ha
1.
ui.1. ip
r,
ul
nut
eN
iclo
1.
rnc
•-
•iit- Jfltib’o1Pic.
8
d opec iic.teiitti art i.e
as
F ‘oning tohether. Ihus, a sma 1
ich ther
it
he
I
d ‘a
7. Depth perception
‘ttU
1
1st
U
ic’-i
irk..
I
;tc
p
43’
.
ii,
‘.‘
•
v
it
cEe .‘1
ug!’
:.it
1
•t) s
:
.
1fl
t -.rrilo.’
0
s’t: .. tF.
US
t•’
p
c
f
,Jiç
ci
s b tier eq.
1
ir,.’
U,
rrtrf.
nts
an;
ilchtf.
that
IL!enct
ri. e’
iti. itS
c—cl \nk ioan’. fr
wate. ‘a. 24i
.leptl’ perc..pti.r ‘ it lt.i..t : p. ‘t 1
9. Binocular cue’ .i’. c.t pu u. th.it Jep’ nd on
I
ni U
)
‘ormat
Cibs.::.
In
t1
ai
attIcs
u •ts
Li
‘
Inc
ue
17-
Chapter 6
in
k
10. Retinal disparity refers to the differences
bettt cen the images received hr the left cx e and
the right cx e as a resuit or iew lug the world
tr’in sighin wirerent angles. It is a binocular
depth cue since the greater the curterence
bets ceo the too images the nearer th ohjet. (p.
246
i n ioniuscular hint cular depth
11. Convergen e
base
t c cx c it to ohicf thc cyes con
I a lien looki ig t iear or
hc n ( tfc eves convcrge, the
s nt
h
s
c rerif
2 ))
18. Extrasensory perception (ESP) refers to the con
troversial claim that perception can occur without
sensory input. Supposed ESP poix ers include
telepathy. clairvoyance, and precognition. (p. 264)
2loniarii ;nd: Extnz- moans ‘hevond” or “in addi
tion to”; extrasensory perception is perception
ontside or beyond the normal senses.
19. Parapsychology is the stndy of dSP, psychokine
sis and other paranormal forms ot interaction
between the mdiv idual and the enx ironment.
(p. 264)
Mrrnory aid: Para
like extra indicates “beyond’;
thus, paranormal is beyond the normal and para
psychology is the studi of phenomena beyond
tire realm of psvchologx arid known natural laws.
Monocular cues
depth cues that depcnd on
nformation fr r
t icr ox e alone. (p 216)
Flea; a ,nd: .1 ieee- means one; a monocle is an
ox eglass for tine ox e. \ monocular cue is one that
(s ax a (ladle to eitht r the lott or the right eve.
.
1
,
‘
13. Ihe phi phenomenon is an illusion ot rnox ement
created when ht 0 or more adjacent lights blink
on and oft i ‘-attess±on. p. 250;
14. Perceptual constancy is the perccption that
oblects hat e m r istent lightness color shape,
id rze cv ‘-i s rllumination and retinal images
2)0
F ngo.
In. ‘rceptn I adaptation refers to our ability to
ust k
ar ilk all d splaced or ox en inverted
ual tic
( ci distortmg lenses we perceive
i(ngs accor ingly ut soon adjust by learning
the reitionsh p ehx ceo our distorted percep
tions and the reilito. (p. 2o
16. Perceptual set is a mental predisposrtion to perceo e one thing and not another, (p. 257
17. Human tactors psychology explores hoxv people
and macltne interact and how machines and
h —rca! ent jr menents can he adapted to human
1
helravkn and run to n crease safety and produc
‘jjx h
Cross-Check
ACROSS
1. ground
8. linear
13. binocular
15. proxinritx
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
tignre
Locke
closure
grouping
gestalt
DOWN
2. reversible
3. depth
4. cocktail party
5. selective
6. phi phenomenon
7, Mullor-Lyer
9.
10.
11.
12.
14.
interposition
relative luminance
relative clarity
connectedness
critical period
focus on Vocabulary and Language
FOCUS (fl 1 OCABLILIRIAND Lt\’GUAGF
Selective :1 tten tb
I
ii
and Perceptual Illusions
Pag 238 \ow, suddenh po i attention I -potliglit
shlt \oui I t H
u ni ‘lOst stubbornly
t traced
azt
on t: Pact herore I oIL Selective attention
refers to our tendenci to tocus on onli a small part
of what is possible ror u> to experience. Ii x ou do
attend to more aspcc ts 01 your experience (vol/i
ittcntzo;i I j 1’ it rH/is) yon will be surprised at
the amount of stImulation you process xx ithout
axx areness, such as thc feel of the shoes on your feet
(uour Put ice cm asct) and the fact that r our nose
actuallx blocks your ibm of \ sion ti/oar iiose -ttfb
lion flu nib tn/c Oh the pig ‘).
£
Ihis means
won in y drae n Honk
Ptipc 238.
thar x ou do not at hiex c th result you want, you
don’t succeed. X\ hen x ou attend to onh one x oice
among mann tthe cocktazl party e1/ectl, xou may be
unable to sal what someone else, who was clearly
within your hcariug range, was saying (you drnv a
blank). Interestingly you would very likely hear
your 0½ n namc if it xx crc spoken by this person.
*
a x ouug woman carrying an umbrella
Page 233:
sauntercd across the screen. tn this experiment, sub
jects had to watch a x ideo of basketball players and
signal n hen the ball xx as passed. Because of their in
tense selectix e attenhon, the generally failed to
notice a female walking sloxx lv sauntering) through
the players.
we experience pop-out. xvhen a striking
Rpe 239:
lv distinct stimulus. such as the only smiling face in
Figure b4. draws our ey e. A very unique object or
cx cut (a stnikinglti distinc t stimulus) will automatical
ly attract our attention ( t Hums our owe). this experi
ence is called the pop-out phenomenon.
Ripe 242.. tmuch as we nerceix e a x oice trom tIn’
cotton na’:st I!t’n’nu. A x entriioquist is an enter
adieu c beiiexc his xoice is
tainer rho akes dx
in’r frr
t ii
y Du t)thcphc
uoiuenon of v’sual capture xx c assume tf at because
the d ‘d’s mouth i rao tug and the ventriloquist s is
not, the vcIceNcomny from the dumnxx
‘u tow Ii n’iaii met Is the ski ii, A
t xerc ‘s none to this than meets the
i cx r ss 0 x mean ng something is
rr
5 H HP H
P
noted carlic
is :je
cxt” i a (0
going on hm ond the bx bus or the apparent. ln this
x araton of the e\presston. Myers is noting that
there s a hearing phtuonnenun similar to visual cap
tire xel-0cl is he rt’ndencx for yiston to dominate
mci t parti pants’ sense
the n x i xx
I I
i
tetxersenseo touh
ddt
clx ri ,
175
creating the illusion of receix iug more than a single
touch ithus, there is more to t’uc: than amen the skfo),
Perceptual Organi:a tiou
I his nxeans to hare a desire or
Page 243
it’
deep need ucilt to do sonxething. \h ens notes that
our brain’s desire ie/r) to pLit together hits and
pieces of seusory input into coherent units involves
both ‘bottom-up” and top-down’ processing We
actix ely impose structure and inter meaning (top
doxx n) and are not simpiy registering sensory stimu
lation (bottonx-up; in a passix e maunei. I hus, there
is no sharplx detined line ttlxe boundary xx filmy)
hetx ecu sensory and perceptual processes.
*
,
*
*
*
Page p44: Usually these grouping principles help us
construct reality. Sometimes howex er they lead us
ensatray. &lthough we put together elements of 5
3
a
tion through adix e organization (the Gestalt group
ing principlest and end up with a unitarx experi
ence, xx e sometimes make mistakes in the process
(a’e are led astnap)
Page 245. Their mothers then coo red them to era ct’l
out onto the glass. In the experiment xx ith the visual
cliff, b- to 14-month-old children xx crc gently en
couraged icoaxed) by their mothers to move, on their
hands and knees tcnau’il onto the inx’iihle glass top
on the “deep” side ot the apparatus. Most could not
be persuaded to do so leading to the conclusion that
depth perception may be innate (inborn). I’he idea
for this famous experiment came to Gibson xvhen
she was at the Grand Canyon and xvondered if a
young child ttoddieri looking iptcnlngi ox en the edge
of the canyon xvould recognize the steep, unsafe,
incline (danger )us drop offi and retreat (dra r back).
Page 24u: The floahng finger sausage ttugure 69), In
the denxonstnation and x’ou xx ill experience the effect
ot retinal disparity and see a tubular shape (finger
saitsape’ made dx x our brain from the nx’o different
ugers
1
images of x our ‘
1ipr48 \s emcx’ c[etst aarca ualh s Ic
rxai a pc an to r )ve. If igs that are stat ouanx and
do not mox e I nic :i’ms Pt seen, to flu ‘ee reiatn e to
us when xx e mox e.
igc 2 iJ’ A inodon picture cncates this ‘ilusion dx
3
i
flashing 24 still pictures eac ii sc cond, When xx e x iew
a film, we do not cxpe ience a rapid senes of non
mox ing images ( tih pIt tic’); rather, our brain con
structs the pert cix ed motbm, This is called stroho
scOioie mom enient,
25J fake axvay th we distaI cc toes
by ioc k
t the horizoi H c i or c x uiom ste on e id
xx diatc
1 m tub and ft )bjcct i
c
hap tf rough
Pig’
in g
176
Chapter 6
Perception
hr shrmks Obsers ers has e argued for centuries
about xvhi the Moon neat the horizon seems so
much larger than the Moon overhead in the sky.
One e\planatlon ins olves the interaction of perccix ed size and perceived distance. Distance cues at
the horizon make the \loon appear farther awas
th ir ix hen it is ox erhead (xx here there are no dis
tance cues) Ihe Moon casts the sa’ae retinal image in
both ituatons, so the image that appears to he more
distant (i.e., near the horizon) will therefore seem
larger. \\ e can eliminate the distance cues by look
inc at the Moon through a rolled-up piece of paper
mper lobe) the Moon xx ill appear much smaller (it
cli;i
s).
l ‘ag: 25 l iTtoure J5
L arpeatered
.\ carpenter
is omeone who constructs objects. houses, furni
ture, boats, etc., out of wood. In Western cultures
many of these objects are angutar, xx ith °0 angles
and corners rather than circular or round. Our
experiences xx ith ret tangular shapes (caipeatered cvii
text) contributes to the MO 11cr-Li ci’ illusion.
.
.
Perceptual Interpretation
Page 255: Most had been horn xxith cataracts
do ided lenses that allowed thens to see onh dif
fused light, rather as you or I might see a diffuse fog
through a Ping-Pang hail sliced in half. People born
with e.ataracts cannot see clearh because the nor
maim transparent lenes in their eves are opaque. To
understand xx hat their vision is like, imagine what
von xx ould see if ou had y our eyes covered xx ith
half of a small xx hite, plastic ball that is used in table
—
tennis (Ping Pang). fhen cataract patients has e their
x isbn restored, after being blind since hirth. they
can sense colors and distinguish figure from ground
(innate capacities), but thex cannot x isually recog
nize thmgs that xxerc familiar bx touch.
Pa 256 C n a in ‘a a af glasses, inc 1
mav 1 slight
r
‘U P oriented, ci a; Punt. \\ hen xx e start wearing
ordinars cx eglases or xx hen xve are titted xx ith a
ness p.nr. our initial reaction is a little confusion and
x rt o (1::”’
llowex er, xxe quickly adapt xx ith
in I v d
We can ilso ad ipt to cnse’ that dis
xx t
are lok spat hi 40 to me side aid
cx or P dstoit on lenses that i xx ert re ihtx (turn the
S isual image upstde don n-fla topse -turvy xx orIW.
sgs, alamanders. and x oung chickens cannot
1
F sh tr
adapt in this n ax.
a
0
oc
‘e.
l
: As ox en one knows, to see 1 to (‘cIa
As
o knoxx but Icss fulls appreciate to C lieu is to
e expre sion s ai is ciceaig means that
‘
.
a e pat much reliance an x dual mtornxation xx hen
decidiiic We lieS ing) xx hat is true. \lver shows us
that. on the contrarx xx hat sic he(ieye mat actuallx
affect what xxe see. Our assuinpuons expectations,
and mental predisponti.ans tperceptual sets deter
mine, to a large extent. our perceptions.
in N. 2. a bnusn ness spaper pubiished
genuine. unretouched photographs ot i iai” r in
Scotland’s I och Ness
People xx ho had heard
about or belies ed in the In di Nc ss M in ter bc fore
seeing a x erx ambiguous putt rc of a log xx en nore
hiclined to see what thex expected to see d.c.. a
monster) because ot their perceptual set.
.
Page 58: (loarlx. much ot xvhat xx e pc rceiye conies
not just irons the xx orld out I icre but ilso tr fli
mOat’s behia it, cia , I lo ‘
vie’
Mx ers is
reiterating the point that our mental predispositions,
expectations, heliets, etc. ia’/i: i’,Jii;id ua’ eves ‘i/ni
t’eta’eea aur can) influence much more itt what xx e
percen e than the sensor5 stimulation xx cemyed trom
the outside xx orld
‘
lifft’; toes t
a
not i i s
the
eves at their hcboldcr. I he familiar a\ ing ‘heaatm’ 5 10
the eve at tat’ hchaidcr’ Inca ns tha.t xx hat is perceix ed
Page 261. Saa
as heautitul has more to do with xx hat the perceivor
suhjectiv clv belies es than xx ith the absolute qualities
of the person on object heing judged I ‘ken ie our
steneoti pes (rigid, cons cntional ide as or beliefs)
about gender on culture can greatir influence (color)
what is perceix ed.
Is There E.vtrasensorit Perception?
Page 26a’
. uncaaay
People xx ho ha o dreams
that coincide, by pure han cc
IF later ox ents often
have an eerie on strange (a’i a a g) teelin; aho it the
accuracs of theh appa’e’it precognitions.
Page 267: ...i aitid—t’i,’a’cio a “fc”’n’t’i xx. some
alleged (ca-iaiicdl psychics, using magic tucks and
not extnasensorx ability unethica C manipulate and
deceixe (exi ii gulCh c a
in g audiences
with rmpressmx e and ynndr us dew snstratrc us
5 nani’ ‘;;n;,p , .M Msts g’nints out.
(maa,1 t’t,scia
after many, many s uan 0 ins csiIgatic
and thou
cxperi’nen xx teo is
s ,eu’n
cx id.ne
that extiaser
rx abi’
c I (be
c s i t c
panan nma nacd or
I
xx
p s
demcnstnate
s uglc iCiOc
Ic I ‘ pher. it e
non to ralute the ‘]amm mat tncrc ‘s no I H’ this has
not happened).
ands
of
“
‘
But sonic people ida hax c a’s ni t’died
for xx OI dermen ia I
to
c en c the
magical. Souse COf Ic in p l’si is
I hehcxc n
l’SP because If c x has
Jeep
It ‘ic I ainat J P
ce, tor u’ misc .xnd a’x’z’ m’n
5
laa
t •.m1d a trony
ambition on dc’sine (an in (0 cx2!e’m’’ (he mx st uon
and amP m’xymi
Page 2’H:
hnagi i
‘
1
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards