Chapter 08

Chapter 08Communication in Organization
Organizational communication, as a field, is the consideration, analysis, and criticism of
the role of communication in organizational contexts. Business Communication is goal
oriented. The rules, regulations and policies of a company have to be communicated to
people within and outside the organization.There are four patterns of communication
network: 1) Chain, 2) Wheel, 3) Star, and 4) All-Channel.
The Chain can readily be seen to represent the hierarchical pattern that characterizes
strictly formal information flow, "from the top down," in military and some types of
business organizations.The Wheel can be compared with a typical autocratic
organization, meaning one-man rule and limited employee participation. If you are in a
wheel network, information flows from one central member of the group to the rest of
the members.The Star is similar to the basic formal structure of many organizations.
The All-Channel network is analogous to the free-flow of communication in a group that
encourages all of its members to become involved in group decision processes. The AllChannel network may also be compared to some of the informal communication
networks. All progressive organizations promote this all channel network as it pools
talents of everybody who matters into decision making and implementation process. An
all-channel network is found in teams.
One versus two way communication: One way communication is considered formal
communication as it occurs in traditional military organizations; messages have a "oneway" directional characteristic.One-way communication is faster than two-way
communication. A reason it is common in combat ready military organization where
speed is crucial for survival.Two-way communication is more accurate than one-way
communication. A reason it is used by all competitive organizations.
Downward communication:Communication that flows from a higher level in an
organization to a lower level is a downward communication. This communication flow is
used by the managers to transmit work-related information to the employees at lower
levels.Organizational publications, circulars, letter to employees, group meetings etc.
are all examples of downward communication. It is commonly used by management for
education and training of its workforce.When all reconciliatory alternatives for correcting
and improving employee behaviour fail, organizations have to resort to disciplinary
action through downward communication.
Upward communication: Even though most of the communication in an organization is
from seniors in the organization to the juniors as observed above, some communication
also moves from lower levels in management to upper levels.In fact, progressive
organizations encourage flow of communication upward to the management.Reports
Chapter 08Communication in Organization
that make you look competent and professional use upward communication. So do
employee suggestion schemes. You may need additional resources (money, staff,
authority, access to information) to complete your project. This is perhaps the most
difficult area of upward communication. It is also used for reporting problems, concerns
and complaints.
Theadvantages of upward communication include friendly relations among the
workgroups, valuable feedback, participation by motivated workforce, their suggestions,
ideas for new projects and general boost to morale. Disadvantages of upward
communication cover employee resistance to communicate, fear of incompetence,
indecisive superiors and failure to hear messages. In today's information age,
communication is multi-directional and goes anywhere and goes where it
is needed.
Lateral communication is defined as the exchange, imparting or sharing of information,
ideas or feeling between people within a community, peer groups, departments or units
of an organization who are at or about the same hierarchical level as each other for the
purpose of coordinating activities, efforts or fulfilling a common purpose or goal.This
communication may take place as telephone calls, e-mails, memos, letters, informal
discussions, gossip, teleconferencing, videoconferencing, second life conferencing, and
meetings set up by the group.To improve horizontal communication, knowing the
audience is essential for speakers who should be fluent, use proper pronunciation and
be coherent.
Communication that takes place between a manager and employees of other
workgroups is called diagonal communication. It generally does not appear on
organizational chart.
External communication is a field that covers the wide variety of methods that a
company may use to catch the public’s attention. In certain cases, companies utilize
interactive external communication methods, allowing the public to voice opinions and
concerns. Its objectives are building public image, creating positive customer
perception, attracting potential employees, securing finance at preferred terms.
Company website, press release, email and newsletters, telephone calls, media
interviews and press conferences are main media of external communication.
Each business web site has critical pages on:- Contact Us, Request a Quote, Location,
Home Page, Splash Page, About Us, Products, Testimonials, News, Events, Partners,
Distributors, Solutions, Markets, FAQs, Company Outline, Knowledge Base,
Chapter 08Communication in Organization
Management Team
website functions:
...and so on.Each business web site carries following critical
Search Function, Secure Web Pages, Banner Types, RSS and ATOM Feeds, Blog,
Forums, Contact Forms, Workflow Forms, Live Chat, Calendar, File Download and
Uploads, Galleries, Website Skin / Theme, Site Maps as well as Google Maps.
Press release consists of written or recorded statements that a company distributes to
media outlets such as newspapers and radio stations. These releases are required to
contain strictly newsworthy information regarding company services and
products.Websites have changed the way press releases are submitted. Commercial,
fee-based press release distribution services, such as news wire services, or free
website services co-exist, making news distribution more affordable and leveling the
playing field for smaller businesses.The use of press releases is common in the field of
public relations (PR). Typically, the aim is to attract favorable media attention to the PR
professional's client and/or provide publicity for products or events marketed by those
A company can release mass emails to a target audience such as consumers or
shareholders. These emails can also take the form of electronic newsletters that the
company distributes on a regular basis.A company can use telephone calls to reach
individuals in its target audience. These calls may consist of prerecorded messages
offering sales information and opportunities. This strategy may cross into the field of
telemarketing, in which services are offered directly through telephone calls.Customer
retention is crucial for every successful brand, and a live answering service is one of the
best ways a company can ensure that its clients stay satisfied.
A company can arrange media interviews and press conferences to announce or to
respond to emergency issues. Journalists attend these media events so they can ask
questions, make comments and record data for later reports.Organizations also
maintain business communication with customers and public via newspaper, magazine
advertisements and insertions.
Externalcommunication is importantbecause it creates a strong identity. Consistent
external communication helps businesses create a unique and desirable public identity,
both to consumers and other professionals. Further it establishes thought
leadership.External communication establishes your organization as a leading light in
your business sector. By positioning yourself as thought leader in your industry,
potential employees, clients and business partners will look up to your company for
Chapter 08Communication in Organization
guidance in case of problems in the industry or shifts in market dynamics.Next it beats
competition. When you start a business, you are a small fish in a big pond. Whichever
sector you are in, there will be a lot of competitors who are both more established than
you, and who are already using PR. You need an external communications strategy to
compete with them and to communicate effectively with the market. You need to be able
to bestow legitimacy among target markets, investors and stakeholders.