“Mutual exchange of thoughts, opinions and information means communication”. Social interactions and civilization as well as emergence and development of culture are not possible without communication. As we cannot imagine a developed language without words, similarly, we cannot imagine a society, without the facility of communication. Man’s progress depends on his capacity to exchange thoughts and experiences with other human beings. 21st Century is the century of communication revolution. The whole world has been brought closer by researches of electronic media and electronic appliances in last 20 years. The exchange of one’s feelings, thoughts, experiences, information, etc. with other persons is called communication in its common meaning. According to Alwyn Dode, “Communication is the problem No. 1 of the management/administration”. Communication is the two-way process. Thus, communication, means “Pouring our viewpoint in the brain of others is communication”. “Communication means exchange of thoughts among persons” - Charles Redfield “Mutual exchange of thoughts, opinions and information means communication” - Wester “Pouring our viewpoint in the brain of others is communication” - Dr. Saxena Human existence Mutual exchange of thoughts Oral or written form Creation of Understanding Constant and permanent process Bi-party as well as multi-way process Should be understandable First problem of administration Two parties involved Close relationship with management and administration Base of all activities 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Issuing effective orders and direction To raise production Removing adverse trends to develop good human relations For taking policy related decisions and interpreting them To accomplish objectives of the unit To evaluate the activities i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. Administration – easily done Quick decisions Mutual Misunderstanding prevented Planning, co-ordination, directing, controlling made easy Maximum Productivity Efficiency and morale of employees maintained Harmonious relations created Industrial disputes don’t arise Free exchange of thoughts and opinions Rules and Regulations effectively maintained Team spirit Policy related control maintained Oral Written Formal Informal Downward, Upward & Horizontal 1. Oral Communication : Employees are issued orders personally, directly. Subordinates also sometimes provide oral communication to managers. Oral information is exchanged through personal discussion, meeting, conversation on telephone, lecture, etc. ADVANTAGES : (i) Information directly provided due to personal contact (ii) Explanation given rapidly (iii) Less possibility of misunderstanding or confusion (iv) Saves time and energy (v) Friendly atmosphere created (vi) When decisions are rapidly implemented, than this method becomes more convenient LIMITATIONS : (i) Not convenient when detailed information is to be given (ii) Person receiving and giving information are at a distance, then this method cannot be convenient (iii) When details required for Proof, oral communication is inevitable but written proves evitable. 2. Written Communication : Exchange of information is done in written form. When similar kind of information is to be provided to several persons than written communication method is convenient. Dr. Terry suggests four Cs to keep in mind for written communication : Complete, Clear, Concise and Correct. ADVANTAGE : (i) Received or dispatched information can be kept as proof. (ii) Taking future decisions becomes easy. (i) LIMITATION: Delay in dispatching information 3. Formal Communication : The exchange of information as per the organization and procedure is called formal communication. Depends on organizational structure. Eg. In the Meeting of BOD, the secretary prepares notice, sales officer asks for sales report from salesman, salesman sends sales report to sales manager. 4. Informal Communication : Personal Relations Eg. When a sales manager asks questions to salesman about customers opinion of product. Eg. The production manager asks one of the employees about the machine or production method during recess time. 5. Downward, Upward and Horizontal Communication : Information going from top level to low level is called downward Communication . Information going from low level to top level is called Upward Communication. When the information is exchanged or dispatched on the same level of management between the persons of same level, it is called Horizontal Communication. Besides this, it can be internal and external communication. Internal communication can be written, oral, formal, informal, upward, downward or horizontal. External communication may be written or oral. Managers Officers Supervisors, Foremen etc Top Level Centre Level Low Level The success of manager depends on understanding the other members of the unit and the other members understanding the manager. Hence, effective skills if communication is the important skill of manager. Communication is a tool in the management field and not the goal. Effective Communication makes the management planning more precise and management more effective and control is made realistic. Relation can be shown as under : 1) To obain and give information 2) Evaluation 3) Direction and instructions 4) Motivation 5) Other functions (1) Thatcher : A B X (2) Aristotle’s presentation : Speaker Message LIMITATION : - One-sided - No response from listeners Condition Listeners Condition (3) Modern presentation of communication process : (David K. Behlow) Emerging Place Encoding Message Channel Decoding Receiver a. Emerging place : Due to the different reasons the need of communication arises. b. Encoding : To send the mental concept to the receiver person, encoded is done can be said. c. Message : The physical form of expression by the person giving message is called the message. d. Channel : The medium through which the message is sent is called channel. Appearance and voice are two channels. e. Decoding : -Message received through communication channel in the form of sign or indication, and is understood is called decoding. -Coding and decoding are two mutually contraditing processes. f. Receiver : Person receives it, interprets it and responds on the basis. g. Feedback : The response of the person receiving the message, whether he has understood or not, is called Feedback. Thus, the person receiving the message becomes the sender as far as the part is concerned. h. Noise : Anything which reduces the propriety of specifics of communication is called noise. Distortion in message II. Filtering III. Communication Overload IV. Improper timing V. Loss by transmission and poor retention VI. Short circuiting VII. Inattention VIII. Distrust of communicator IX. Vague presumptions X. Premature Evaluation XI. Non-acceptance XII. Failure to communicate XIII. Personnel relations XIV. Selection of medium I. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Communication as per the nature and requirement of unit Base of trust and co-operation Full of information Propriety of Medium Two-way Nature Clear and short carrying lines Objectivity Time to time evaluation Sufficiency Lack of personal interest Communication channels and centres create a net, which is called communication network. Communication issues and communication effectiveness depends on appropriate network. Two aspects hold importance : i. ii. No. of communication centres and Nature of communication network. Higher the no. of channels, more the complexity. Complexity of communication channels can be shown as under : Nature of net also affects effective communication : 1. 2. 3. Circle Chain Wheel Circle Chain Wheel Conclusions derived by Keith Davis on communication network are : Questions Circle Chain Wheel 1. Speed of work Slow Rapid Rapid 2. Preciseness Weak Good Good 3. Emergence of leader No Notable Very clear 4. Morale Substantial Weak Much weak 5. Flexibility for change Much rapid Slow Slow From the above it can be concluded that, fro different types of management sectors and its different issues, communication networks should be chosen appropriately. Communication have become effective due to revolution in computers. Global distances are removed. Communication tools are emails, tv, cellular telephone PC, laptop, Internet, etc. With this the managerial efficiency have increased. PC is useful in co-ordinating the data of overseas officers and managers. Through internet, information can be dispatched and received such as, entering new sales market, getting directly in touch with international customers and directly purchasing goods. It makes distribution system easy. Cellular phones are useful in keeping constant touch with officers and giving-getting information. Proper knowledge, complete technical skill, understanding information retrieved from them can lead to success. Language and codes are used in internet, which are required to be learnt. Revolutionary change have taken place due to electronic media. All information such as unit’s production, sales, administration, raw material, employees, customers, market, natural factors, is gathered through electronic media. It is important to manage the data, to interprete it and make use of it effectively. Important to get the information on time. Performance appraisal, comparison, ratio analysis, can be evaluated. Careless use can get the information destroyed. Use of electronic appliances make the task easy and speedy. They are tools, human being need to work upon it. Electronic appliances have played a great role, but it cannot take the place of human being.