Fusarium Wilt of Orchids - International Commercial Orchid Growers

Volume 2, No. 3 2008
Fusarium Wilt of Orchids
The Nobile Dendrobium
Volume 2, No. 3 2008 | ICOGO BULLETIN 1
2 ICOGO BULLETIN | Volume 2, No. 3 2008
A Message from the President
By Andy Matsui, President, International Commercial Orchid Growers Organization
he financial crisis triggered by the U.S. has spread
throughout the world. As a result, clouds are gathering
over the global orchid industry, despite the earlier projections of steady growth. However, the development
we see now is not caused by the global recession alone.
The E.U. region, which was said to have the most promising
orchid cultivation in the world, seems to have already faced the
excess supply in the summer of this year due to unreasonable
production increases that have occurred over the past several
years. Therefore, even if we had managed to forestall a global
recession, a sharp decline in prices would certainly have occurred in the summer of next year. Now that the recession has
occurred, it will provide a tailwind to put more pressure on the
orchid market in the E.U.
Orchid cultivation in the U.S., which had been showing
signs of a successful takeoff, is now looking doubtful due to the
turmoil in the market. This was brought on by unplanned production increases in Florida, where the number of orchid growers has
doubled to 70 over the past two years, and in parts of California.
What we have learned from these painful lessons is that we
should not have neglected to study the orchid market before deciding on a production increase, and that we should have spared no
effort in developing the market following the start of that production increase. The orchid growers, before implementing their reckless production plans, should have engaged in serious dialogue
with one another, as well as orchid propagators and marketers.
We can consider potted orchid flowers as fresh produce.
The world will continue to see population growth and economic
growth, so it is not a bad idea for anyone to consider increasing
the annual supply volume by 10% or so, unless the products are
past their prime. However, any plan to supply more than this to
the market in an attempt to expand the market and obtain profit
would require reliable substantiation through marketing.
This theory applies not only to the production of potted orchid flowers but also to the production of orchid plants around the
world. Due to the excessive production of orchid plant in China,
Taiwan, Thailand and even the nations of the E.U., it is currently estimated that orchid plants production exceeds the global
demand by more than 60%. This oversupply of orchid plants is
adding to the concerns over the future orchid market.
The orchid, in all its cultivated varieties, may have outstripped poinsettia and become a step closer to achieving status
as the “king of potted flowers,” but in the larger sense it is still
a minor agricultural product. To grow the world orchid market
steadily and ensure profits while expanding the industry, it is
critical that orchid propagators, growers and marketers have
close dialogue.
I am confident that the quickest path to the success and
growth of the world orchid industry in today’s global climate is to
utilize the organization of ICOGO and drive dialogue among all
the parties involved. ICOGO
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beautiful new varieties and innovative growing techniques,
aimed at growing Anthurium and Phalaenopsis more efficiently.
Visit www.anthura.nl for more than 350 varieties.
Anthura B.V.
The Netherlands
T +31 10 529 1919
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[email protected]
Volume 2, No. 3 2008 | ICOGO BULLETIN 3
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4 ICOGO BULLETIN | Volume 2, No. 3 2008
Quality Media: New Zealand a High Quality
Sustainable Resource
Clive Washington
Quality orchid growing media has become important as orchid production increases globally. Sustainable growing media
is also increasingly important as global requirements to reduce
carbon footprints become more main stream. The orchid growing
industry is steadily increasing. Since 1996 sales of potted orchids
have increased in the U.S. by well over 200%. In 2005 alone, sales
increased from the previous year by 12% (USDA). This increase in
sales in the U.S. as well as the cooperation with Taiwanese growers for export has seen a large increase in production. China is also
moving on as a mass orchid producer and as the country develops
further there is likely to be a greater domestic demand.
As orchid growth moves into the future, we see the occurrence of new high tech growers. Automation of nurseries, in depth
research and development of growth cycles, climate changes and
plant variety differences means orchid growing is no longer the
back yard venture it once was. To carry out high tech ventures such
as these but still produce a cost effective potted orchid requires a
great deal of financial input. With fuel and labor costs skyrocketing, efficiencies and cost reductions for the grower are a must.
How do growers increase profits? Growers put a considerable
amount of expenditure into infrastructure such as land, glass and
plastic houses, racking, heating (and cooling in some areas). In
addition to this the purchase of fertilizers, growing media, plant
stock and labor are all significant costs. All these costs contribute
to the final cost of growing a flowering orchid.
All too often growers try to increase profits by reducing costs
and ignore the negative impact that this could potentially have on
production. Growing media is often one of the first aspects of
a nursery to be downgraded. Growers can be quick at times to
switch to low cost/low quality inconsistent growing media often
not realizing this media could be reducing production and increasing other production costs. It is true that you can grow orchids in
almost any media; however the secret to increasing profits is to
use quality consistent growing media to improve growth rates and
have lower mortality. This results in easier management through
the reduction of labor, energy, water and fertilizers.
There are two main growing media for orchid: Bark (including fir and pine) and Sphagnum moss. Coir fiber and peat are used
in some areas and in mixes. Sphagnum moss was originally the
key product for growing Phalaenopsis; however, the past 10 years
has seen a change in trend in growing media to finer bark grades.
These are progressively becoming used more with portions of coir
fiber which is seen as a benefit with some growers. Trends have
also been affected by problems occurring in regions with sourcing of raw material and disease. For example, Douglas fir is a host
plant species for the pathogen that causes SOD (sudden oak death
that is caused by Phytophthora ramorum). This has restricted the
use of many types of local media which has lead to growers looking offshore for bark based media or alternatives.
technique to pot up correctly but the sterile nature of good quality
Sphagnum moss can lead to cost effective production, provided
good quality material is used. The three main suppliers of sphagnum moss are China, Chile and New Zealand.
New Zealand sphagnum moss resources have been considered the best by growers around the world for more than 25 years.
The New Zealand species is Sphagnum cristatum; a larger leaved
robust moss which doesn’t over-compact and lasts well in the pot.
However compared to Chilean and Chinese moss it is far more
expensive to produce. Land production and labor costs are much
higher in New Zealand, however the cost of production is at a
relatively stable level and the resource is in a cyclic and renewable
state. The focus here is also on quality product with systems in
place to provide consistent grades for specific growers. This combination will allow the country to continue to supply high quality
renewable Sphagnum moss for as long as there is a demand for
it. At the moment New Zealand moss processors have 600 tones
of sphagnum moss available each year (approximately 120 million 10 cm pots). Currently the only threat to supply is a fight for
prevention of turning moss swamps into dairy farms which at this
point is more profitable for New Zealand farmers. New Zealand
sphagnum moss producers have to keep margins to a bare minimum as both Chilean and Chinese moss sources are cheaper.
Chilean sphagnum moss is a less stable resource. Over 15
years ago, Chile was found to be a bountiful supply of sphagnum
much like that of New Zealand. Labor was cheaper and quality
comparable to New Zealand grades; the only difference being that
the Chilean moss (Sphagnum magellanicum) differed in structure
and color. Unfortunately rather than cooperate to form a cyclic renewable resource, many areas have been stripped by opportunisttraders. ”Quality” resources are increasing in scarcity as swamps
Sphagnum moss
Sphagnum moss has been a very good growing media for
certain orchid variety. As sphagnum moss is easily managed and
is efficient in both irrigation and fertilization, it is a good media
for growing Phalaenopsis in many locations. It does require some
Fig. 1. An electron micrograph of fresh fir bark. Studies by Pacific
Wide (NZ) Ltd. have shown that the Chinese sphagnum moss
accumulates salts to a greater extent than both New Zealand and
Chilean moss.
Volume 2, No. 3 2008 | ICOGO BULLETIN 5
are re-harvested after only a few years rather than the preferable 7
years. Chinese moss, although still available in some regions, is of
poor quality. The main species being Sphagnum palustre, is softer
in nature, compacts too easily and breaks down faster than the
more robust Sphagnum cristatum from New Zealand. It is therefore less suited to high tech plant growth.
Bark is a prominent media type for growing orchids in Asia
with many other countries now using 100% bark or bark mixes,
with moss and coir. Bark chip based orchid media provides growers with good aeration, the ability to hold nutrient and a substance
which the plant roots can adhere to. Cymbidiums have always
grown well in bark but more recently, Phalaenopsis growers are
moving to a small bark chip over moss to have more automated
and consistent systems. Bark is a very general term, as there are
major differences, pine and fir. Fir bark has a higher cellulose content compared to pine bark and although it may be more available
in some areas, it will not last as long as a similar size pine bark
particle. If one has plants for more than two years, for example,
for cut flower production, this material will likely cause some nitrogen drawdown effect. Management may be more difficult. Pine
bark, however, is more stable as a growing media due to higher
amounts of lignin. It also contains a higher percentage of tannins,
phenols and, waxes which give pine bark both the reddish color
and the waxy nature of the raw material.
Whilst pine bark is increasing in popularity for its ability to be a
stable growing media, quality is dependent on pine species and
growing areas.
To produce a high quality growing media from pine bark,
both the tannins and waxy nature are removed so that there are
no phytotoxic effects, allowing it to hold onto water and nutrients.
Many suppliers of pine bark around the world especially Portuguese pine bark do not age the raw product.. The particles may
look good; however, they can repel water easily leading to inefficient water retention. Different species of pine grow in different
countries. South African pine plantations consist of Pinus patula
which can be a lot thinner; Chile, Australia, and NZ grow Pinus
radiata also known as the Monterey pine (native to central California). It does not delaminate easily (splits between the layers) and
has higher amounts of lignin. These characteristics contribute to a
rounder nugget which aides in stability and longevity of this media
compared to other growing media.
In the late 1980’s Pacific Wide (NZ) Ltd. developed a method
to remove the toxins and to age the New Zealand Pinus radiata
bark. After the process to remove the toxin waste, the material is
granulated and then aged to remove the outer waxy layer.
The process to get it to a stage where the inside of the particle is still hard and stable but the outside is broken down to hold
enough water and nutrient for orchids is a specialized one taking
five important steps: removal of tannins by conditioning, limited
aging to breakdown the outside, grading to certain sizes and removal of contaminants that may cause grower problems, and pH
stabilization to bring the pH of the media up to suitable levels
for orchids. The pH of Pinus radiata bark can be as low as 3.5
- 4 in the spring so this must be raised for good orchid growth. The benefits of a naturally aged, unsterilized, pH adjusted medium
are that there is a very good population of natural beneficial microorganisms there to protect the plant. The pH stabilization adds
both calcium and magnesium, important elements for plant growth
and prolonged pH stabilization. Using larger grades (12 – 18 mm)
will also mean that wetter media such as coir or sphagnum moss
can be mixed with the media and still will last 5 years. Resources
of Pinus radiata are plentiful. It is a renewable resource in all of
the areas grown, especially New Zealand where there is currently
1.6 million hectares of Pinus radiata planted. As forestry is a main
6 ICOGO BULLETIN | Volume 2, No. 3 2008
component of NZ exports, it will be a commodity present in the
long term future much like that of the sphagnum moss. With both
sphagnum moss and aged Pinus radiata from New Zealand, the
quality and consistency are closely monitored, the resource is cyclic and renewable, and the aim is to provide top quality media consistently so that growers can work more efficiently. The cost must
reflect value in results. Therefore, whilst the cost when compared to
local material may be twice as much, which has been experienced
on many occasions, using a consistently higher quality medium
allows for the reduction in irrigation time, nutrient consumption,
mortality rates due to better plant health, and less labor costs. Advice to growers should be to find a medium of high quality no matter what the cost and then work with that material on a long term
basis to make their growing systems more efficient. If the medium
is consistent then, over time, cost effectiveness will prevail. ICOGO
Fig. 2. An electron micrograph of raw Pinus radiata bark.
Fig. 3. An electron micrograph of aged Pinus radiata bark. Note
the rougher surface than the raw pine bark.
We control the chain;
from origin to use...
in Orchid
Slingerland Potgrond is part of Hortimea.
e-mail: [email protected]
internet: www.hortimea.com
Volume 2, No. 3 2008 | ICOGO BULLETIN 7
Be Cautious Using BA to Induce Double Spiking in Phalaenopsis
In the November 2008 issue of GrowerTalks, there is an article
with the title “Boosting Orchid Profits with PGRs”. In this
article, it cites the benefits of applying 200 or 400 ppm Configure
(benzylaminopurin or BA, a synthetic cytokinin) on Phalaenopsis
to runoff two weeks before the beginning of cooling for flower
induction. It cites that BA increases the number of inflorescence
and results in a higher flower count per spike.
However, orchid growers must be aware of the potential risks
of using BA (Configure) to induce double spiking in Phalaenopsis.
It is reported in a paper to be published soon in HortTechnology
that BA can cause severely deformed spikes at a concentration
of lower than 100 ppm. Although, BA may induce more double
spiking, it can result in much reduced flower count on each spike,
only 3-5 flowers per spike.
There are also varietal differences in their response to BA.
Growers, who are interested in this plant growth regulator, are
advised to test a limited number of plants across varieties to make
sure whether it has any undesirable effects on product quality.
Fig. 1. BA may trigger double spiking, but the number of flwoers
on each spike may be much reduced (photo by Bo-Hong Wu).
Fig. 2. Foliar BA application resulted in mulformed spikes.
Current ICOGO Members
Kunming TongYi Biotechnology Co
Mai Orchids
Shanghai Dinghan Biotech Co.
CV. Simanis Orchids Nursery
Simanis Orchid Nursery
Amakawa Kaen (Kaoru Amakawa)
Auction Tsurumikati
Bio U Co.,Ltd. (Ujike Masatoku)
Charack (Kenji Hattori)
Fujinaga Farm (Atsushi Fujinaga)
Hanajima’s Orchids (Makoto Hanajima)
Hara Ceram Corporation
Ike Engei
Itabashi Orchid
Kanetusna Orchid (H. Kanetsuna)
Kato, Haruyuki
Kawano Mericlone Co., Ltd.
Kitauchi Orchid (Kiyoharu Kitauchi)
Marutaka Engei (Takanobu Kitaya)
Mikoen (Kouji Yoneyam)
Misaka Engei (Hiroaki Misaka)
Miyagawa Orchids Co., Ltd.
Morita Orchid Nursery (Yasuo Morita)
Mukoyama Orchids,Ltd.
Nagata, Haruhiko
Neverland (Shigeru Okada)
Ogino Orchid (Masahiko Ogino)
Sakamoto (Isao Sakamoto)
(Japan continued)
Shiina Orchid (Seigou Shiina)
Suzumoto (Mikio Yagi)
(Chiho Yagi)
Yamamoto Dendrobium
Yamamoto Orchid (ToshioYamamoto)
Tahi Flores Exotica
New Zealand
Pacific Wide (2)
West Coast Orchids Ltd.
Shammah Agrotech
South Korea
Dr. Chung, Hyang-Young
Dr. Jeong, Byoung Ryong
Kangsan Orchid Co. Ltd.
Kim’s Flower Industry Co., Ltd.
Dr. Lim, Ki-Byung
New European Orchids (NEON)
Air Orchid & Lab
Kanjana Orchid Co.
Paitoon Saplee Co., Ltd.
Pakkret Floriculture
Prayoon Orchids, Ltd.
T. K. Nursery
8 ICOGO BULLETIN | Volume 2, No. 3 2008
The Netherlands
Anthura B.V.
Bas van Buuren B.V.
Floricultura B.V.
Schouw, Harry
Slingerland Potground B.V.
Ter Laak Orchideeen b.v.
Tropichouse V.O.F.
The Republic of China
Ching-Hua Orchids
Clone Int’l Biotech Co., Ltd.
I-Hsin Biotechnology
Royal Base
Sogo Team Co.
Taida Orchids
Tailing Biotech
Taiwan Sugar Corp.
Yupin Biotechnology
The United States of
Dash Dream Plants, Inc.
Evergreen Agri-Tech
Hilo Hawaiian Orchids, LLC.
Hilo Orchid Farm
I. N. Komoda Orchids
James McCully Orchidculture
Jeju Orchid Nursery
Kerry’s Nursery
Lyon’s International
Malika Orchids
(U.S.A. continued)
Matsui Nursery
Nurseryman’s Exchange
Okika Limited
Sherwood Farm, Inc.
Taean Orchids U.S.A., Inc.
US Orchid Supplies. Inc.
Westerlay Orchids
Fusarium Wilt of Orchids
David E. Wedge and Wade H. Elmer
Fusarium wilt of orchids is highly destructive and
economically limiting to the production of quality orchids that
has steadily increased in many production facilities. Important
crops such as phalaenopsis, cattleyas, and oncidiums appear to
be especially susceptible to certain Fusarium species. Fusarium
wilt appears to be more frequent and severe in commercial
nurseries that have adopted newer production technology and pot
formulations for fast production cycles. These new production
cycles may be increasing the susceptibility of some orchids to
this and other diseases. Increased disease incidence motivates
growers to increase chemical applications in an attempt to control
disease. However chemicals are often applied too late in the
disease cycle for effective disease control. Ultimately, fungicides
are applied unnecessarily, valuable time and labor are wasted,
and the emergence of fungicide resistant pathogens are increased.
Actual losses due to Fusarium wilt have not been calculated, but
its incidence has increased in recent years.
wilt is complicated by a number of factors. Inoculum is spread
on transplants, pots, and in soil mixes. Fungus gnats, wind
and irrigation water can also transport the pathogens. Our
orchid studies indicate that new Fusarium infections are often
misdiagnosed as ‘Black Rot’ caused by Phytophthora and therefore
go unchecked due to the use of ineffective fungicides. Early in its
disease cycle, Fusarium is readily wind dispersed throughout the
greenhouse when the fungus produces small single celled spores
called microconidia.
Fusarium disease symptoms include stunting, chlorosis, and
wilt. Many times leaves appear shriveled and water-soaked.
Although the disease appears to be more prevalent on phalaenopsis,
the problem has been noted on other types of orchids, such as
cattleyas and oncidiums. Fusarium wilt is typically a ‘bottom up’
disease in orchids. Infection probably occurs through the root zone
or stem wounding and the disease progresses into the vascular
tissues of the rhizome, stem, and pseudobulbs. A brown-black rot
can extend into the pseudobulbs. An often diagnostic trait of
Fusarium disease is the development of a pink–purple discoloration
of the vascular tissue in the rhizome or stem.
The causal agent of Fusarium wilt is Fusarium oxysporum.
However, some experts have found that F. solani is also associated
with the disease and capable of causing wilt symptoms.
Observations by growers have suggested that the onset of
symptoms may be correlated with heat stress, high humidity, and
heavy fertilization. Severely infected plants may die in one to
three months and other plants linger in a slow decline. However,
both infection-types are characterized by a significant loss of
viable roots. Fusarium wilt commonly results in the death of the
plant and losses often exceed 50%.
Symptoms on orchids grown in Florida appear primarily
during the heat of the summer and are greatest on young plants that
have been transplanted from either culture flasks, community pots,
or 2” pots. Heat stress, transplanting shock, wounding, and heavy
fertilization predispose the plant to be more susceptible to infection.
This disease remains a serious problem until the weather cools.
However, it is important to note that the time of infection and the
window of use for chemical and biological disease control efforts
may have been weeks or months prior to the onset of symptoms.
Figure 1. Fusarium wilt of oncidium showing discoloration and
collapse of the plant.
Later in the infection cycle the pathogen is spread by
irrigation water, Fungus gnats, contaminated soilless mix, and
other equipment when the fungus produces multicelled spores
called macroconidia.
The most effective control for Fusarium disease has historically
been through development of crops with host resistance. However,
there is no information on Fusarium resistant cultivars in
orchids. Additionally, Fusarium diseases of ornamental plants
are particularly difficult to control. Management of Fusarium
Figure 2. Fusarium wilt of cattleya showing black discoloration
and progression of ‘Bottom Up’ symptoms. Note the lack of
viable roots in mature and seedling plants.
Volume 2, No. 3 2008 | ICOGO BULLETIN 9
Growers can also manage the disease by routinely inspecting stock
for disease symptoms and for the production of new roots with
green tips. The proper management of irrigation water pH (pH
6.0 to 6.5) may help reduce infection.
Chemical control
Traditionally, plants were sanitized by drenching them with
thiophanate-methyl or iprodione based systemic fungicides.
However, our studies found that most Fusarium isolates
were resistant to these two classes of fungicides. In contrast,
chlorothalonil provided excellent protective activity while the
systemic azoxystrobin provided suppression of most Fusarium wilt
pathogens. Work done on Fusarium disease of other ornamentals
suggests that fludioxonil (Medallion), triflumizole (Terraguard) and
azoxystrobin (Heritage), provided adequate control of Fusarium
wilt if applied during the early infection period. Currently, a
new product called Palladium®, a combination of fludioninil
and cyprodinil is in the registration process and may be available
for use in late 2009 or early 2010. Use of efficacious fungicides
from various chemical groups should provide growers with more
options from controlling orchid diseases while managing fungicide
resistance in the pathogen. ICOGO
David Wedge, Ph.D., is Lead Scientist and Research Plant
Pathologist at USDA-ARS Natural Products Utilization Research
Unit, National Center for Natural Products Research, University,
MS 38677 E-mail: [email protected]
Figure 3. Fusarium mycelium beginning to sporulate on an
infected cattleya shoot with microconidia that will be wind
blowing through the greenhouse. Highly magnified Fusarium
microconidia and a few macroconidia are shown in the early
phase of the disease cycle.
10 ICOGO BULLETIN | Volume 2, No. 3 2008
Wade H. Elmer, Ph.D., is Plant Pathologist at The Connecticut
Agricultural Experiment Station, Box 1106, New Haven, CT
06504 E-mail: [email protected]
Volume 2, No. 3 2008 | ICOGO BULLETIN 11
The Nobile Dendrobium
Yin-Tung Wang and Terri W. Starman
The nobile dendrobium has been grown for many years in
the history of orchid cultivation. The amount of production by
commercial growers around the world has much increased in
recent years. It is estimated that over 3 million nobile dendrobium
will be produced in Europe, mainly the Netherlands, in 2008.
In the United States, the Matsui Nursery alone produces over
130,000 pots yearly.
Most of the commercially produced nobile dendrobium
comes from the breeding program of Yamamoto Dendrobiums in
Japan. Although some research on this orchid was conducted in
Japan more than 30 years ago, little work has been done in recent
years for modern commercial production.
A research team at Texas A&M University, United States,
consisting of Dr. Yin-Tung Wang, Dr. Terri Starman and their
graduate students, has focused their work on the nobile dendrobium
since 2004. Using the tetraploid clone Den. Red Emperor ‘Prince’
and a medium containing 50% peat, they discovered that the
nobile dendrobium needs 100 ppm (mg/liter) of nitrogen, no more
than 25 ppm of phosphorus, and 100 ppm of potassium during the
period of active vegetative growth for best flowering. As a matter
of fact, plants bloomed quite well even when no phosphorus was
applied for more than one year. However, deficiency of nitrogen
or potassium each causes early and severe defoliation and fewer
flowers being produced.
In Japan, the nobile dendrobium plants are cooled at low
temperatures (8-10 °C or 45-50 °F) to result in leaf loss or leaves
are removed manually before flowering. Therefore, flowering
plants are sold without their foliage. In the United and Europe, the
green foliage is needed on flowering nobile dendrobium plants.
As a result, maintaining a proper feeding program to retain the
foliage in a healthy and attractive condition is very important to
obtaining products that are preferred by the consumers.
It is generally believed that extended application of nitrogen
interferes with proper flowering and promotes the formation of
lateral shoots, in lieu of flowers. Plants that produce lateral shoots
are a total loss to commercial producers because these nodes do
not produce flowers. This research team found that applying
nitrogen from planting through flowering did not affect flowering
when plants were properly cooled. If plants do not receive
adequate cooling, then, the pseudobulbs may produce lateral
shoots with or without the continuous applications of nitrogen.
Although, extended nitrogen application may make this condition
much worse.
Terminating fertilizer application early results in thicker
pseudobulbs that mature earlier for forcing. Early termination
of fertilization may delay the outgrowth of the second shoot
which normally does not mature enough when plants are cooled
for flower induction, therefore do not produce flowers. If two
shoots are desirable, then, fertilizer should be applied for a
longer period. Research has shown that delayed termination of
fertilization extends the vegetative growth, particularly under
warm conditions, and the terminal nodes may not produce flowers
if plants are exposed to low temperatures before the upper nodes
have become fully mature.
12 ICOGO BULLETIN | Volume 2, No. 3 2008
Regardless of temperature, once plants are removed from
cooling and placed under higher temperatures for flowering, how
long do mature plants need to be cooled at what temperature to
induce flower initiation? To answer these questions, this research
team used Den. Sea Mary ‘Snow King”. They found that two
weeks at a constant 10, 13, 15, or 18 °C (50, 54, 59, or 64 °F) was
enough for complete flower initiation. At 21 °C, some nodes failed
to initiate flowers and the flower buds on some nodes aborted.
Fig. 1. Den. Red Emperor ‘Prince’ subjected to various levels
of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or potassium (K). Unit in ppm
or mg/liter.
71614 ICOGO Bulletin:ICOGO Bulletin
4:05 PM
Page 8
lenges that those in the industry must work together to meet in a
coordinated fashion.
Orchids are renowned among horticultural products for their
many varieties. Going forward, breeders will develop new hybrids
through interspecies hybridization, as well as cultivars with shorter cultivation periods at lower temperatures. But, in order to avoid
chaos, breeders worldwide must work together to reorganize the
existing hybrids on the market. Equally important to the future
development of the orchid industry is regulation of plant patents
held independently by various countries throughout the world,
along with creation of universal policies protecting the rights of
With only a short history of commercial production, precise
orchid cultivation techniques remain relatively undeveloped,
Fig. 2.
Den. Sea
of King’
and at
in these
for different
areas must be carried out systematically, and we musttosee
to it that
the resulting new technologies spread throughout the industry in
and longer durations (up
to six weeks)
We must also face the issue of dwindling
that of
bark and sphagnum moss, which have served as the those
for six weeks needed only 33 days to reach flowering
orchid-growing medium for many years, have become more limonceited
from cooling. Although, counting from the day
worldwide. We must now hasten the discovery and/or develcooling starts, those cooled for longer durations needed more
opment of alternate materials for use in orchid cultivation.
time to reach flowering because of the extended cooling. If the
Finally, for the commercial orchid industry to sustain rapid
daytime temperature becomes high, a longer cooling duration
growth, we must contend not only with challenges to cultivation
may be needed to induce complete flower initiation. It seems
but also with concerns such as more efficient marketing, distributhat the tetraploid varieties may require longer durations of
tion, ethylene gas control measures, merchandise management
cooling to induce flower initiation.
and simplification of CITES and plant quarantine procedures.
Flower bud initiation takes place during cooling. Once the
Although we generally acknowledge awareness of these issues,
4 • ICOGO Bulletin Volume 1, No. 1 2007
lateral buds have raised about 2 mm above the stem surface,
flower initiation is either completed or is well under way. Once
flower initiation has begun, there is no reversion to forming
vegetative lateral shoots. It is not necessary to re-apply
or during
to march
in place
of development
moving for- for
application or
ward to solve these problems.
of 8th
does not
flowerI procount or
In 2004, at the
Asian Pacific
size. the creation of a new global orchid organization, with the
a preliminary
goal ofThe
during an
age suggest
of highlythat,
oped transport and telecommunications systems. I hoped to see
to induce
the all
can be cooled
the stakeholders
— breeders,
plant in
induce and
In practice,
shade distributors
may be used
in nobile
and regulatory
— centering
on the orchid cultivators themselves.
the thanks
timely flower
to themonths
efforts offor
a committee
set up by
Yin-Tung Wang at the 2007 Taiwan International Orchid data
and to make
sure more
that flower
in darkness
or under
in the orchid
in March,
than 70 induction
entities involved
industry came together to establish the International Commercial
Orchid Growers Organization. I am honored to serve as its first
the nobile dendrobium pseudobulbs to mature early for forcing
have been developed.
If this new entity, ICOGO, can move forward energetically,
If one needs more detailed information on the nobile
powered by cooperation among all concerned, I am confident that
dendrobium research conducted by Dr. Wang and Dr.
we can make the 21st century the “Era of Orchids” for the global
Starman, full reports can be obtained by sending a request to
potted plant industry, and assure a leadership role for the orchid
or [email protected] or by a phone call to 831-422within the world’s floriculture business for many years to come.
6433 Extension 209. ICOGO
Under the banner “The 21st Century - The Orchid
Century,” I pledge to devote my fullest efforts to this task to the
Yin-Tung Wang, Ph.D. is Professor, graduate faculty, Dept.
of my ability. Sciences, Texas A&M University, College
of Horticultural
all of youofwill
lend your enthusiastic
at Matsui
and Executive Secretary of ICOGO. Terri W. Starman is
Associate Professor, Dept. of Horticultural Andy
A&M University.
Salinas, Calif.
Volume 2, No. 3 2008 | ICOGO BULLETIN 13
The Global Orchid Market
The worsened economic conditions around the globe certainly had a huge impact on the orchid industry in all countries.
This is made even worse by the over production of young plants in all orchid-growing countries, particularly the Netherlands.
It is estimated that propagators in Holland may have produced over 20 million of surplus Phalaenopsis alone. Several orchid
nurseries are for sale, but sadly there were no buyers. In both Holland and Japan, an increased percentage of potted orchids were
sent to auction houses where selling prices were lower than what the producers would get by selling these orchids directly to
their customers.
In the United States, for example, growers in California encountered difficulties selling cymbidiums this season. The
market demands plants with more than two spikes. Even Cymbidium with three or more spikes had to be sold at lower than $10 a
pot. This puts more pressure to grow high quality plants. One way of achieving such goal is to promote the production of double
shoots from the first and second generation pseudobulbs. This would require better feeding program, earlier spacing and selection of stronger young plants at the very beginning. The market in general poised toward selling lower priced orchids in 7.5 cm,
instead of the 10 cm and 12.5 cm pots.
On the other hand, breeders and propagators who have carefully set their goals and strategically line up their prowuction
with their customer’s needs have been doing well. For instance, the Sogo Team Company in Taiwan has engaged in breeding medium to small size plants for the European market to fit the specific needs of those markets. Rocket Farm in California
imports Phalaenopsis in their original containers from Sogo by sea containers. In taking such a strategic approach toward their
breeding, production, and marketing, Sogo sold out their young plants.
China produced 15 million pots of Phalaenopsis in 2008. In comparison, Phalaenopsis production in 2007 was 9 million
pots. Among the Phalaenopsis, 80% were the red varieties. Due to the warm climate in east and south China in August and
September this year and an earlier Chinese New Year in 2009, it is estimated that perhaps 20% to 30% of the Phalaenopsis may
bloom too late for the market. In one of Beijing’s whole sale market, orchids were selling for about $5 as opposed to more than
$9 per pot in 2007.
ICOGO Annual Meeting
The 2009 ICOGO Annual Meeting will be held at 1:30 PM on March 5, 2009, in conjunction with the 2009 Taiwan International Orchid Show (TIOS). The 2009 TIOS host, Taiwan Orchid Growers Association (TOGA), generously provides ICOGO
members two nights of free hotel room for up to 50 rooms. These rooms will be assigned on a first come, first served basis and
only to members who are in good standing on March 1 and has paid or renewed their membership dues by February 15, 2009.
Members, who are planning to make this trip, must logon to http://www.tios.com.tw to register online with TIOS and notify
ICOGO by sending an e-mail to [email protected] ICOGO again will have business booths for members to promote
their business. To do such, you must select such an option when you register with TIOS and notify ICOGO. If you fly to Kaohsiung International Airport and select the pickup service and provide your airlines and flight number on the registration form,
TOGA will provide free pickup service to bring you to the hotel. See you there.
International Commercial
Orchid Growers Organization
1645 Old Stage Road, Salinas, California, 93908 USA
Andy Matsui
[email protected]
Web Master
Kuen Wang
Executive Secretary
Yin-Tung Wang, Ph.D.
[email protected]
Bulletin Editor
Yin-Tung Wang, Ph.D.
Bulletin Art Designer
Rene Arreola
Regional Representatives
Nicole Huang
[email protected]
Masahito Miyagawa
[email protected]
Chiho Yagi
[email protected]
Haruhiko Nagada
[email protected]
The Netherlands
Jan Post
[email protected]
New Zealand
Dave Beck, Ph.D.
[email protected]
Tsung-Yu Lee
[email protected]
Neng-I Chang
[email protected]
Dennis Kao
[email protected]
Prayoon Ployphommas
[email protected]
Yin-Tung Wang, Ph.D.
[email protected]
Benjamin Chen
[email protected]
South Korea
Ki-Byung Lim, Ph.D. [email protected]
14 ICOGO BULLETIN | Volume 2, No. 3 2008
ICOGO Bulletin
The ICOGO Bulletin is published quarterly by the International
Commercial Orchid Growers Organization (ICOGO) to promote the
commercial production and marketing and conservation of orchids.
The opinions, articles, and recommendations that are published
in this Bulletin are those of the individual authors and not those of
ICOGO which neither adopts nor endorses such opinions and recommendations and disclaims all responsibilities of them. If any product
mentioned is to be used, the reader must seek and obtain advise from
the appropriate advisors or authorities.
Printed by: Martella Printing, Salinas, California USA
Membership/Subscription rate
Full Members - commercial orchid growers, production area ≥1000
m2, US $300/year.
Associate Member - Allied suppliers, equipment & greenhouse
manufacturers, orchid-related businesses, employees of Full Members, educators, researchers, members of government and regulatory
agencies, orchid organizations, etc. US$150/year.
For ICOGO membership application: go to http://www.icogo.org and
fill out and e-mail the form. Or, contact [email protected]
Back issues of the ICOGO Bulletin may be available by contacting the
ICOGO Executive Secretary at [email protected] Bulletins are
available online.
©Copyright, 2008
The International Commercial Orchid Growers Organization
Printed on recycled paper
The Rod McLellan Company – Acres of Orchids
October 1991 marked the 50th anniversary of a large orchid
operation in the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States. In
the early 1930’s, the Rod McLellan Co. was the largest gardenia
producer in the world, with some 280,000 square feet of greenhouses devoted to the production of this fragrant flower for corsages. McLellan’s was called by the Saturday Evening Post as
“The King of Gardenias”. The Company also raised South African heather which was used for Christmas and Easter.
During WWII, the Rod McLellan Co. produced fresh vegetables for the nearby military installation at Tanforan Park. The
Company started to grow orchids in 1941 to diversify its product
line. At the time, there were four other orchid nurseries in the
San Francisco Bay Area. J.A. Carbone in Berkeley, Avansino and
Mortensen in San Leandro, Ferrari Brithers in San Francisco, and
Niven and Company in Marine. In 1946, the Company purchased
and imported a large number of species orchids from South
America. All of these orchids were collected from the jungle.
With both the use of gardenia and orchid corsages on the decline and the production costs on the rise, McLellan added three
more greenhouses for blooming pot orchids and bought seedling
plants from the east coast.
The Rod McLellan Co. first started sowing orchid seeds from
its own Cattleya hybrids in 1944. By 1953, it is known as “Acres of
Orchids”. The company first cloned Cymbidium in 1966, followed
by Cattleyas, Miltonias, and Oncidiums in 1968. Rod McLellan
passed away in 1974. His wife Lorraine and his family continued
to operate the orchid business. The Rod McLellan Co. was also
the manufacturer of a potting medium called “Super Soil’.
It has a rigorous orchid breeding program from which came
some well known and widely grown hybrids and clones. Many
clones of Colmanara Wildcat are being produced all over the
world in large numbers. The relatively heat-tolerant cymbidium
Gold Elf ‘Sundust’ HCC/AOS was bred and selected by the Rod
McLellan Co. This clone has brilliant, lightly fragrant, and nonfading yellow flowers among the dark green foliage and a long
blooming season spanning from
Figure 1. Rod McLellan and his breeding teammates Paul
Brecht, Austin Enright, and Robert Jones (left to right).
Picture used with permission from the American Orchid
and May to October. The company also has an orchid boarding
division. They took care of orchids that were out of bloom and
deliver the plants back to their rightful owners when they bloom
again for a charge. The Rod McLellan Co. was also a large supplier of cut orchids.
In addition, the company has an operation in Aromas, California, where they not only produced orchids, but also has acres
of Eucalyptus for making dry flowers. Due to the booming orchid
market, the Company got rid of most of its Cattleyas, and remodeled the old greenhouse for increased production of Phalaenopsis.
In the mid-1990’s a large greenhouses was added for producing
Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium phalaenopsis.
When visitors arrived at the hilltop property of the Rod
McLellan Co. in South San Francisco, they were first greeted by a
well laid out orchid and gift shop. In front of the shop across the
parking lot and behind the shop, there were acres of greenhouses
full of orchids.
In 1991, the Rod McLellan Co. began purchasing Phalaenopsis from the newly funded Taiwan Sugar Corporation. Jeff Britt, a
former President of the Rod McLellan Co., said that the company
made excellent profits by buying in Phalaenopsis from Taiwan
Sugar rather than breeding and raising their won. Taiwan Sugar
was established during the Japanese occupation of Taiwan in the
late 1880s. It became a state-owned company after Taiwan was
reunited with the Republic of China after the Second World War.
It produced and sold sugar to support the ROC’s national economy
between the 1950’s and 1970’s. Due to the strong competition on
the international sugar market, Taiwan Sugar had to cut down its
sugar production and became diversified in its business. It has
been raising cattle and hogs, engaged in cooking oil production,
retailing fuel, as well as operating restaurants and many other
types of businesses to generate revenue for the federal government in Taiwan.
In 1988, Taiwan Sugar’s Agricultural Division was looking
for means to further diversify its business and decided orchids
may be a good international business because there was virtually
no competition. After a thoughtful planning and consulting some
university faculty specializing in orchids, Taiwan Sugar started its
orchid production at an abandoned sugar mill in Shin-In, Taiwan.
It also formed a Horticulture Department at its Taiwan Sugar Research Institute that had a sole mission of conducting research on
and breeding of the Phalaenopsis. Selling on the international
market was not an easy task. In 1990, Taiwan Sugar sold 3,500
Phalaenopsis to buyers outside of Taiwan. Since 1991, Professor Yin-Tung Wang at Texas A&M University, who then became
an honorary advisor to Taiwan Sugar, helped Taiwan Sugar with
their marketing and resolving their customers’ production problems in North America and Mexico. Business grew quickly. The
Rod McLellan Co. became Taiwan Sugar’s largest overseas customer. The orchid business of the Rod McLellan Company was
eventually bought out by Taiwan Sugar in 2003.
Today, the Rod McLellan Co. contimues to operate under the
name of “McLellan Botanicals” and “Taisuco America”. It no
longer carries out any breeding and relies on imported orchids for
production. The retail orchid and gift shop was relocated to San
Mateo, but, was closed a few years later due to declined traffic.
Volume 2, No. 3 2008 | ICOGO BULLETIN 15
New Variety List
Orchid name: Anthura Chengdu
Flower diameter: 8.0 cm
Flower count: 20
Plant height: 65 cm
Flowering season: All year
Offered by: Anthura B.V. (Holland)
Minimum volume: 2,000 plants
Telephone: 0031 10 529 1919
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Anthura Palermo
Flower diameter: 6.5 cm
Flower count: 22
Plant height: 50 cm
Flowering season: All year
Offered by: Anthura B.V.
Minimum volume: 2,000 plants
Telephone: 0031 10 529 1919
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Anthura Pompei
Flower diameter: 7.5 cm
Flower count: 30
Plant height: 50 cm
Flowering season: All year
Offered by: Anthura B.V.
Minimum volume: 2,000 plants
Telephone: 0031 10 529 1919
E-mail: [email protected]
16 ICOGO BULLETIN | Volume 2, No. 1 2008
Orchid name: Dtps. Tai Lin Moom ,N12’
Flower diameter: 11.5-12 cm
Flower count: 11-13
Plant height: 50-55 cm
Flowering season: Forced year around
Offered by: Tai Lin Biotech (Taiwan)
Minimum volume: 1,000 plants
Telephone: 886-6-658-2000 Ext. 132
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Dtps. I-Hsin Sun Beauty
Flower diameter: 9 cm
Flower count: 19
Plant height: 45 cm
Flowering season: Forced all year
Offered by: I-Hsin Biotechnology, Inc.
Minimum volume: 500
Telephone: 886-5-265-5709 (Taiwan)
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Dtps. I-Hsin Sun Beauty
Flower diameter: 9 cm
Flower count: 15
Plant height: 40 cm
Flowering season: Forced all year
Offered by: I-Hsin Biotechnology, Inc.
Minimum volume: 500
Telephone: 886-5-265-5709
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Dtps. Tai Lin Lady ‘N16’
Flower diameter: 10-11.0 cm
Flower count: 12-13
Plant height: 55-63 cm
Flowering season: Forced year round
Offered by: Tai Lin Biotech
Minimum volume: 1,000 plants
Telephone: 886-6-658-2000 Ext. 132
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Dtps. I-Hsin Seasme
Flower diameter: 9.3 cm
Flower count: 5-6 (branching)
Plant height: 44 cm
Flowering season: Forced year round
Offered by: Tai Lin Biotech
Minimum volume: 1,000 plants
Telephone: 886-6-658-2000 Ext. 132
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Dtps. I-Hsin Holiday
Flower diameter: 12 cm
Flower count: 11
Plant height: 55 cm
Flowering season: Forced all year
Offered by: Hsin Biotechnology, Inc.
Minimum volume: 500
Telephone: 886-5-265-5709
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Dtps. Yu Pin Burgundy
‘YPM 5069’
Flower diameter: 6 cm
Flower count: 55
Plant height: 40 cm
Flowering season: All year
Offered by: Yu Pin Biotechnology Co.
Minimum volume: Inquire
Telephone: 886-5-226-0000 (Taiwan)
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Wils. Pacific Stars
‘Fire’s Delight’
Flower diameter: 2.5 cm
Flower count: 6-10
Plant height: 45-60 cm
Flowering season: Upon bulb maturity
Offered by: Mauna Kea Orchids.
Minimum volume: 5,000
Telephone: 808-935-6997 (USA)
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: SOGO F842
Flower diameter: 4 cm
Flower count (6/9/12 cm pot): 15/35/>50
Plant height (6/9/12 cm pot); 18/30/45 cm
Flowering season: Forced year round
Offered by: Sogo Team Co., Ltd.
Minimum volume: 5,000 flask plants
Telephone: 886-7-683-0190 (Taiwan)
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Dtps. Yu Pin Burgundy
‘YPM 5076’
Flower diameter: 6 cm
Flower count: 50
Plant height: 40 cm
Flowering season: All year
Offered by: Yu Pin Biotechnology Co.
Minimum volume: Inquire
Telephone: 886-5-226-0000
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Bnfd. Gilded Tower
‘Mystic Maze’
Flower diameter: 7.5 cm
Flower count: 7-10
Plant height: 45-60 cm
Flowering season: Upon bulb maturity
Offered by: Mauna Kea Orchids.
Minimum volume: 5,000
Telephone: 808-935-6997 (USA)
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: SOGO F1774
Flower diameter: 4 cm
Flower count (6/9/12 cm pot): 12/30/>50
Plant height (6/9/12 cm pot); 15/25/35 cm
Flowering season: Forced year round
Offered by: Sogo Team Co., Ltd.
Minimum volume: 5,000 flask plants
Telephone: 886-7-683-0190 (Taiwan)
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Dtps. Brother Little
Fortune ‘YPM 5208’
Flower diameter: 8 cm
Flower count: 20
Plant height: 45 cm
Flowering season: All year
Offered by: Yu Pin Biotechnology Co.
Minimum volume: Inquire
Telephone: 886-5-226-0000
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Odcdm Catatante
‘Pacific Sun Spots’
Flower diameter: 3 cm
Flower count: 25-40
Plant height: 70 cm
Flowering season: Upon bulb maturity
Offered by: Mauna Kea Orchids.
Minimum volume: 5,000
Telephone: 808-935-6997 (USA)
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: SOGO F1805
Flower diameter: 4 cm
Flower count (6/9/12 cm pot): 10/30/>50
Plant height (6/9/12 cm pot); 15/25/35 cm
Flowering season: Forced year round
Offered by: Sogo Team Co., Ltd.
Minimum volume: 5,000 flask plants
Telephone: 886-7-683-0190 (Taiwan)
E-mail: [email protected]
Volume 2, No. 1 2008 | ICOGO BULLETIN 17
Orchid name: Dtps. Taihort Gem
Flower diameter: 5 cm
Flower count: 22-30
Plant height: 42-52 cm
Flowering season: All year
Offered by: Taiwan Sugar Corp.
Minimum volume: 1,000
Phone number: 886-2-684-0152
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Dtps. Shiina's Pearl
Flower diameter: 8 cm
Flower count: See picture
Plant height: 40 cm
Flowering season: All year
Offered by: Shiina Orchids
Minimum volume: Inquire
Phone number: 0479-63-0247
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Phal. Taihort Rosemary
Flower diameter: 9.5 cm
Flower count: 12-15
Plant height: 68-72 cm
Flowering season: All year
Offered by: Taiwan Sugar Corp.
Minimum volume: 1,000
Phone number: 886-2-684-0152
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Dtps. Happy Vivian
Flower diameter: 5.5 cm
Flower count: See picture
Plant height: 30 cm
Flowering season: All year
Offered by: Shiina Orchids
Minimum volume: Inquire
Phone number: 0479-63-0247
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Dtps. Mount Lip
Flower diameter: 10.5 cm
Flower count: 18-20
Plant height: 66-70 cm
Flowering season: All year
Offered by: Taiwan Sugar Corp.
Minimum volume: 1,000
Phone number: 886-2-684-0152
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Dtps. Fortune Glad
Flower diameter: 7 cm
Flower count: See picture
Plant height: 35 cm
Flowering season: All year
Offered by: Shiina Orchids
Minimum volume: Inquire
Phone number: 0479-63-0247
E-mail: [email protected]
18 ICOGO BULLETIN | Volume 2, No. 3 2008
Orchid name: Dtps. Mai Bonito
Flower diameter: 11 cm
Flower count: 20
Plant height: 50-60 cm
Flowering season: Forced all year
Offered by: Mai Orchids
Minimum volume: 360 flasks (5400 plts)
Phone number: 886-6-331-2228
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Phal. Mai Vayabien
Flower diameter: 5 cm
Flower count: 33
Plant height: 40 cm
Flowering season: Forced all year
Offered by: Mai Orchids
Minimum volume: 360 flasks (5400 plts)
Phone number: 886-6-331-2228
E-mail: [email protected]
Orchid name: Phal. Mai Sorpresa
Flower diameter: 7 cm
Flower count: 24
Plant height: 40 cm
Flowering season: Forced all year
Offered by: Mai Orchids
Minimum volume: 360 flasks (5400 plts)
Phone number: 886-6-331-2228
E-mail: [email protected]
Yu Pin Biological Is An International Scale, High‐Tech Producer of Phalaenopsis Orchids Our service objectives: 1. Supply flasks, small, medium, and blooming‐size plants 2. Provide mericlones 3. Offer information and technical advice on the cultivation of Phalaenopsis We have 133,000 m2 of computerized, environmentally controlled greenhouses to regulate light, temperature, and humidity. We have more than 400 varieties of Phalaenopsis and reproduce 10 million mericloned plantlets in flasks per year for both domestic and overseas markets. Our overseas and domestic markets gross over 12 million plants annually. Our overseas market comprises 80% of our business with customers in Japan, Europe, USA, and Hong Kong. We’ve successfully delivered more than 200 40‐foot containers of Phalaenopsis in pots to USA and Europe by ocean freight. In carts: 20,000 pots/container ; in cartons: 22,000 pots Address: No.43‐2, Hsia Tanti, Pin Lin Li, Chia‐yi, Taiwan Tel: 886‐5‐2641093 Fax: 886‐5‐2658200 Email: [email protected] l h
Volume 2, No. 3 2008 | ICOGO BULLETIN 19
20 ICOGO BULLETIN | Volume 2, No. 3 2008