Desain Inovasi Pemerintahan Daerah - LPPM UB

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BIDANG ILMU ADMINISTRASI
LAPORAN HASIL
PENELITIAN DISERTASI DOKTOR
TAHUN ANGGARAN 2010
Judul
: DESAIN INOVASI PEMERINTAHAN DAERAH
Peneliti
: Irwan Noor
Dibiayai Oleh Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi, Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional
sesuai dengan Surat Perjanjian Penugasan Dalam Rangka Pelaksanaan Penugasan
Penelitian Disertasi Doktor Tahun Anggaran 2010
Nomor : 492/SP2H/PP/DP2M/VI/2010, tanggal 11 Juni 2010.
Universitas Brawijaya
Malang
2010
RINGKASAN
Kajian inovasi pada organisasi sektor publik menjadi arus utama tahun 1990.
Artikel klasik Ellen Schall (1997) memberikan kontribusi yang cukup signifikan bagi
perkembangan konsep inovasi. Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut, organisasi publik,
khususnya beberapa pemerintahan lokal di Canada, Selandia Baru memberikan
gambaran keberhasilan dalam penerapan inovasi bagi pertumbuhan pemerintahan
lokal di negara tersebut. Di Indonesia, keberhasilan provinsi Gorontalo, Kabupaten
Sragen atau Kabupaten Jembrana memberikan gambaran keunggulan daerah setelah
mampu berinovasi. Namun tidak semua pemerintahan daerah di Indonesia. 33
pemerintah provinsi. 497 kabupaten/kota belum semuanya menjadi daerah yang
inovatif. Padahal Peraturan Pemerintah No 41 tahun 2007 atau Peraturan pemerintah
No 38 tahun 2007 memberikan acuan yang cukup signifikan bagi pemicu daerah
menjadi inovatif.
Studi ini mengasumsikan bahwa desain inovasi pemerintahan daerah tidak
akan menjadi pengungkit inovasi. Desain pemerintahan daerah yang inovatif hanya
menggambarkan perbaikan kinerja organisasi dengan mengubah struktur organisasi,
tanpa perubahan dalam arah menuju inovatif. Kegagalan konsep ini membawa ide
untuk mengubah asumsi, yaitu dengan mengubah desain pemerintahan daerah yang
inovatif ke desain inovasi Pemerintah Daerah. Jadi, bagaimana merancang inovasi,
bukan bagaimana merancang tata pemerintahan daerah yang inovatif.
Untuk memahami kebenaran asumsi yang dibangun di atas, dilakukan
penelitian di Kabupaten Jembrana, dengan menghadapkan tiga pertanyaan (1)
Bagaimana gambaran actual inovasi pemerintahan daerah? (2) Faktor-faktor apa yang
dominan dalam pengembangan inovasi pemerintahan daerah? dan (3) Bagaimana
mendesain inovasi pemerintahan daerah? Capaian terhadap tiga pertanyaan ini
adalah (1) Untuk menggambarkan inovasi pemerintahan daerah dengan berbagai
elemen pendukungnya, (2) Untuk menggambarkan faktor dominan yang membentuk
inovasi pemerintahan daerah. Berkenaan dengan hal ini akan dilihat derajat kekuatan
masing-masing faktor terhadap inovasi, dan (3) Dengan menggunakan analisis berfikir
sistemik akan dibuat konstruksi desain inovasi pemerintahan daerah. Dengan desain
ini akan diperoleh penjelasan inovasi pemerintahan daerah.
Perwujudan akan capaian pertanyaan yang diajukan di atas dikemas dalam
sebuah hipotesis teoritis, yaitu Kepemimpinan, Iklim Organisasi dan Lingkungan Politik
secara bersamasama berpengaruh dalam mendesain inovasi pemerintahan daerah.
Guna falsifikasi terhadap hipotesis ini dilakukan penelitian dengan mempergunakan
perspektif new-instituationalism serta berpedoman pada pendekatan kuantitatif serta
bermetode data skunder (secondary research) serta di analisis dengan program
Analisa Sistem Dinamik Stella v. 9.1.3.
Hasil analisis menunjukan bahwa ketiga faktor secara simultan memberi
pengaruh terhadap inovasi pemerintahan daerah. Analisis dengan mempergunakan
Stella juga menunjukkan ketiga faktor secara partial memberikan pengaruh positip,
dalam pengertian ketiga faktor secara bersamaan memberikan nilai bagi inovasi.
Sebaliknya, pengabaian salah satu faktor akan menurunkan aksesbilitas di dalam
pencapaian inovasi daerah. Khusus faktor politik menunjuk pada degree of nuisance
yang sangat tinggi. Pengabaian faktor lingkungan politik menjadikan resistensi bagi
pengembangan inovasi.
Penelitian ini juga menghasilkan sebuah capaian teoritikal, yaitu pemberian
rekomendasi, bahwa untuk mendesain inovasi pemerintahan daerah perlu
mempergunakan sebuah model, yaitu LPC (Leadershp-Political-Climate) Model.
SUMMARY
The study of innovation in public sector organizations is the mainstream in 1990.
Ellen Schall classic article (1997) contributed significantly to the development of
innovative concepts. In this regard, public organizations, especially in some local
governments in Canada, New Zealand provides a success in the implementation of
innovations for the growth of local government in that country. In Indonesia, the
success of the province of Gorontalo, Jembrana regency of Sragen Regency give
advantage to regions after innovating . But not all local governments in Indonesia. 33
provincial governments. 497 districts /cities have not all become an innovative region.
Whereas the Government Regulation No. 41 of 2007 or the Government Regulation
No. 38 of 2007 provides a significant reference for the trigger to be innovative.
This study assumes that the design of innovative local governance will not be a
lever of innovation. Design of innovative local governance only describe organizational
performance improvement by changing the organizational structure, without a change
in the direction towards innovative. The failure of these conceptions will bring an idea
to change the assumption, that is by changing the design of innovative local
governance into Local Government Innovation Design. So, how to design innovation,
not how to design innovative local governance.
To understand the truth of the assumptions built on, conducted research in
Jembrana regency, confronted with three questions (1) How does the actual picture of
local government innovation? (2) What factors are dominant in the development of
local government innovation? and (3) How to design a local government innovation?
The purpose of these three questions are (1) To describe the local government
innovation with its supporting elements, (2) To describe the dominant factors that
shape Local Government Innovation Design. With regard to this will be seen the
degree of strength of each factor to innovation, and (3) By using analysis of systemic
thinking, construction design will be created local government innovation. With this
design will be obtained explanations local government innovation.
Embodiment will be achievement of questions asked above are packed in a
theoretical hypothesis, namely Leadership, Organizational Climate and Politics
Environmental jointly influential in local government innovation design. In order to
falsification of this hypothesis, using research-instituationalism new perspective and
based on quantitative approaches and secondary research and analyzed by the
program Stella Dynamic System Analysis 9.1.3. The analysis shows that all three
factors simultaneously giving effect to local government innovation. Analysis
using
three factors also showed partially positive impact, in terms of three factors
simultaneously providing value to innovation. Conversely, the neglect of one will
reduce the accessibility factor in the achievement of regional innovation. Special
political factors point to the degree of nuisance which is very high. Abandonment factor
makes the political environment for the development of innovation resistance.
This research also produced a theoretical achievement, which is providing
recommendations for local government innovation design needs to use a model, the
LPC
(Leadership,
Political,
and
Environment)
model.
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