Earth Science EOC Review

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Earth Science EOC Review

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. Find the density of an object that has a volume of 15 cm

3

and a mass of 78 g. a. 5.2 g/cm

3 b. 4.8 g/cm

3 c. 3.1 g/cm d. 2.9 g/cm

3

3

____

____

____

____

____

2. Which term is used to explain how high or low a landform is above or below sea level? a. topography c. feature d. elevation b. slope

3. Which helped the newly formed Earth become a sphere in shape? a. the magnetic field c. density b. gravity d. heat

4. Which best explains why landforms are not permanent? a. Gravity pulls on landforms molding them to be spherical in shape. b. Once created landforms do not change. c. Earth’s magnetic field compresses the surface. d. Landforms are shaped by erosion and uplift.

5. Which of these does NOT explain how mountains can form? a. a build up of lava on the ocean floor b. a force from inside Earth which causes an uplift of rocks c. sediments deposited by water or wind d. a force causing rocks to fold on top of each other

6. Use the map to answer the question. Which statement below is correct?

____ a. The most common landform found on Earth’s surface are plains. b. Mountains are only found near Earth’s equator. c. Most of Africa is located on top of a plateau. d. Given enough time, all plateaus eventually become mountains.

7. Which statement is true? a. Earth was formed prior to the Sun. b. Earth became spherical in shape because the hydrosphere smoothed out the irregular bumps. c. When Earth was forming, the most dense materials collected together to form the core. d. The solar system was formed from a cloud called the biosphere.

____

____

8. Which objects does the force of gravity pull together? a. dust c. all objects d. metal objects b. stars

9. The alignment of iron minerals in rocks when they are formed reflects the fact that Earth's ____ has reversed itself several times in the past. a. magnetic field b. core c. asthenosphere d. gravity

____ 10. Scientists believe that differences in ____ cause hot, plasticlike rock in the asthenosphere to rise toward

Earth's surface. a. density b. magnetism c. weight d. composition

____ 11. ____ would be considered a rock. a. Quartz b. Mica c. Granite d. all of the above

____ 12. Sediments in sedimentary rocks are often ____. a. held together with natural cements b. formed when atoms of melted minerals rearrange themselves c. formed when lava erupts from a volcano d. formed by magma trapped below Earth's surface

____ 13. Rocks are formed when magma or lava ____. a. erodes b. undergoes radioactive decay c. crystallizes d. weathers

____ 14. Igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath Earth’s crust are ____. a. extrusive b. intrusive c. sedimentary d. always magnetic

____ 15. Chemical weathering is more rapid in a ____ climate. a. warm, dry c. cold, dry d. cold, wet b. warm, wet

____ 16. The rock and mineral fragments in soil come from rock that has been ____. a. blasted b. carved

____ 17. Ice wedging is brought about by ____. a. carbonic acid freezing on rocks b. water and oxygen reacting c. weathered d. chemically treated c. water freezing and thawing d. rocks colliding with each other

____ 18. ____ is a factor that affects soil development. a. Time b. Slope c. Type of rock d. all of the above

____ 19. The ____ horizon has smaller rock and mineral particles than the other layers. a. A c. C d. D b. B

____ 20. How long does it take for soil to form? a. a few hours b. a few days c. a few years d. thousands of years

____ 21. Which of the following causes abrasion? a. rock fragments tumbling in a stream b. glaciers c. wind and waves d. all of the above

____ 22. Which of these is NOT an example of mechanical weathering? a. ice wedging b. oxidation c. tree roots cracking rocks d. animals digging through soil

____ 23. What is one way biota effect soil formation? a. The steepness of hills effects how much rock matter is carried away in water. b. Bacteria aid in the decomposition of organic materials. c. The cycle of freezing and thawing allows water in cracks of rock to expand and break apart the rock. d. As time passes, weathering is constantly acting on rock and sediment.

____ 24. When you dig a deep hole, you see the color and content of the soil change. What are these layers of change called? a. horizons b. vistas c. panoramas d. conglomerations

____ 25. Which type of processes reshape Earth’s surface? a. constructive b. destructive c. both a and b d. neither a nor b

____ 26. The movement that occurs during mass wasting is caused by ___________. a. ice b. air c. water d. gravity

____ 27. Which of the following is NOT an example of mass wasting? a. landslide c. slump b. flood d. creep

Use the diagram to answer the following questions.

____ 28. Which glacial erosion feature is known as a cirque? a. A b. B c. C d. D

____ 29. What well-sorted sediment results from glacial erosion? a. outwash b. till c. talus d. moraine

____ 30. Running through the farmer’s flat field is a slow moving stream with large meanders. There is more deposition on the inside of the curves than the outside. How would you classify this stream? a. starter stream b. young stream c. mature stream d. old stream

____ 31. When people plant vegetation, they ____ erosion. a. reduce c. start d. do not affect b. increase

____ 32. Trees, walls, and fence posts leaning downhill are signs of ____. a. rockfalls c. creep b. mud flow d. slump

____ 33. A stream that flows swiftly through a steep valley and has steep sides is a(n) ____ stream. a. young b. mature c. old d. none of the above

____ 34. Plates of the lithosphere float on the ____. a. crust b. asthenosphere c. core d. atmosphere

____ 35. The presence of the same ____ on several continents supports the hypothesis of continental drift. a. fossils b. rocks c. neither a nor b d. both a and b

____ 36. A lack of explanation for continental drift prevented many scientists from accepting that a single supercontinent called ____ once existed. a.

Glomar

b.

Glossopteris

c. Pangaea d. Wegener

____ 37. Plates slide past one another at ____. a. subduction zones b. transform boundaries c. convection currents d. divergent boundaries

____ 38. The East African Rift is an example of a ____. a. mid-ocean ridge b. continental rift c. convergent boundary d. transform boundary

____ 39. Active volcanoes are most likely to form at ____. a. transform boundaries b. divergent boundaries c. the center of continents d. convergent oceanic–continental boundaries

____ 40. A ____ can also form when two oceanic plates collide. a. hot spot b. line of volcanoes c. transform boundary d. rift valley

____ 41. What type of plate boundary occurs between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate, shown in the figure above? a. convergent oceanic-continental plate boundary b. convergent oceanic-oceanic plate boundary c. convergent continental-continental plate boundary d. transform boundary

____ 42. The downward part of a convection current causes a sinking force that ____. a. pulls tectonic plates toward one another b. moves plates apart from one another c. lifts and splits the lithosphere d. creates a divergent boundary

____ 43. The magnetic pattern of ocean-floor rocks on one side of an ocean ridge is ____. a. a mirror image of that of the other side b. younger than on the other side c. much different from the magnetic pattern found in rocks on land d. at right angles to the ocean ridge

____ 44. Continental-continental plate collisions produce ____. a. island arcs b. rift valleys c. deep-sea trenches d. very tall mountain ranges

____ 45. _____ are formed when two continental plates collide. a. Volcanoes c. Mountain ranges b. Strike-slip faults d. Rift valleys

____ 46. How does uplift contribute to the rock cycle? a. It buries sediment, which becomes sedimentary rock. b. It creates very strong pressure, creating metamorphic rock. c. It brings metamorphic and igneous rock to the surface.

d. none of the above

____ 47. The Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States are rounded and have soil where trees can grow. The

Rocky Mountains in the western United States are rugged and have much rock exposed. Which of the following statements is true? a. The Appalachian Mountains are younger, and have experienced more erosion. b. The Rocky Mountains are younger, and have experienced less erosion. c. The Appalachian Mountains are older, and have experienced less weathering. d. The Rocky Mountains are older and have experienced more erosion.

____ 48. A normal fault occurs where forces pull two blocks of rock apart. At which kind of plate boundary does this occur? Why? a. convergent plate boundary - This is where plates are coming closer together. b. convergent plate boundary - This is where plates are moving apart. c. divergent plate boundary - This is where plates are moving apart. d. divergent plate boundary - This is where plates are coming closer together.

____ 49. Which waves travel the deepest into the center of Earth? a. P-waves b. S-waves c. surface waves d. They all travel to the center of the inner core.

____ 50. Looking at the figure that shows world-wide earthquake distribution, the white lines represent plate boundaries. Which statement is true? a. Earthquakes always occur along plate boundaries. b. Earthquakes most frequently occur along plate boundaries c. Earthquakes rarely occur along plate boundaries. d. Earthquakes never occur along plate boundaries.

____ 51. If you wanted to avoid earthquakes, which would be the best choice of location?

a. West coast b. the largest island in Hawaii

____ 54. Where can volcanoes form? a. convergent plate boundaries b. divergent plate boundaries c. southern Alaska d. the Great Lakes region

____ 52. How many volcanoes erupt each year, on average. a. less than 5 c. around 60 d. more than 100 b. around 20

____ 53. What are the positive results of volcanic eruptions? a. The climate becomes warmer. b. Extra sulfuric acid is removed from the atmosphere. c. Rock and soil are enriched with valuable nutrients. d. Growing seasons become longer. c. over hotspots in the middle of plates d. all of the above

____ 55. When the force on rocks is great enough, they break, producing vibrations called ____. a. faults c. strains d. stresses b. earthquakes

____ 56. A break in Earth’s lithosphere where one block of rock moves toward, away from, or past another is called a(n) ____. a. fault b. earthquake c. strain d. stress

____ 57. Along a(n) ____ fault, rock above the fault surface moves upward in relation to rock below the fault surface. a. normal b. reverse c. elastic d. strike-slip

____ 58. The most destructive seismic wave are ____. a. primary waves b. secondary waves c. P-waves d. surface waves

____ 59. At least ____ seismographs are needed to accurately locate an earthquake epicenter. a. two c. four

b. five

____ 60. Which statement belongs in the box? d. three a. preserved in amber b. pressure that removes all gases and liquids from organism’s tissues c. replacing organism with minerals d. tracks left behind in soft sediment

____ 61. What would change in the following picture to represent an isotope of the element chlorine? a. Element - chlorine becomes argon after turning into an isotope b. Atomic Number - the number of protons increases which makes 17 become 18 c. State of Matter - chlorine would become a liquid after turning into an isotope d. Atomic Mass - adding neutrons to protons increases the atomic mass

____ 62. Using carbon-14 is one way to measure the age of the remains of organisms. Which correctly describes the one limitation in using this particular type of dating? a. An organism continues to take in carbon-14 long after it has died. First scientists must determine the life-span of the organism before making an accurate prediction. b. The half-life of carbon-14 is only 5,730 years making it difficult to measure very old organisms. c. The ratio of carbon-14 and carbon-12 is not equal in the atmosphere. In order to find an accurate measurement, carbon-12 must also be measured. d. Organisms use nitrogen to build and repair tissues. Measuring the amount of nitrogen combined with carbon is the only way to get an accurate time frame.

____ 63. An example of a fossil with altered hard parts includes ____. a. a mummified human body b. a gastrolith c. a saber-toothed cat in tar d. petrified wood

____ 64. An example of a trace fossil includes a ____. a. cast of a clam b. nests c. mud crack d. raindrop impression

____ 65. Using the graph, determine the half-life of thorium-232. a. 7 billion years b. 14 billion years c. 28 billion years d. 35 billion years

____ 66. How is the relationship between eons and eras different than the relationship between hours and minutes? a. Eras are made up of eons, but hours are made up of minutes. b. Eons are made up of eras, but hours are made up of minutes. c. Eras are not even divisions of time, while minutes are. d. Eons are even divisions of time, while hours are not.

____ 67. Which shows the divisions of the geologic time line from least to greatest? a. epoch, period, eon, era c. eon, era, period, epoch d. epoch, era, period, eon b. epoch, period, era, eon

____ 68. Which is true of the rock layers shown below? a. Only older rock contains fossils of complex life forms. b. Only younger rock contains simple life forms.

____ 69. How was Pangaea formed? c. Both older and younger rocks contain the most complex life forms. d. Only younger rock contains fossils of complex life forms. a. Tectonic plates moved in such a fashion that the continents all came together into a supercontinent. b. A large landmass split into several smaller continents. c. A meteorite impacted Earth leaving behind an iridium layer. d. Earth’s climate cooled.

____ 70. Why do scientists hypothesize that either volcanic explosions or a meteorite impact led to the Permian mass extinction? a. Both events would leave a layer of iridium around the world. b. Both would eject ash and rock into the atmosphere, reducing temperatures. c. Organisms that did not change survived. d. Both would increase the average temperature on Earth.

____ 71. When do pine trees begin to appear in the fossil record? a. the Paleozoic era b. the Mesozoic era c. the Cenozoic era d. the Precambrian era

____ 72. Which is a major difference in the build of dinosaurs and reptiles? a. Reptile legs are directly below their hips, while dinosaurs had legs that stuck out sideways from their bodies. b. Dinosaurs’ tails were directly below their hips, while reptiles have tails that stick straight out behind their bodies. c. Dinosaurs’ legs were directly below their hips, while reptiles have legs that stick out sideways from their bodies. d. Reptiles’ tails were directly below their hips, while dinosaurs have tails that stick straight out behind their bodies.

____ 73. During which of the following do you live? a. The Cenozoic Era b. The Phanerozoic Eon c. The Holocene Epoch d. all of the above

____ 74. The Cenozoic era is sometimes known as the age of the ________. a. mammals b. dinosaurs c. invertebrate d. insects

____ 75. Scientist believe humans first appeared in Africa. How were they able to make their way to North America? a. across land bridges that are now covered with ice

b. across ice bridges c. across land bridges that are now covered with water d. with boats

____ 76. If a species can adapt to a changing environment, or ____, its descendants will survive. a. evolve c. stay the same b. become extinct d. none of the above

____ 77. The change in environments that may have occurred at the end of the Paleozoic Era may have been caused by

____. a. mass extinctions c. plate tectonics d. the beginning of an ice age b. evolution of the dinosaurs

____ 78. ____ is the transfer of heat by the flow of a heated material. a. Radiation c. Convection d. Condensation b. Conduction

____ 79. The ____ are responsible for the movement of much of the weather across the United States and Canada. a. prevailing westerlies c. trade winds b. polar easterlies d. doldrums

____ 80. When cool, dense air from over the water flows inland, it's called a ____. a. land breeze c. jet stream b. polar easterly d. sea breeze

____ 81. If the ozone layer disappeared, life on Earth would be exposed to ____ concentrations of ultraviolet radiation. a. lower b. higher c. no change in d. none of the above

____ 82. The ____ is the layer of Earth’s atmosphere that is closest to Earth’s surface. a. stratosphere b. ionosphere c. troposphere d. exosphere

Use the picture to answer the questions.

____ 83. How does this process appear in the atmosphere? a. The transferring of thermal energy from Earth to the Sun. b. The blocking of light energy by Earth. c. The transferring of thermal energy from the Sun to Earth. d. The absorption of thermal energy by the ozone layer.

____ 84. If the dots represent air molecules, what does the figure below demonstrate?

a. There are more air molecules at higher altitudes. b. There are less air molecules at higher altitudes. c. There are less air molecules at lower altitudes. d. The top of the atmosphere contains the most dense concentration of air molecules.

____ 85. From the graph below, determine the maximum amount of water vapor present when the temperature is 5°C. a. 45 g/m

3 b. about 0.4 g/m

3

____ 86. Which type of system is shown below? c. 7 g/m

3 d. 40 g/m

3

a. cold front b. low pressure

____ 87. Which type of system is shown below? c. stationary front d. high pressure a. cold front b. low pressure c. stationary front d. high pressure

____ 88. To keep track of high-and low-pressure areas, weather maps are drawn with lines connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure. These lines are called ____. a. isotherms c. fronts d. isobars b. equibars

____ 89. ____ can be produced by thunderstorms. a. Stationary fronts b. Tornadoes

____ 90. The most powerful severe storm is the ____. a. thunderstorm b. tornado c. Volcanoes d. Tsunamis

____ 91. A(n) ____ shows weather conditions at one specific location. a. isobar b. isotherm c. cloud map d. station model c. hurricane d. front

____ 92. The hot and humid weather in Texas during the summer is most likely due to what type of air mass? a. Continental polar c. Maritime polar b. Continental tropical d. Maritime tropical

Use the diagram to answer the questions.

____ 93. What type of weather is associated with this type of front? a. widespread precipitation b. light winds and precipitation c. intense precipitation and thunderstorms d. strong winds and heavy precipitation

____ 94. A balloon-borne package of sensors that gathers upper-level temperature, air pressure, and humidity is ____. a. a radiosonde b. a satellite c. a hygrometer d. Doppler radar

____ 95. One cause of ____ may be deforestation. a. thunderstorms b. global warming c. clouds d. precipitation

Use the map below to answer the following questions.

____ 96. San Francisco is located at the same latitude as ____. a. Wichita b. Minneapolis c. Dallas d. none of the above

____ 97. The city with the coldest climate is ____. a. Wichita b. Minneapolis c. Dallas d. San Francisco

____ 98. The city with the smallest change in average temperature between January and July is ____. a. San Francisco b. Dallas c. Minneapolis d. Wichita

____ 99. Which receives the most solar radiation? a. the equator b. the polar zones c. the oceans d. the temperate zones

____ 100. Which of the following is a description of a climate? a. It is raining and cold outside. b. It rains about 20 inches a year in this area. c. The wind just blew my trash can into the road. d. It snowed 18 inches last night.

____ 101. Why are buildings in polar climates sometimes built on stilts? a. to protect them from flooding b. to keep the thermal energy from the building from melting the permafrost c. to get a better view from the window d. to keep the doorway higher than the snow

____ 102. During which process do trees remove carbon dioxide from the air? a. deforestation c. photosynthesis b. while being burned to clear a field d. both a and b

____ 103. Why is it difficult to test the accuracy of global climate models (GCMs)? a. GCMs predict too many things, such as temperature, windiness and precipitation. b. GCMs are developed using mathematics and physics. c. GCMs are just guesses. d. GCMs predict conditions many decades in the future.

____ 104. Which of the following is a way a 13 year old in America can help control greenhouse gasses? a. plant trees c. turn off electronics that are not in use b. recycle aluminum cans d. all of the above

____ 105. Which of the following does NOT affect the climate of an area? a. latitude b. altitude c. longitude d. being in a city rather than in a rural area

____ 106. What type of energy is emitted by stars? a. electromagnetic b. mechanical c. radiant d. potential

____ 107. Thomas wants to study electromagnetic waves that are 300 m long. What should he use to observe them? a. radio telescope b. optical telescope c. refracting telescope d. gamma ray telescope

____ 108. How many times longer does it take light to get from the Sun to Jupiter than it takes it to get from the Sun to

Earth? a. 5 b. 8 c. 40 d. 32

____ 109. Which would be the best place for a radio telescope? a. New York City b. deep in the rain forest of South America c. the center of the Sahara desert d. It doesn’t matter.

____ 110. Which place would be best to build an optical telescope? a. on top of a mountain c. in the middle of a desert b. on a platform at sea d. below sea level

____ 111. Which of the following was the first optical space telescope? a. the Spitzer Space Telescope c. the Cassiopeia Space Telescope b. the James Webb Space Telescope d. the Hubble Space Telescope

____ 112. The first artificial satellite to orbit Earth was which of the following? a. b.

Sputnik 1

Sputnik 1

launched by the United States launched by the Soviet Union

Explorer 1

launched by the United States

Explorer 1

launched by the Soviet Union c. d.

____ 113. As a scientist, you want to study the terrain of an outer planet. Which of the following would you do? a. You send a space shuttle with astronauts. b. You send a space probe. c. You send a crewed spacecraft.

d. none of the above

____ 114. What do probes to the inner planets help scientists to learn? a. how inner planets form b. whether any other planets could support life c. how many people already live on each planet d. both a and b

____ 115. If scientists find water on Mars, and energy is available there from sunlight, what final thing is needed for life to be supported? a. plants c. organic molecules d. oceans b. rocks

____ 116. What helps power missions to the outer planets? a. solar power b. wind c. gravity from planets as they are passed d. anti-matter

____ 117. The Sun's rays strike Earth at their northernmost and southernmost positions during ____. a. winter and summer solstices c. lunar eclipses b. spring and fall equinoxes d. solar eclipses

____ 118. The presence of maria on the Moon indicates that ____. a. the Moon contains lava beneath its surface b. many meteorites have hit the Moon recently c. few meteorites have hit the Moon d. the Moon has a dense atmosphere

Use the diagram to answer the following questions?

____ 119. Which letter shows Earth’s position in the summer? a. A b. B

c. C d. D

____ 120. When the north end of Earth’s rotation axis is pointing toward the Sun, which statement is true? a. The southern hemisphere receives more energy from the Sun. b. Temperatures decrease in the northern hemisphere. c. The northern hemisphere receives more energy from the Sun. d. Temperatures increase in the southern hemisphere.

____ 121. The seasons are caused by ___________. a. the direction Earth’s rotational axis is pointed with respect to the Sun b. the distance Earth is from the Sun c. the shape of Earth’s orbit d. the tides of the ocean

____ 122. Which phase of the Moon is shown if this is a picture of what the sky looks like at midnight? a. new moon b. first quarter c. full moon d. third quarter

____ 123. During __________ phases, more of the Moon is visible each night. a. waxing c. new d. full b. waning

____ 124. The time for one rotation of the Moon is 27.3 days. What is the time revolution? a. 24 hours c. 27.3 days b. 24 days d. 365 days

____ 125. What formed the maria on the Moon? a. volcanoes b. lava flowing up through the Moon’s crust c. impacts from objects in space d. tectonic plate movement

____ 126. What force is mostly responsible for tides? a. the gravity of the Sun b. the gravity of Earth c. the gravity of the Moon d. wind

____ 127. ____ has colorful clouds in bands of white, red, tan, and brown. a. Saturn c. Jupiter b. Uranus d. Neptune

____ 128. One of ____ moons is larger than the planet Mercury. a. Neptune's c. Uranus's b. Pluto's d. Saturn's

____ 129. ____ are pieces of rock that strike the surface of a moon or planet. a. Meteoroids c. Meteor showers d. Meteorites b. Comets

____ 130. Evidence suggests that ____ originate in the Oort Cloud located beyond the orbit of Pluto. a. comets c. meteoroids b. asteroids d. meteorites

____ 131. Solar energy trapped by gases in Venus's atmosphere causes ____. a. clouds to form b. its slow rotation c. the greenhouse effect d. a cooling effect

____ 132. The order of the inner planets outward from the Sun is ____. a. Mercury, Earth, Venus, and Mars b. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars c. Mars, Venus, Earth, and Mercury d. Earth, Venus, Mars, and Mercury

____ 133. The greenhouse effect on Earth keeps it warm enough for liquid water to exist. However, on Venus, the greenhouse effect warms the planet to ____. a. 460°C c. 90°C b. 900°C d. 47°C

____ 134. What is the basic shape of every planet’s orbit? a. circle c. oval b. ellipse d. egg

____ 135. The outer planets are mainly composed of which of the following? a. hydrogen and oxygen b. hydrogen and helium c. helium and oxygen d. nitrogen and helium

____ 136. On Earth, hydrogen and helium are naturally found as gases. Why are they liquid on the outer planets? a. the temperature due to the distance from the Sun b. the pressure from the gravitational forces of the massive planets c. the distance from the Sun d. Both a and b

____ 137. Which of the following is NOT a dwarf planet? a. Makemake b. Haumea c. Titan d. Pluto

____ 138. What is solar wind? a. charged particles streaming toward the Sun b. a wind pattern in Earth’s atmosphere caused by the air being warmed by the Sun c. charged particles streaming away from the Sun d. huge bubbles of gas ejected from the corona of the Sun

____ 139. The hottest stars in space are _____ in color. a. yellow b. red c. blue d. white

____ 140. All of the following are true of the Milky Way EXCEPT that it _____. a. is a spiral galaxy c. is a member of the Local Group b. has more than 800 billion stars

____ 141. The coolest stars in the sky are _____ in color. d. is 100,000 light-years across

a. yellow b. red c. blue d. white

____ 142. A measure of the amount of light received on Earth is a star's _____. a. apparent magnitude b. absolute magnitude c. position in space d. size

____ 143. Two stars orbit each other in a(n) _____ star system. a. binary b. closed c. single d. individual

____ 144. A scientific law does which of the following? a. describes a pattern in nature. b. explains observations and events. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b

____ 145. Which of the following is the SI system’s base unit for amount of a substance? a. kilogram c. mole d. pound b. gram

____ 146. What does the prefix

kilo-

mean? a. 10 b. 100 c. 1000 d. 1/10

____ 147. Choose the answer that shows 256.065 rounded to two significant digits. a. 256.06 b. 260 c. 260.000 d. both b and c are correct

____ 148. Which is the only method that could be used for data that are not in numeric form? a. median b. mean c. mode d. range

____ 149. There is a pond behind Terry’s house. He decides to see how the water temperature changes depending on the depth of the water. Which is the dependent variable? a. temperature b. depth c. both a and b d. neither a nor b

____ 150. What is true of scientists’ hypotheses about the Iceman’s travels? a. They were able to prove them to be true. b. They were proved false. c. They are still working to prove them. d. They can never be proved true, just supported or not supported.

Completion

Complete each statement.

151. Earth was once believed to be in the shape of a flat disk, however, now scientists know Earth is really shaped like a(n) _______________.

152. The layer of Earth that is the most dense is the _______________.

153. High temperature and pressure inside Earth’s inner core, keeps it in a constant _______________ state.

154. _______________ is a major characteristic used to differentiate between a plain and a plateau.

155. The central part of Earth is the _______________.

156. Weathering of rock produces worn surfaces and rounded corners that are characteristic of some

____________________ sediment particles.

157. The ____________________ horizon contains the most organic matter in the soil.

158. The ____________________ horizon is most like the parent material.

159. ____________________ is the pattern of weather that occurs in a particular area over many years.

160. Small holes and spaces between particles in soil are called __________ .

161. Soil __________ is the measure of how well a soil can support plant growth.

162. The __________ materials in soil have never been alive.

163.

____________________

are ridges of till left behind when a glacier stops moving forward.

164. When the glacier melts, it will leave behind a(n)

____________________

valley.

165. Today continental ice sheets only exist in

____________________

and

____________________

.

166. ____________________ occurs when tectonic plates of different density collide.

167. Wegener’s hypothesis of _________________________ stated that Earth’s continents had once been joined as a single landmass.

168. The __________________________________ states that Earth’s surface is made of rigid slabs of rock, or plates, that move with respect to each other.

169. ______________________________ are places where plates slide horizontally past each other.

170. The theory of _________________________ explains how new crust is created at mid-ocean ridges.

171. _______________ is the stress that occurs as something is pulled apart.

172. Volcanic arcs occur where two plates _______________.

173. Coal and other energy resources are found in sedimentary _______________.

174. To locate an earthquake's ____________________, scientist use information from three seismograph stations.

175. The radius of the circle seismologists draw on a map is equal to the distance from a station to an earthquake's

____________________.

176. An earthquake with a(n) ____________________ of 7.2 releases about 30 times as much energy as an earthquake that registers 6.2 on the Richter scale.

177. Fossil insects can be found imbedded in ____________________, the hardened sap of prehistoric trees.

178. The oldest fossil remains of human ancestors have been found on the continent of ________.

179. Most mammals in Australia today are __________.

180. The periods of the Mesozoic era from late to early are ______, ______, and _______.

181. ____________________ was the supercontinent.

182. A __________ is a scientist who studies weather.

183. Temperature is the measure of the _________________ of the molecules in the air.

184. If the dew point is 3°C, and the air temperature suddenly drops to -1°C, _________ will form.

Use the diagram below to answer the following questions.

185. The climate on side ____________________ of the mountain is wet.

186. Since the tilt of Earth’s axis determines the season of the year, when it is winter in the northern hemisphere, it is _______________ in the southern hemisphere.

187. The longer the _______________, the less energy is being emitted.

188. Most radio telescopes are located in deserts because _______________ absorbs and distorts radio waves.

189. A(n) _______________ travels through space then uses rockets to slow down when it reaches the planet it is meant to study.

190. The Moon and _______________ are the first destinations for future human space travel.

191. Most of the time, the Sun is north or south of the ____________________.

192. The Moon revolves around ____________________.

193. Lunar eclipses do not occur every month because usually the Moon is slightly ______________________

Earth’s penumbra.

194. The time it takes a planet or any other object to spin or rotate once is its period of _____________.

195. All inner planets have a _________ outer layer.

196. There are _____ objects currently classified as dwarf planets. This number went up by one when Pluto lost its designation as a planet.

197. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe has _______________ from one point.

198. Scientific knowledge describes the _______________ world.

199. It is never possible to get an _______________ measurement.

200. A rule that describes the behavior of something in nature is a scientific ____________________.

Matching

Match the correct era to each period. Answers may be used more than once.

a. Cenozoic b. Mesozoic c. Paleozoic

____ 201. Silurian

____ 202. Quaternary

____ 203. Carboniferous

____ 204. Ordovician

____ 205. Cretaceous

____ 206. Triassic

____ 207. Cambrian

____ 208. Tertiary

____ 209. Jurassic

____ 210. Permian

Short Answer

211. The deepest well drilled into Earth’s surface is only a little more than 12 kilometers deep. Why is it so difficult to drill deep wells into Earth’s surface?

212. How is a plateau different from a mountain?

213. More than 70 percent of Earth is covered in water. Why is water considered a scarce resource?

214. In what direction does warmer material move in a convection current?

215. Why did Alfred Wegener believe that all of the continents once had been joined?

216. How were the Calidonian mountain range and the Appalachian Mountains similar?

217. Copy the figure onto a sheet of paper. Draw arrows on Part A to indicate a normal magnetic field, and on Part

B to indicate a reversed magnetic field.

Scientists have studied the motions of Earth’s tectonic plates and recorded many of their findings as maps.

Based on the assumption that the direction and rate of plate movement taking place today will continue for the next 50 million years, researchers have made predictions about the world’s future geography. The results of those predictions are presented in the diagram below, which shows the configuration of the continents 50 million years from the present. The shaded areas of the diagram represent the present positions of the continents.

218. How does the size of the future Atlantic Ocean compare with its present size?

219. Why would securing gas appliances help make your home earthquake-safe?

220. Why do volcanoes form at plate boundaries and hot spots?

Refer to the picture below and put the following events in the order in which they occurred, starting with 1 as the oldest.

221. K is deposited. ____

222. What percentage of the original amount of parent isotope is present after 2 half lives?

You are to deduce the periods of geologic time represented in two different sedimentary sequences by examining the fossils in each. The fossilized organisms contained in the sedimentary sequences are shown in the table. The geological time scale follows the table. Examine the table and the time scale. Then answer the following questions.

Organism Phylum Genus Range

Arthropoda

Aeger

Late Triassic–Late

Jurassic

Arthropoda

Cypridea

Mid Jurassic–Early

Cretaceous

Mollusca

Gonioteuthis

Late Cretaceous

Echinodermata

Crateraster

Cretaceous

Mollusca

Mytilus

Triassic–recent

Mollusca

Pleurotomaria

Jurassic–Cretaceous

Use the sedimentary sequences below to answer the following questions.

223. Which of the organisms in sedimentary sequence A lived for the longest period of time?

224. Which of the three organisms in sedimentary sequence A would be the best index fossil? Why?

225. Sailors traveling near the equator may have been sailing under conditions such as this. What explanation can you give for this phenomena?

226. List the three methods of energy transfer in the atmosphere.

227. An electric heater that runs along the base of one wall heats a large room with a high ceiling. What method of energy transfer allows the room to be heated from bottom to top? Compare this to energy transfer in the upper levels of the troposphere.

228. Why are polar regions colder than other regions of Earth?

229. How are weather and climate related?

230. Name two sources of information used by scientists to gather information about climate changes in the past.

231. If there were less greenhouse gases, how would that affect the average temperature of Earth?

232. Which three ways does information gathered in space help scientists gain insight about Earth?

233. What type of star is Betelgeuse?

234. If the Doppler shift indicated that the shift was to blue-violet on the spectrum, would the Big Bang theory help explain the shift? Explain your answer.

235. Round 0.0436789 to two significant digits.

Problem

236. What is the difference in seismic waves arrival time if the epicenter is 5,000 km away?

237. How far away is the epicenter if the difference in seismic wave arrival times is 7 minutes?

Use the art to answer the following questions.

238. A sample of a radioactive element has a mass of 80 g. How much parent and daughter materials are in the sample after two half-lives?

The table lists commonly used radioactive isotopes and their half-lives. Study the table and answer the following questions.

Half-Lives of Selected Radioactive Isotopes

Radioactive Isotope Approximate Half-Life Decay Product

Rubidium-87

Thorium-232

Potassium-40

Uranium-238

Uranium-235

48.6 billion years

14.0 billion years

8.4 billion years

4.5 billion years

0.7 billion years

Strontium-87

Lead-208

Argon-40

Lead-206

Lead-207

Carbon-14 5730 years Nitrogen-14

239. Which stable element does Uranium-238 decay into?

240. After 28 billion years, what percentage of an original sample of Thorium-232 will remain undecayed?

Essay

241. Are all agents of erosion also agents of deposition? Give three specific examples to support your response.

242. Alfred Wegener developed the idea that the continents move slowly over time. Identify and describe three of the pieces of evidence Wegener used to support his theory. Then, identify the one piece of information

Wegener lacked that might have convinced more people that his idea was correct.

243. Describe the process of volcano formation at each of these three locations: divergent plate boundaries, convergent plate boundaries, and hot spots. Then describe one way that the volcanoes formed at each of these is similar.

244. Define

humidity

and

relative humidity.

Explain how each is measured.

245. Explain how clouds form. Then, identify and describe the three main cloud classifications based on shape.

246. What is the difference between weather and climate? Use examples to help you explain the difference.

247. What is used to develop Global Climate Models (GCMs)? What do they predict? Why is their accuracy difficult to evaluate?

248. Describe a comet. What is it made of? What path is its orbit? What is it like when it is close to the Sun? What is it like when it is far away from the Sun?

249. Explain the lifecycle of a lower-mass star such as our Sun.

250. Isaac built a catapult to launch balls across the yard. He wondered if the material of the ball he launched would effect how far it flew. He had a baseball, a hollow plastic ball, and a squishy rubber ball all the same size. State the question Isaac is asking. Give a hypothesis. Tell what the independent and dependent variables are.

Earth Science EOC Review

Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ANS: A

D = 78g/15 cm

3

D = 5.2 g/cm

3

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 1

STA: MA.6.A.3.6 | SC.6.N.1.1

OBJ: 2-2

2. ANS: D

Scientists use the term elevation to describe the height above sea level of a particular feature.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.6.E.6.2

OBJ: 2-5

3. ANS: B

Gravity pulled in the irregular bumps that stuck out from the newly formed Earth.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 1

STA: SC.8.E.5.4

OBJ: 2-2

4. ANS: D

Many factors such as erosion or uplift of Earth’s surface can create and affect landforms.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

OBJ: 2-5

5. ANS: C

Plains can form when sediments are deposited by water or wind.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

OBJ: 2-5

6. ANS: A

The features that cover most of Earth’s surface are plains.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.6.2

OBJ: 2-5

7. ANS: C

During the formation of Earth, the densest materials sank to form the innermost layer called the core.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 1

STA: SC.7.E.6.1

OBJ: 2-2

8. ANS: C

Gravity is the force that every object exerts on every other object because of their masses.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 1

STA: SC.6.P.13.1 | SC.8.P.8.2

OBJ: 2-2

9. ANS: A

The magnetic field is not completely stable. Over geologic time, its strength and direction vary. At several times in Earth’s history, the direction has even reversed.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

OBJ: 2-4

10. ANS: A

The mantle is the thick middle layer in the solid part of Earth. It contains more iron and magnesium than oceanic crust does. This makes it denser than either type of crust.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

OBJ: 2-2

11. ANS: C

Granite is an intrusive igneous rock.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Rocks: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

OBJ: 4-4

12. ANS: A

When minerals dissolved in water crystallize between sediment grains, the process is called cementation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Rocks: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

OBJ: 4-5

13. ANS: C

When lava cools and crystallizes, it becomes igneous rock.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Rocks: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

OBJ: 4-3

14. ANS: B

Igneous rocks that form as magma cools underground are called intrusive rocks.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Rocks: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

15. ANS: B

Chemical weathering is fastest in warm, wet places.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-3 STA: SC.6.E.6.1

OBJ: 4-3

16. ANS: C

Over thousands of years, weathering can break rock into smaller and smaller pieces. These pieces, also known as sediment, are called sand, silt, and clay.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-1 STA: SC.7.E.6.2

17. ANS: C

Repeated freezing and thawing can break rocks apart.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-2 STA: SC.7.E.6.2

18. ANS: D

The five factors of soil formation are parent material, climate, topography, biota, and time.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-4 STA: SC.7.E.6.2

19. ANS: A

The soil you see deeper down is lighter in color and probably contains larger pieces of rock.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-5 STA: SC.7.E.6.2

20. ANS: D

A 90 year-old person is considered old, but soil is still young after a thousand years.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-4 STA: SC.7.E.6.2

21. ANS: D

Abrasion is the grinding away of rock by friction or impact. Rock fragments in a stream, movement of glaciers, wind and waves all cause abrasion.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-2 STA: SC.7.E.6.2

22. ANS: B

Another process that causes chemical weathering is called oxidation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 1

OBJ: 5-2 STA: SC.6.E.6.1

23. ANS: B

Biota is all of the organisms that live in a region.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-7 STA: SC.7.E.6.2

24. ANS: A

Horizons are layers of soil formed from the movement of the products of weathering.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-5 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

25. ANS: C

Constructive and destructive processes are continually reshaping Earth’s surface.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 1

OBJ: 6-2 STA: SC.6.E.6.1

26. ANS: D

Gravity is the dominant cause of movement in mass wasting.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 3

OBJ: 6-7 STA: SC.6.P.13.2

27. ANS: B

Mass wasting is the rapid downhill movement of soil, loose rocks, and boulders.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 3

OBJ: 6-7 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.6

28. ANS: C

A cirque is a semicircular hollow that formed by glacial erosion.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 3

OBJ: 6-8 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.6.E.6.2

29. ANS: A

Outwash is well-sorted sand and gravel deposited by streams of water that flow from a melting glacier.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 3

OBJ: 6-8 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.6.E.6.2

30. ANS: D

An old stream moves slowly through flat land.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 2

OBJ: 6-4 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.6.E.6.2

31. ANS: A

The presence of thick vegetation on a slope also reduces the likelihood of a mass wasting event.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 3

OBJ: 6-7 STA: SC.6.E.6.1

32. ANS: C

If the material moves too slowly to be noticeable, causing trees and other objects to lean over, the event is called creep.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 3

OBJ: 6-7 STA: SC.6.E.6.1

33. ANS: A

A stream's energy is usually greatest in steep, mountainous areas where young streams flow rapidly downhill.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 2

OBJ: 6-4 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.6.E.6.2

34. ANS: B

The layer of Earth below the lithosphere is called the asthenosphere.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

OBJ: 7-7

35. ANS: D

Fossils of similar organisms have been found on several continents separated by oceans. If you could superimpose similar rock types onto the maps, these rocks would be in the area where Africa and South

America fit together.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 1

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

OBJ: 7-1

36. ANS: C

Over time Pangaea began breaking apart, and the continents slowly moved to their present positions.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 1

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 7-2

37. ANS: B

A transform plate boundary forms where two plates slide past each other.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 7-6

38. ANS: B

The East African Rift is an example of a continental rift.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.1

OBJ: 7-6

39. ANS: D

When an oceanic plate and a continental plate collide, the denser oceanic plate subducts under the edge of the continent. This creates a deep ocean trench. A line of volcanoes forms above the subducting plate on the edge of the continent.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5 | SC.7.E.6.7

OBJ: 7-6

40. ANS: B

When an oceanic plate and a continental plate collide, the denser oceanic plate subducts under the edge of the continent. This creates a deep ocean trench. A line of volcanoes forms above the subducting plate on the edge of the continent. This process can also occur when two oceanic plates collide.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5 | SC.7.E.6.7

OBJ: 7-6

41. ANS: A

When an oceanic and a continental plate collide, they form a convergent plate boundary.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 7-7

42. ANS: A

Convection occurs in the mantle underneath Earth’s tectonic plates. Three forces act on plates to make them move: basal drag from convection currents, ridge push at midocean ridges, and slab pull from subducting plates.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.7.1 | SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 7-7

43. ANS: A

Scientists have discovered parallel magnetic stripes on either side of the midocean ridge.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

OBJ: 7-4

44. ANS: D

Convergent plate boundaries can also occur where two continental plates collide. Because both plates are equally dense, neither plate will subduct. Both plates uplift and deform. This creates huge mountains like the

Himalayas.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 7-6

45. ANS: C

A collision between two continental plates can create tall mountains.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth Dynamics: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 8-4

46. ANS: C

Uplift brings metamorphic and igneous rocks from deep in the crust up to the surface. At the surface, erosion breaks down rocks into sediment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth Dynamics: Lesson 1 OBJ: 8-3

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

47. ANS: B

The Appalachian Mountains are an old mountain range that stretches along most of the eastern United States.

They are not as high and rugged as the Rocky Mountains in the west because they are much older. They are no longer growing. Weathering has rounded the peaks and lowered the elevations.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth Dynamics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 8-7

48. ANS: C

A fault occurs at a divergent plate boundary.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-2 STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5 | SC.7.E.6.7

49. ANS: A

Surface waves occur only on the surface. S-waves can not travel through the outer core, because it is liquid.

Only P-waves go deeper than the mantle.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-2 STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

50. ANS: B

Most earthquakes occur along plate boundaries.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-2 STA: SC.7.E.6.5 | SC.7.E.6.7

51. ANS: D

The west coast, the largest island in Hawaii and southern Alaska are all high hazard areas in regards to earthquakes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-3 STA: LA.6.2.2.3

52. ANS: C

On average, about 60 volcanoes erupt each year.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 2

OBJ: 9-4 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

53. ANS: C

Rocks and soil are enriched with valuable nutrients when a volcano erupts.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 2

OBJ: 9-5 STA: SC.6.E.7.4 | SC.7.E.6.2

54. ANS: D

Volcanoes can form along convergent and divergent plate boundaries, as well as over hotspots.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 2

OBJ: 9-4 STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.2

55. ANS: B

Earthquakes are the vibrations in the ground that result from movement along breaks in Earth’s lithosphere.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-1 STA: SC.7.E.6.5 | SC.7.E.6.7

56. ANS: A

A fault is a break in Earth’s lithosphere where one block of rock moves toward, away from, or past another.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-1 STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

57. ANS: B

Reverse fault: Forces push two blocks of rock together. One block moves up along the fault relative to the other.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-1 STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.5 | SC.7.E.6.7

58. ANS: D

Surface waves generally cause the most damage at Earth’s surface.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-1 STA: SC.7.E.6.5

59. ANS: D

Seismologists use a method called triangulation to locate an earthquake’s epicenter. This method uses speeds and travel times of seismic waves to determine the distance to the earthquake epicenter from at least three different seismometers.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-3 STA: MA.6.A.3.6

60. ANS: B

Sometimes when an organism is buried, pressure on the organism is so great that it drives off the gases and liquids from the organism’s tissues. This leaves only the carbon behind. A carbon film is the fossilized carbon outline of an organism or part of an organism.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Clues to Earth's Past: Lesson 1

OBJ: 10-1 STA: SC.7.E.6.2

61. ANS: D

Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Clues to Earth's Past: Lesson 3

OBJ: 10-6 STA: SC.8.P.8.6 | SC.8.P.8.7

62. ANS: B

Radiocarbon dating is useful for measuring the age of the remains of organisms that died up to about 50,000 years ago. In older remains, there is not enough C-14 left to measure accurately. Too much of it has decayed to N-14.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Clues to Earth's Past: Lesson 3

OBJ: 10-6 STA: SC.7.E.6.3

63. ANS: D

Replicas, or copies, of organisms can form from minerals in groundwater. They fill in the pore spaces or replace the tissues of dead organisms. Petrified wood is an example.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Clues to Earth's Past: Lesson 1

OBJ: 10-1 STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

64. ANS: B

Trace fossils include tracks, footprints, and nests.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Clues to Earth's Past: Lesson 1

OBJ: 10-1 | 10-2 STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

65. ANS: B

The parent isotope will continue to decay over time. After two half-lives, of the original parent remains. After three half-lives, remains, and so on.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Clues to Earth's Past: Lesson 3

OBJ: 10-6 STA: LA.6.2.2.3 | SC.7.E.6.3

66. ANS: C

Geologists divide time on the geologic time scale according to changes in rock layers and fossil records, not according to even divisions of time.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

OBJ: 11-1

67. ANS: B

Eons are divided into eras. Eras are divided into periods. Periods are divided into epochs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

OBJ: 11-1

68. ANS: D

Both older and younger rocks contain fossils of small, relatively simple life-forms. Only younger rocks contain larger, more complex fossils.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1

STA: SC.7.E.6.2

OBJ: 11-2

69. ANS: A

Geological evidence indicates that many continental collisions occurred during the Late Paleozoic. By the end of the Paleozoic era, Earth’s continents had formed one supercontinent—Pangaea.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.4

OBJ: 11-4

70. ANS: B

Both a meteorite impact and large-scale eruptions would have ejected ash and rock into the atmosphere, blocking out sunlight, reducing temperatures, and causing a collapse of food webs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.4 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 11-5

71. ANS: B

Cone-bearing trees such as pines appeared after the Permian extinction, early in the Mesozoic era.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.4

OBJ: 11-7

72. ANS: C

Because of their differing hip structure, dinosaurs had an erect posture, while reptiles have a sprawling posture.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

OBJ: 11-7

73. ANS: D

The Holocene epoch is the current division of the Quaternary period of the Cenozoic era. The Cenozoic era is part of the Phanerozoic eon.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 4

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

OBJ: 11-9

74. ANS: A

Mammals were so successful that the Cenozoic era is sometimes known as the age of mammals.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 4

STA: SC.7.E.6.4

OBJ: 11-9

75. ANS: C

Early humans likely migrated to North America from Asia using a land bridge that connected the continents during the Pleistocene ice age.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 4 OBJ: 11-8

76. ANS: A

Over time, organisms move across land bridges and evolve as they adapt to new environments.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1 OBJ: 11-3

STA: SC.7.L.15.3

77. ANS: C

Geologic evidence indicates that many continental collisions occurred during the Late Paleozoic.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.L.15.3

OBJ: 11-5

78. ANS: C

The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of matter from one place to another is called convection.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Atmosphere: Lesson 2

OBJ: 12-5 STA: SC.6.E.7.1 | SC.7.P.10.1

79. ANS: A

The prevailing westerlies are steady winds that flow from west to east between latitudes 30°N and 60°N, and

30°S and 60°S.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Atmosphere: Lesson 3

OBJ: 12-9 STA: SC.6.E.7.3

80. ANS: D

A sea breeze is wind that blows from the sea to the land due to local temperature and pressure differences.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Atmosphere: Lesson 3

OBJ: 12-7 STA: SC.6.E.7.3

81. ANS: B

Ozone protects Earth from ultraviolet rays that can kill plants, animals, and other organisms and cause skin cancer in humans.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Atmosphere: Lesson 1

OBJ: 12-3 STA: SC.6.E.7.4

82. ANS: C

The atmospheric layer closest to Earth’s surface is called the troposphere.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Atmosphere: Lesson 1

OBJ: 12-3 STA: SC.6.E.7.4 | SC.6.E.7.3

83. ANS: C

Radiation is the process that transfers energy from the Sun to Earth.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Atmosphere: Lesson 2

OBJ: 12-5 STA: SC.6.E.7.5

84. ANS: B

There are more molecules at sea level. This is why the air pressure is greater at sea level.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 1 OBJ: 13-2

STA: SC.6.E.7.3

85. ANS: B

Follow the vertical line up from 5°C on the horizontal scale to find the maximum water vapor in the air is just a little less than half way to 1 g/m

3.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 1

STA: MA.6.A.3.6

OBJ: 13-2

86. ANS: D

The heavier air in the center is causing a high amount of pressure, followed by the air inside the system moving out from the center.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 2

STA: SC.6.E.7.2 | SC.6.E.7.3

OBJ: 13-4

87. ANS: B

Air rushes in toward the low pressure area, causing the air inside the system to rise.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 2

STA: SC.6.E.7.2 | SC.6.E.7.3

OBJ: 13-4

88. ANS: D

Isobars are lines that connect all places on a map where pressure has the same value.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.7.2 | SC.6.E.7.3 | LA.6.2.2.3

OBJ: 13-9

89. ANS: B

Tornadoes form when thunderstorm updrafts begin to rotate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 2

STA: SC.6.E.7.2 | SC.6.E.7.3

90. ANS: C

Hurricanes are the most destructive storms on Earth.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 2

STA: SC.6.E.7.2 | SC.6.E.7.3 | SC.6.E.7.7

OBJ: 13-7

OBJ: 13-7

91. ANS: D

A station model displays data from many different weather measurements for a particular location.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.7.2 | SC.6.E.7.3

OBJ: 13-9

92. ANS: D

Maritime tropical air masses form over the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and the eastern Pacific Ocean.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 2 OBJ: 13-5

STA: SC.6.E.7.2 | SC.6.E.7.3

93. ANS: C

Showers and thunderstorms often form along cold fronts.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 2

STA: SC.6.E.7.2 | SC.6.E.7.3

OBJ: 13-5

94. ANS: A

These atmospheric conditions are measured by a radiosonde, a package of weather instruments carried many kilometers above the ground by a weather balloon.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.7.2 | SC.6.E.7.3

OBJ: 13-9

95. ANS: B

Deforestation affects global climate by increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.7.4 | SC.7.E.6.6

OBJ: 14-1

96. ANS: A

The latitude of a location affects climate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 1

STA: LA.6.2.2.3

OBJ: 14-2

97. ANS: B

The latitude of a location affects climate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 1

STA: LA.6.2.2.3

OBJ: 14-2

98. ANS: A

The latitude of a location affects climate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 1

STA: LA.6.2.2.3

OBJ: 14-2

99. ANS: A

Locations close to the equator receive more solar energy per unit of surface area annually than locations located farther north or south.

PTS: 1

STA: SC.6.E.7.1

DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 1 OBJ: 14-2

100. ANS: B

Climate deals with long-term averages. Choices a, c and d describe immediate circumstances.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 1 OBJ: 14-1

STA: SC.6.E.7.6

101. ANS: B

When the permafrost under a building thaws, it damages the foundation of the building, and eventually the building could collapse.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 3 OBJ: 14-7

102. ANS: C

Trees add carbon dioxide to the air when they are burned. They remove it during photosynthesis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.7.3 | SC.8.L.18.1

OBJ: 14-7

103. ANS: D

Since GCMs predict conditions many decades in the future, the actual data is not available to compare against the prediction for a very long time.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 3

STA: LA.6.2.2.3 | SC.6.E.7.6

OBJ: 14-8

104. ANS: D

These are all ways to control greenhouse gases in which an American 13-year-old can participate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.7.3

OBJ: 14-7

105. ANS: C

The distance from the equator, the distance above sea level and the density of roads, buildings, and population all have an effect on climate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 1 OBJ: 14-2

106. ANS: C

Radiant energy is carried by electromagnetic waves.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 1

STA: SC.8.E.5.4 | SC.8.E.5.5 | SC.8.E.5.11

OBJ: 19-1

107. ANS: A

Radio waves exist from 100 km to approximately a meter in length.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 1

STA: SC.8.E.5.11

OBJ: 19-1

108. ANS: A

Light from the Sun reaches Earth in about 8 minutes. It reaches Jupiter in about 40 minutes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 1

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

OBJ: 19-1

109. ANS: C

Moisture in the atmosphere can distort radio waves.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 1

STA: SC.8.E.5.11

OBJ: 19-2

110. ANS: A

There is less distortion due to the atmosphere at higher elevations.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 1

STA: SC.8.E.5.10 | SC.8.E.5.11

OBJ: 19-2

111. ANS: D

The Hubble Space Telescope was launched in 1990 and repaired in 1993.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 1

STA: SC.8.E.5.10 | SC.8.E.5.11

OBJ: 19-2

112. ANS: B

The first artificial satellite sent into Earth’s orbit was

Sputnik 1

. Many people think this satellite, launched in

1957 by the former Soviet Union, represents the beginning of the space age.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 2

STA: SC.8.E.5.10 | SC.8.E.5.11

OBJ: 19-4

113. ANS: B

Probes are cheaper to build than crewed spacecraft, and they can make trips that would be too long or too dangerous for humans.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 2

STA: SC.8.E.5.10 | SC.8.E.5.11

OBJ: 19-4

114. ANS: D

These probes help scientists learn how the inner planets formed, what geologic forces are active on them, and whether any of them could support life.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 3

STA: SC.8.E.5.10 | SC.8.E.5.11

OBJ: 19-6

115. ANS: C

Liquid water, organic molecules, and some source of energy are needed for life forms to survive.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 3

STA: SC.8.E.5.3 | SC.8.E.5.4

OBJ: 19-7

116. ANS: C

Without a gravity assist from Jupiter, it would take

New Horizons

5 years longer to reach Pluto.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 3 OBJ: 19-6

STA: SC.8.E.5.3 | SC.8.E.5.4

117. ANS: A

In the northern hemisphere, the Sun’s path is lowest on the December solstice and highest on the June solstice.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 1

OBJ: 20-3 STA: SC.8.E.5.9

118. ANS: A

When the maria formed, lava flowed up through the Moon’s crust and solidified, covering many of the

Moon’s craters and other features.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 2

OBJ: 20-5 STA: SC.8.E.5.9

119. ANS: B

The northern hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 1

OBJ: 20-1 STA: SC.8.E.5.9

120. ANS: C

When the north end of the axis points toward the Sun, the northern hemisphere receives the most energy and has increased temperatures.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 1

OBJ: 20-3 STA: SC.8.E.5.6 | SC.8.E.5.9

121. ANS: A

Temperatures rise and fall as a region on Earth slants toward or away from the Sun.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 1

OBJ: 20-2 STA: SC.8.E.5.6 | SC.8.E.5.9

122. ANS: B

At midnight, the first quarter moon is setting.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 2

OBJ: 20-4 STA: SC.8.E.5.6 | SC.8.E.5.7 | SC.8.E.5.9

123. ANS: A

From the new moon to the full moon, more of the moon is visible each night.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 2

OBJ: 20-4 STA: SC.8.E.5.9

124. ANS: C

The times for a revolution and a rotation of the Moon are the same.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 2

OBJ: 20-4 STA: SC.8.E.5.9

125. ANS: B

The Moon’s maria were formed when lava came up through the Moon’s crust and solidified.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 2

OBJ: 20-4 STA: SC.8.E.5.3 | SC.8.E.5.9

126. ANS: C

Because the Moon is so much closer to Earth than the Sun is, its gravity has a greater effect on the oceans.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 3

OBJ: 20-8 STA: SC.8.E.5.9

127. ANS: C

Within the atmosphere are layers of dense, colorful clouds. Because Jupiter rotates so quickly, these clouds stretch into colorful, swirling bands.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 3 OBJ: 21-8

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

128. ANS: D

Titan is larger than the planet Mercury.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 3 OBJ: 21-7

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

129. ANS: D

A meteorite is a meteoroid that strikes a planet or a moon.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 4 OBJ: 21-11

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

130. ANS: A

Long-period comets come from a zone called the Oort cloud.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 4 OBJ: 21-10

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

131. ANS: C

The greenhouse effect occurs when a planet’s atmosphere traps solar energy and causes the surface temperature to increase.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 2 OBJ: 21-5

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

132. ANS: B

The inner planets—Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars—are the planets closest to the Sun.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 2 OBJ: 21-4

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

133. ANS: A

Without the greenhouse effect, Venus would be almost 450°C cooler.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 2 OBJ: 21-6

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

134. ANS: B

An ellipse is a special kind of rounded shape that as two foci equidistant from the center of the figure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 1 OBJ: 21-3

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

135. ANS: B

The outer planets are primarily made of hydrogen and helium, materials that are usually gases on Earth.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 3 OBJ: 21-7

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

136. ANS: B

These forces apply tremendous pressure on the atmosphere of each planet. The pressure changes the gases to liquids.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 3 OBJ: 21-8

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

137. ANS: C

Titan is Saturn’s largest moon.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 4 OBJ: 21-9

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

138. ANS: C

Charged particles that stream continually away from the Sun create the solar wind.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Stars and Galaxies: Lesson 2

OBJ: 22-6 STA: SC.8.E.5.6

139. ANS: C

Blue-White stars are the hottest stars.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Stars and Galaxies: Lesson 2

OBJ: 22-7 STA: SC.8.E.5.5

140. ANS: B

Diameter 100,000 light years.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Stars and Galaxies: Lesson 4

OBJ: 22-12 STA: SC.8.E.5.2

141. ANS: B

Red stars are cooler then white stars.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Stars and Galaxies: Lesson 1

OBJ: 22-2 STA: SC.8.E.5.4 | SC.8.E.5.5

142. ANS: A

Stars can appear bright or dim depending on their distances from Earth. But stars also have absolute magnitudes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Stars and Galaxies: Lesson 1

OBJ: 22-2 STA: SC.8.E.5.5

143. ANS: A

The most common star system is a binary system where two stars orbit each other.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Stars and Galaxies: Lesson 2

OBJ: 22-7 STA: SC.8.E.5.4 | SC.8.E.5.5

144. ANS: A

A scientific law is a rule that describes a pattern in nature. Unlike a scientific theory that explains why an event occurs, a scientific law only states that an event will occur under certain circumstances.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 1

OBJ: NOS-2 STA: SC.6.N.3.1 | SC.6.N.3.2

145. ANS: C

The International System of Units (SI) is the internationally accepted system for measurement. SI contains standards of measurement, called base units. A base unit is the most common unit used in the SI system for a given measurement.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 2

OBJ: NOS-4 STA: SC.6.N.1.1

146. ANS: C

Kilo- is the SI prefix that means 1,000.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 2

OBJ: NOS-4 STA: SC.6.N.1.1

147. ANS: B

In order to round 256.035 to two significant digits, it needs to be rounded to the tens place.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 2

OBJ: NOS-5 STA: SC.6.N.1.1

148. ANS: C

The mode of a data set is the number or item that appears most often.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 2

OBJ: NOS-6 STA: SC.6.N.1.1

149. ANS: A

The independent variable is the factor that you want to test. It is changed by the investigator to observe how it affects a dependent variable. The dependent variable is the factor you observe or measure during an experiment. When the independent variable is changed, it causes the dependent variable to change.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 3

OBJ: NOS-7 STA: SC.7.N.1.4 | SC.7.N.1.3

150. ANS: D

Finally, scientists concluded that the Iceman traveled from the high alpine region in spring to his native village in the lowland valleys. There, during a conflict, the Iceman sustained a fatal injury. He retreated back to the higher elevations, where he died. Scientists recognize their hypotheses can never be proved, only supported or not supported. However, with advances in technology, scientists are able to more thoroughly investigate mysteries of nature.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 3

OBJ: NOS-8 STA: SC.6.N.1.1

COMPLETION

151. ANS: sphere

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 1

STA: SC.8.E.5.4

152. ANS: inner core

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

153. ANS: solid

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

154. ANS: Elevation

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.6.2

155. ANS: core

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.1

OBJ: 2-2

OBJ: 2-2

OBJ: 2-4

OBJ: 2-5

OBJ: 2-3

156. ANS: clastic

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Rocks: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2

157. ANS: A

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-5 STA: SC.6.E.6.1

OBJ: 4-6

158. ANS: C

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-5 STA: SC.6.E.6.1

159. ANS: Climate

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-4 STA: SC.6.E.7.2

160. ANS: pores

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-1 STA: SC.7.E.6.2

161. ANS: fertility

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-6

162. ANS: inorganic

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weathering and Soil: Lesson 2

OBJ: 5-6

163. ANS: Moraines

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 3

OBJ: 6-8 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.6.E.6.2

164. ANS: U-shaped

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 3

OBJ: 6-8 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.6.E.6.2

165. ANS:

Antarctica, Greenland

Greenland, Antarctica

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 3

OBJ: 6-8 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.6.E.6.2

166. ANS: Slab pull

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 7-7

167. ANS: continental drift

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 1

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 7-1

168. ANS: theory of plate tectonics

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

169. ANS: Transform plate boundaries

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

170. ANS: seafloor spreading

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 2

STA: SC.6.N.3.1 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 7-5

OBJ: 7-6

OBJ: 7-3

171. ANS: Tension

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth Dynamics: Lesson 1

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

172. ANS: converge

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth Dynamics: Lesson 2

STA: SC.7.E.6.5 | SC.7.E.6.7

173. ANS: basins

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth Dynamics: Lesson 4

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.7

OBJ: 8-2

OBJ: 8-3

OBJ: 8-10

174. ANS: epicenter

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-3

175. ANS: epicenter

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-3 STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

176. ANS: magnitude

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-3

177. ANS: amber

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Clues to Earth's Past: Lesson 1

OBJ: 10-1 | 10-2 STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.4

178. ANS: Africa

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 4

STA: SC.7.L.15.1

179. ANS: marsupials

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 4

STA: SC.7.L.15.1

180. ANS:

Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic

Cretaceous, Triassic, Jurassic

Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous

Triassic, Cretaceous, Jurassic

Jurassic, Triassic, Cretaceous

Jurassic, Cretaceous, Triassic

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 3

STA: SC.7.L.15.1 | SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

OBJ: 11-9

OBJ: 11-3

OBJ: 11-6

181. ANS: Pangaea

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 2

STA: LA.6.2.2.3 | SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

182. ANS: meteorologist

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 1

STA: SC.6.E.7.3 | SC.6.P.11.1

183. ANS: kinetic energy

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 1

STA: SC.6.E.7.3

184. ANS: frost

OBJ: 11-4

OBJ: 13-1

OBJ: 13-2

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 1

STA: SC.6.E.7.3

185. ANS: A

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 1

STA: SC.6.E.7.3

186. ANS: summer

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 2

STA: SC.6.E.7.3 | SC.8.E.5.9

187. ANS: wavelength

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 1

STA: SC.8.E.5.11

188. ANS: moisture

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 1

STA: SC.8.E.5.10

189. ANS: orbiter

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 1

STA: SC.8.E.5.11

OBJ: 13-2

OBJ: 14-2

OBJ: 14-5

OBJ: 19-1

OBJ: 19-2

OBJ: 19-3

190. ANS: Mars

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 3 OBJ: 19-6

191. ANS: equator

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 1

OBJ: 20-1 STA: SC.8.E.5.9

192. ANS: Earth

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 2

OBJ: 20-4 STA: SC.8.E.5.9

193. ANS: above or below

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Sun-Earth-Moon System: Lesson 3

OBJ: 20-7 STA: SC.8.E.5.9

194. ANS: rotation

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 1 OBJ: 21-3

STA: SC.8.E.5.6 | SC.8.E.5.7

195. ANS: solid

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 2 OBJ: 21-4

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

196. ANS: five

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 4 OBJ: 21-9

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

197. ANS: expanded

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Stars and Galaxies: Lesson 4

OBJ: 22-13 STA: SC.8.E.5.1 | SC.8.E.5.2

198. ANS: natural

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 1

OBJ: NOS-1 STA: SC.6.N.3.2

199. ANS: exact

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 2

OBJ: NOS-5 STA: SC.6.N.1.1

200. ANS: law

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 1

OBJ: NOS-2 STA: SC.6.N.3.1 | SC.6.N.3.2

MATCHING

201. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1 OBJ: 11-1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

202. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1 OBJ: 11-1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

203. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1 OBJ: 11-1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

204. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1 OBJ: 11-1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

205. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1 OBJ: 11-1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

206. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1 OBJ: 11-1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

207. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1 OBJ: 11-1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

208. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1 OBJ: 11-1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

209. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1 OBJ: 11-1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

210. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1 OBJ: 11-1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

SHORT ANSWER

211. ANS:

High temperatures and pressures make it difficult to drill deep wells.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 2 OBJ: 2-4

212. ANS:

A plateau is high in elevation, but has a low relief. Mountains have both a high elevation and a high relief.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 2-5

213. ANS:

Most of the water found in Earth’s hydrosphere is in salty oceans, not fit for human use.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Structure: Lesson 1

STA: SC.6.E.7.4 | SC.6.E.6.2

OBJ: 2-1

214. ANS:

In a convection current, the warmer material rises.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.7.1 | SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 7-7

215. ANS:

The edges looked as if they would fit together like the pieces of a puzzle.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 1

STA: SC.6.E.6.2

OBJ: 7-1

216. ANS:

They are similar in age and structure. They are also composed of the same rock type.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 1

STA: SC.7.E.6.2

OBJ: 7-1

217. ANS:

Arrows on the left side of Part A should circle counterclockwise; arrows on the right side of Part A should circle clockwise. Arrows on the left side of Part B should circle clockwise; arrows on the right side of Part B should circle counterclockwise.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 2

STA: SC.6.P.13.1

OBJ: 7-4

218. ANS:

In 50 million years, the Atlantic Ocean will be bigger than it is today.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 1 | To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics:

Lesson 3 OBJ: 7-1 | 7-7 STA: LA.6.2.2.3 | SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

219. ANS:

Securing the appliances would keep them from moving a great deal during an earthquake. There would be less chance that the pipeline would jar loose and cause a gas leak or that the appliances would break, which could lead to fire or an explosion.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-1

220. ANS:

The movement that occurs at plate boundaries creates volcanoes in two ways. Either the plates separate and form rifts, through which magma flows and builds up, or the plates come together, forming magma that is forced upward to Earth's surface. In contrast, volcanoes form over hot spots because magma melts rock, which is then forced upward through these spots in Earth's crust.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 2

OBJ: 9-4 STA: SC.7.E.6.5 | SC.7.E.6.7

221. ANS:

12

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Clues to Earth's Past: Lesson 2

OBJ: 10-4 STA: MA.6.A.3.6 | SC.7.E.6.3

222. ANS:

25%

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Clues to Earth's Past: Lesson 3

OBJ: 10-6 STA: SC.7.E.6.3

223. ANS:

Mytilus

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1

STA: SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

224. ANS:

Gonioteuthis

; it lived for the briefest period.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Geologic Time: Lesson 1

STA: SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.3 | SC.7.E.6.4

OBJ: 11-1

OBJ: 11-1

225. ANS:

Possible answer: The sailors were traveling in the doldrums. Sometimes sailors found little or no wind to power their boat near the equator. As the Sun heats the air and water near the equator, the air rises, creating low pressure and little wind.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Atmosphere: Lesson 3

OBJ: 12-8 STA: SC.6.E.7.3

NOT: Look at a globe and imagine the way that the air currents would be moving along the equator.

226. ANS:

The three methods of energy transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Atmosphere: Lesson 2

OBJ: 12-5 STA: SC.6.E.7.1

227. ANS:

Through convection, currents of warm air rise toward the ceiling, cool, then sink toward the floor where they are heated and rise again. In the same way, convection currents in the atmosphere cause warm air at Earth’s surface to rise high above the ground where it expands and cools. Then it sinks back to the surface where it is warmed, and the process continues.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earth's Atmosphere: Lesson 2

OBJ: 12-5 STA: SC.6.E.7.1 | SC.6.E.7.4

228. ANS:

They receive less solar energy per unit of surface area.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 1

STA: SC.8.E.5.9

OBJ: 14-2

229. ANS:

Climate is the long term average of any region’s weather conditions.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 1

STA: SC.6.E.7.6

OBJ: 14-1

230. ANS:

Any two of the following: ice cores, fossilized pollen, ocean sediments, growth rings of trees

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 1 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 2

STA: SC.6.E.7.3

231. ANS:

It would be colder.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 3

STA: SC.6.E.7.3 | SC.6.E.7.4 | SC.6.E.7.5

OBJ: 14-4

OBJ: 14-7

232. ANS:

Sample answer: understanding how the Sun and other bodies in the solar system influence Earth, understanding how Earth was formed, and understanding how Earth supports life

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 1-LOW

REF: To review this topic refer to Exploring Space: Lesson 3

STA: SC.8.E.5.10 | SC.8.E.5.11

OBJ: 19-8

233. ANS: a supergiant

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Stars and Galaxies: Lesson 2

OBJ: 22-7 STA: SC.8.E.5.5

234. ANS:

No, a blue shift would indicate that the galaxies were moving toward the Local Group. That would indicate that the universe was contracting, not expanding, as the Big Bang theory states.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Stars and Galaxies: Lesson 4

OBJ: 22-13 STA: SC.8.E.5.5

235. ANS:

0.044

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 2

OBJ: NOS-5 STA: MA.6.S.6.2

PROBLEM

236. ANS:

6 minutes 30 seconds

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-3 STA: MA.6.A.3.6

237. ANS:

5,500 km

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 1

OBJ: 9-3 STA: MA.6.A.3.6

238. ANS: parent: 20 g; daughter: 60 g

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Clues to Earth's Past: Lesson 3

OBJ: 10-6 STA: MA.6.A.3.6 | SC.7.E.6.3

239. ANS:

Lead-206

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Clues to Earth's Past: Lesson 3

OBJ: 10-6 STA: MA.6.A.3.6 | SC.7.E.6.3

240. ANS:

25 percent

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 6 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Clues to Earth's Past: Lesson 3

OBJ: 10-6 STA: MA.6.A.3.6 | SC.7.E.6.3

ESSAY

241. ANS:

Yes, all agents of erosion are also agents of deposition. After all, materials that are worn away and moved must be deposited somewhere else. For example, a river is an agent of erosion when it picks up sediment as it moves. It is an agent of deposition when its flow slows and the sediments fall out of the moving water. A glacier also both erodes and deposits material. As it moves over land, a glacier picks up rocks and other sediment. When the glacier begins to melt, the rocks and sediments are deposited. Wind also erodes and carries materials, such as sand. When the air flow slows down, the materials are deposited. In that way, wind is both an agent of erosion and deposition.

Score

4

3

Description

Student’s response includes: agents of erosion are also agents of deposition three examples that support the fact that agents of erosion are also agents of deposition

Student’s response includes three points from the following: agents of erosion are also agents of deposition examples that support the fact that agents of erosion are also agents of deposition

2

1

Student’s response includes two points from the following: agents of erosion are also agents of deposition examples that support the fact that agents of erosion are also agents of deposition

Student’s response includes one point from the following: agents of erosion are also agents of deposition examples that support the fact that agents of erosion are also agents of deposition

0

Student’s response is totally incorrect or irrelevant.

No student response.

Blank

PTS: 4 DIF: Bloom's Level 6 | DOK 4-HIGH

REF: To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 1 | To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 2 | To review this topic refer to Erosion and Deposition: Lesson 3

OBJ: 6-2 | 6-5 | 6-8 STA: SC.6.E.6.1 | SC.6.E.6.2

242. ANS:

Evidence that Wegener used to support his theory included the way that the continents seemed to fit together like puzzle pieces, the location of similar fossils on separate continents, the presence of fossils from differing climatic conditions than were currently present in an area, and the presence of similar rock structures found on different continents. The one piece of information Wegener lacked that might have led more people to believe his idea was the explanation of the process or mechanism that moves the continents.

Score

4

3

Description

Student’s response includes : three pieces of evidence Wegener used to support his idea identification of the information Wegener was missing when he proposed the idea of continental drift

Student’s response includes three points from the following: three pieces of evidence Wegener used to support his idea identification of the information Wegener was missing when he proposed the idea of continental drift

2

1

0

Student’s response includes two points from the following : three pieces of evidence Wegener used to support his idea identification of the information Wegener was missing when he proposed the idea of continental drift

Student’s response includes one point from the following : three pieces of evidence Wegener used to support his idea identification of the information Wegener was missing when he proposed the idea of continental drift

Student’s response is totally incorrect or irrelevant.

No student response.

Blank

PTS: 4 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Plate Tectonics: Lesson 1

STA: LA.6.2.2.3 | SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5

OBJ: 7-1 | 7-2

243. ANS:

At divergent plate boundaries, rifts, or cracks, form as the plates separate. These rifts serve as passageways for magma to flow from the mantle to Earth’s surface. At convergent place boundaries, one plate sinks below another. When a plate sinks, part of it is melted by the heat of the mantle. The melted material then moves upward. Hot spots are areas where large bodies of magma get forced upward through the mantle and crust at a place that is not near a plate boundary. One thing the volcanoes at all of these locations have in common is that they are places where magma flows to Earth’s surface.

Score Description

4

3

2

1

0

Student’s response includes: description of how volcanoes form at divergent boundaries description of how volcanoes format convergent boundaries description of how volcanoes form at hot spots one characteristic all volcanoes have in common

Student’s response includes three of the following: description of how volcanoes form at divergent boundaries description of how volcanoes format convergent boundaries description of how volcanoes form at hot spots one characteristic all volcanoes have in common

Student’s response includes two of the following: description of how volcanoes form at divergent boundaries description of how volcanoes format convergent boundaries description of how volcanoes form at hot spots one characteristic all volcanoes have in common

Student’s response includes one of the following: description of how volcanoes form at divergent boundaries description of how volcanoes format convergent boundaries description of how volcanoes form at hot spots one characteristic all volcanoes have in common

Student’s response is totally incorrect or irrelevant.

No student response.

Blank

PTS: 4 DIF: Bloom's Level 5 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Lesson 2

OBJ: 9-4 STA: SC.7.E.6.1 | SC.7.E.6.2 | SC.7.E.6.5 | SC.7.E.6.7

244. ANS:

Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. It is measured by finding how many grams of water are in each cubic meter of air. Relative humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air could contain at that temperature. It is measured as a percent

(amount present/amount possible 100).

Score

4

Description

Student’s response includes: definition of humidity mention of humidity as grams per cubic meter definition of relative humidity mention of relative humidity as a percentage

3

2

Student’s response includes three of the following: definition of humidity mention of humidity as grams per cubic meter definition of relative humidity mention of relative humidity as a percentage

Student’s response includes two of the following: definition of humidity mention of humidity as grams per cubic meter definition of relative humidity

1

0

mention of relative humidity as a percentage

Student’s response includes one of the following: definition of humidity mention of humidity as grams per cubic meter definition of relative humidity mention of relative humidity as a percentage

Student’s response it totally incorrect or irrelevant.

No student response.

Blank

PTS: 4 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 1

STA: SC.6.E.7.2 | SC.6.E.7.3

OBJ: 13-2

245. ANS:

Clouds form when warm air is forced upward and cools. As air cools, it can hold less moisture, and the water vapor condenses to form tiny droplets. Billions of these tiny droplets together form a cloud. The three main classifications of clouds, based upon shape, are cumulus, cirrus, and stratus. Cumulus clouds are puffy clouds with flat bases. Cirrus clouds are curly, wispy, or feathery in shape. Stratus clouds are even sheets of clouds that cover a large area.

Score

4

Description

Student’s response includes: correct description of cloud formation; correct description of cumulus clouds; correct description of stratus clouds; correct description of cirrus clouds

3

2

1

0

Student’s response includes three of the following: correct description of cloud formation; correct description of cumulus clouds; correct description of stratus clouds; correct description of cirrus clouds

Student’s response includes two of the following: correct description of cloud formation; correct description of cumulus clouds; correct description of stratus clouds; correct description of cirrus clouds

Student’s response includes one of the following: correct description of cloud formation; correct description of cumulus clouds; correct description of stratus clouds; correct description of cirrus clouds

Student’s response it totally incorrect or irrelevant.

No student response.

Blank

PTS: 4 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Weather: Lesson 1

STA: SC.6.E.7.3 | SC.6.E.7.4

OBJ: 13-2

246. ANS:

Weather describes the atmospheric conditions of a certain place at a certain time. For example, it might be raining and 54 degrees right now where I am. Climate describes long-term average weather conditions. The climate of a dessert is dry throughout the year, even though there are occasional rainstorms.

Score

4

Description

Student’s response includes the following: correct definition of weather an example of weather, including specific conditions and location correct definition of climate an example of climate, including a region and a longer span of time

3

2

1

0

Blank

Student’s response includes 3 points from the following: correct definition of weather an example of weather, including specific conditions and location correct definition of climate an example of climate, including a region and a longer span of time

Student’s response includes 2 points from the following: correct definition of weather an example of weather, including specific conditions and location correct definition of climate an example of climate, including a region and a longer span of time

Student’s response includes 1 point from the following: correct definition of weather an example of weather, including specific conditions and location correct definition of climate an example of climate, including a region and a longer span of time

Student’s response is totally incorrect or irrelevant.

No student response.

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 1

STA: SC.6.E.7.6 | SC.6.E.7.3 | SC.6.E.7.4

OBJ: 14-1

247. ANS:

GCMs are developed using mathematics and physics. GCMs predict temperature, amount of precipitation, wind speeds. GCMs are long term predictions, so the predictions cannot be compared to the actual outcome for several decades.

Score Description

4

Student’s response includes the following:

GCMs are developed using mathematics and physics.

GCMs predict temperature, amount of precipitation, wind speeds

GCMs are long term predictions, so the predictions cannot be compared to the actual outcome for several decades.

3

2

1

0

Student’s response includes 3 points from the following:

GCMs are developed using mathematics and physics.

GCMs predict temperature, amount of precipitation, wind speeds

GCMs are long term predictions, so the predictions cannot be compared to the actual outcome for several decades.

Student’s response includes 2 points from the following:

GCMs are developed using mathematics and physics.

GCMs predict temperature, amount of precipitation, wind speeds

GCMs are long term predictions, so the predictions cannot be compared to the actual outcome for several decades.

Student’s response includes 1 point from the following:

GCMs are developed using mathematics and physics.

GCMs predict temperature, amount of precipitation, wind speeds

GCMs are long term predictions, so the predictions cannot be compared to the actual outcome for several decades.

Student’s response is totally incorrect or irrelevant.

No student response.

Blank

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Climate: Lesson 3

STA: MA.6.A.3.6 | SC.6.E.7.3 | SC.6.E.7.5

OBJ: 14-8

248. ANS:

A comet is a mixture of rock, ice, and dust held loosely together by their gravitational pull of the particles.

Comets travel in very long stretched out elliptical orbits. When they are far from the Sun the particles are closer together. When a comet nears the Sun, the energy from the Sun heats the ice into a gas and pushes this gas and the dust particles out into two separate glowing tails. The material that stays closer together is called the nucleus of the comet and it glows as well.

Score

4

Description

Student’s response includes: the make up of a comet the path of the orbit the lack of a tail far from the Sun

3

2

the glowing tails and nucleus near the Sun

Student’s response includes three points from the following: the make up of a comet the path of the orbit the lack of a tail far from the Sun the glowing tails and nucleus near the Sun

Student’s response includes two points from the following: the make up of a comet the path of the orbit the lack of a tail far from the Sun the glowing tails and nucleus near the Sun

1

0

Student’s response includes one point from the following: the make up of a comet the path of the orbit the lack of a tail far from the Sun the glowing tails and nucleus near the Sun

Student’s response is totally incorrect or irrelevant.

No student response.

Blank

PTS: 4 DIF: Bloom's Level 4 | DOK 3-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to The Solar System: Lesson 4 OBJ: 21-10

STA: SC.8.E.5.7

249. ANS:

Stars form deep inside clouds of gas and dust called a nebula. Gravity causes the densest parts to collapse, forming regions called protostars. Protostars continue to contract, pulling in surrounding gas, until nuclear fusion to begins. At this point the star is a main-sequence star. When its hydrogen supply is nearly gone, a lower-mass star begins to cast off its gases to become a white dwarf--a hot, dense, slowly cooling sphere of carbon.

Score

4

3

2

1

Description

Student’s response includes mention of a nebula, protostar, main-sequence and white dwarf.

Student’s response includes mention of three of the following: nebula, protostar, main-sequence and white dwarf.

Student’s response includes mention of two of the following nebula, protostar, main-sequence and white dwarf.

Student’s response includes mention of one of the following nebula, protostar, main-sequence and white dwarf.

0

Student’s response is totally incorrect or irrelevant.

No student response.

Blank

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 2 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Stars and Galaxies: Lesson 3

OBJ: 22-8 STA: SC.8.E.5.4 | SC.8.E.5.5

250. ANS:

Sample answer: question: Does the type of ball thrown from the catapult effect how far it will fly? hypothesis: The baseball will fly the farthest. independent variable: the material the ball is made of dependent variable: distance the ball flies

Score Description

4

3

Student’s response includes a question, hypothesis, independent (type of ball), and dependent (distance) variables.

Student’s response includes three points from the following:

2

1

0

a question, hypothesis, independent (type of ball), and dependent

(distance) variables.

Student’s response includes two points from the following: a question, hypothesis, independent (type of ball), and dependent

(distance) variables.

Student’s response includes one point from the following: a question, hypothesis, independent (type of ball), and dependent

(distance) variables.

Student’s response is totally incorrect or irrelevant.

No student response.

Blank

PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level 3 | DOK 2-MOD

REF: To review this topic refer to Methods of Science: Lesson 1

OBJ: NOS-8 STA: SC.7.N.1.4

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