SERI MERAGA CONSTRUCTION SDN. BHD. PROJECT OFFICE, SUITE 21-01,LEVEL 21, MENARA SARAWAK ENTERPRISE , JALAN BUKIT MELDRUM, 80300 JOHOR BAHRU, JOHOR DARUL TAKZIM. NORSHAHIRA BINTI MOHAMAD SHAHI 820819-05-5346 CA030066 PROFILE NAME MOHAMAD : NORSHAHIRA BINTI SHAHI IC NO. : 820819-05-5346 MATRIKS NO. : CA030066 COURSE : DEGREE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING ADDRESS : NO 5, JALAN PENYIARAN 51, TAMAN UNIVERSITI, 81300, SKUDAI, TAMAN UNIVERSITI TELEPHONE NO : 07-5203276 019-7463286 COMP. ADDRESS : SERI MERAGA CONST. SDN. BHD. PROJECT OFFICE, SUITE 21-01,LEVEL 21, MENARA SARAWAK ENTERPRISE , JALAN BUKIT MELDRUM, 80300 JOHOR BAHRU, JOHOR DARUL TAKZIM. PROJECT BERSEPADU : GERBANG SELATAN DURATION : 04TH APRIL 05 –12TH JUNE 05 CONTENT DESCRIPTION PAGES Profile Acknowledgement Introduction Company Background • Management Policy • SMC Representatives • Organization Chart Training Schedule Work Description • 1 3 5 9 12 18 a 19 25 Construction Of Bridge 1 • Component / Type Of Bridge • Construction Method i. ii. Setting Out Survey iii. Construction of In- Situ Trapezoidal Box Girder Sequence of Concrete Casting for Trapezoidal Box Girder Superstructure iv. v. vi. vii. Construction of Pilecap, Pier Column and Headstock Reinforcement In – situ Concrete – Concreting Method Curing 30 32 33 36 38 42 43 44 viii. ix. x. xi. Expansion Joint Post Tensioning Stressing Bearing Construction of Parapet • Material • Machinery • Safety Plan Comment Conclusion Appendix • • • • Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 46 48 58 64 69 70 71 74 75 1 2 3 4 – paperwork - pictures - drawing – brochure ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It give me a great pleasure to express my greatest appreciation to all those people who had helped me along the training until writing this report. First and foremost, I would like to express my grateful to Allah SWT because bring me here and give a good health. Secondly, I would like to thanks to my family for all their support, love and prayer. Next, I also like to thank to these people: En. Kamarudeen b. Ninggal (Project Manager) En. Abdul Rahim b. Sumin @ Tulos (Construction Manager) Mr. Eliseo S. Ramos (Sr. Planning Engineer) Cik Zarinah bte Zailani (QA/QC) En. Mohd Azmil Md Kusairi (Site Engineer) Pn. Ramlah bte Ikan (Quantity Surveyor) En.Wan Yaakob bin Hj Wan Nik ( Safety & Health Officer ) En. Isnin Bero (Sr.Site Supervisor) Mr. Hashim bin Cheop (Sr. Surveyor) En. Jony Masrizal bin Sjafrial (Supervisor) Cik Intan Fazira bte. Paing ( Assistant QA/QC ) Cik Faridah bte. Tarmiji ( Assistant Planning ) And entire of SMC staff for their guidance and knowledge, skill and for encouraging me through this practical training since the first day I am in SMC. Thanks because guide and give me to perform here. With their all accompany this report would be a reality. Once again, I am grateful for all their helping me to complete my report successfully. Thank you.. DESIGN,CONSTRUCTION,COMPLETION,AND COMMISSIONING OF INTERGRATED CUSTOMS IMMIGRATION AND QUARANTINE COMPLEX : AND ROAD BRIDGE,RAIL BRIDGE AND ASSOCIATED WORKS AT JOHOR BAHRU,JOHOR :-PACKAGE ICW-01 (View is taken from www.Gerbang.com.my ) before (photo taken : 5.08.2003 ) now ( photo taken : 1.06.2005 ) COMPANY BACKGROUND Company Name :SERI MERAGA CONSTRUCTION SDN BHD Date of Incorporation :17 January 1992 Company Registration No : 232707 D Business Address :No. 18, 1st, 2nd and 3rd floor Jalan Setiawangsa 10, Taman Setiawangsa 54200 Kuala Lumpur. Tel: 03-42568011 (5lines) Fax: 03-42568311,03-42569085 Telex: MA 30481 AZY Authorized Capital :RM10000000 Paid up Capital :RM5200000 Directors :Dato Haji Zulhasnan bin Rafique Datin Hjh Setanariyah binti AB. Razak Zuraya binti Mohd Rafique Hj Zafrullah bin MD Noor Mohamad Raffique bin Osman Shareholders : Seri Meraga Consolidated SDN BHD Senior Management :1. Dato Hj Zulhasnan bin Rafique (Executive Chairman) 2. Hj Zafrullah bin MD Noor (Executive Director) 3. Mohamad Raffique bin Osman (Director (operation)) 4. Noraziah Hussin (Senior Account Exacutive) 5.Muhamad Nadzri bin Abdul Hamid (Deputy General Manager) 6. Ir. Mustakim bin Rashid (Sr. Project Manager (engineering)) 7. Eliseo Sil Va Ramos ( Sr.Planning Engineer ) 8. En.Wan Yaakob bin Hj Wan Nik ( Safety and Health Coordinator) 9. Hashim bin Cheop (Chief Surveyor (civil)) Name of Banker :Bumiputra- Commerce Bank Berhad, Wisma Cosway, Jalan Raja Chulan, 50718 Kuala Lumpur. RHB Bank Kuala Lumpur Main Branch Level 1 Tower 2 RHB Center, Jalan Tun Razak 50400 Kuala Lumpur Lawyer :Kumar Jaspal Quah and Aishah 7th floor, Menara Promet Jalan Sultan Ismail 50250 Kuala Lumpur. Zul Rafique & Partners Suite 17.01, 17th Floor Menara Pan Global 8 Lorong P. Ramlee 50250 Kuala Lumpur. Nature of Business :Civil including Landscape, Marine Engineering and Building Construction Registrations :PKK Class ‘A’ (Bumiputra) CIDB Grade ‘G7’ Category CE and B Petronas Grade ‘G7’ Malaysia Airports BHD Class ‘A’ Keretapi Tanah Melayu BHD Persatuan Kontraktor-Kontraktor Melayu Malaysia (ordinary member) Master Builders Association Malaysia (ordinary member) Dewan Perniagaan Melayu Malaysia DBKL (ordinary member) Tenaga Nasional BHD Malaysia Resources Corporation BHD MANAGEMENT POLICY Company Policy Seri Meraga Construction Sdn Bhd, is engaged in the provision of construction services for civil engineering, infrastructure, building and landscaping works shall be committed to ensure that the quality requirements of our clients are met and continually improved through the following: • All projects and services undertaken will be implement in such a manner that they will meet our clients’ need and expectation. • To deliver quality products and services through quality management, quality systems and quality culture which is accomplished through teamwork, training and professionalism. • The quality of final products and services will be improved through continuous review and advancement of our construction processes and quality assurance system. • The skills of our qualified and dedicated workforce at all levels will be enhanced to serve our clients better. • Safe and healthy work environment is maintained at all times. • To develop, implement and maintain a quality system conforming to the International Standard of ISO 9001:2000. Company Quality Objective Seri Meraga Construction Sdn Bhd, has set up quality objectives as follows: • Project Completion To complete all projects undertaken within the timeframe with proper work planning and efficient utilization of resources and to ensure rectification of defects within the Period of Making Good Defect of 31/2 Month. • Quality System Administration (QSA) To implement the Quality System Administration at all levels and fully understanding and usage of Quality System Documents. To achieve 100% close out on Non conformance Report (NCR) within the expected datelines. • Human Resource Management To plan and implement minimum 70% structured training program (internally and externally) for all staff. • Client Satisfaction To ensure client’s needs are satisfied and to maintain client’s satisfaction level minimum at 85% per project. Project Objective • To solve towards defect free engineering construction works within budgeted cost and time allocated for the project. • To ensure close monitoring and control of all suppliers, subcontractor, products, material, and services towards achieving stipulated workmanship and quality levels. • To minimize wastage of procured material such as steel bar, sand etc to a maximum of 5%. To close all non-conformance report (NCR) with the expected dateline agreed between client/ subcontractors SMC REPRESENTATIVES Project Director Responsibility • Report directly to Seri Meraga Construction C.E.O. • Heads the SMC group to design & built Penang Elevated Highway Project. • Delegate his works to the Operation Director when necessary. Operation Director Responsibilities • Report directly to Project Director. • Handle commercial and contractual matters with Sub contractors. Sr. Project Manager Responsibilities • Report directly to the Operation Director • Coordinate Monthly Program and Execution of Work • Manage the production team to ensure timely and successful completion of the works • Review, inspect, evaluate and report quality and progress of the work and workmanship and adjust schedule if necessary. • Receive, analysis and report all progress reports, costs, schedules and other reports. • Liaison with Employer Representatives • Attend meeting with the client as and when necessary. • Direct Sub-Contractors performance • Ensure corrective actions are implemented as requested • Handle corrective and preventive measures once non-conformities are raise • Delegates works to the Construction Manager when necessary • Hold ultimate responsibility for Company’s quality • Review and Approve PQP • Approve Inspection and Test Plan • Review and Approve NCR • Control and monitor progress of the works • Delegate his power to the Construction Manager when necessary Construction Manager Responsibilities • Report to the Sr. Project Manager • Review Project Quality Plan (PQP) • Approve Sub-contractors’ Quality Plan • Ensure compliance of the Works • Assist QA Engineer in fulfilling his responsibilities • Raise non-conformances reports • Oversees the day-to-day site administration operations. • Attend meeting with the client as and when necessary. • Responsible in controlling/operation of: -Staff and labor site establishment - Cabins -Site Office / equipment / aset -Hygiene -Power / water supply, etc. • Equipment and tools; calibration and safe keeping • Handle petty cash Sr. Design Coordinator & QA/QC Responsibilities • Report directly to Construction Manager • Heads the QA/QC section • Prepare Project Quality Plan in connection with the Sr. Project Manager • Issue NCR’s corrective / preventive action request as maintain Status list • Drawing Register / SDA register • Review SDA & NCR and issue to consultant • Review Sub-contractor P.T.S. • Review design and liaison with consultant • Review effectiveness and efficiency of QA System Sr. Planning Engineer Responsibilities • Report directly to Construction Manager • Prepare planning and sequencing of construction operation • Analysis of the programs of the work carried out and to be carried out, by preparing statistical reports and suggesting actions for improvement • Preparation and collection of data and working out the job monthly report QA/QC Engineer Responsibilities • Report directly to Sr. Design coordinator & QA/QC • Responsible for the quality of the works of sub-contractors and their implementation of the quality system • Prepare Company Purchasing Technical Specifications • Reviews Inspection and Test Plans • Review of Method Statement prepared by subcontractors • Defines responsible parties for QVF management • Establish and maintain Quality Verification Files on site • Conduct audits – sub-contractors Site Engineers Responsibilities • Report directly to Construction Manager • Manages a section of the site works in accordance with the Contract Requirement • Deals directly with sub-contractor • Co-ordinate Sub-Contractors on a day to day basis • Monitor progress of work • Propose solutions to NCR’s • Verification of QVF system implementation by sub-contractors • Attend and construct meeting with sub-contractor • Attend meeting with client / consultant if necessary • Acknowledge receipt of material on site Safety Officer Responsibilities • Check that all equipment are approved in compliance with the local law/ regulation • Check that the personnel protective equipment utilized by personnel are in good conditions and compatible with health and welfare • Check that during the execution of all phases of work hygienic and safety rules are applied • Inform all the workers about health and safety rules means or brochures, signals and meetings • Detection and elimination of hazardous locations and operations Chief Surveyor & Surveyors Responsibilities • Manage the Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment (survey equipment), including storage, maintenance, checking, arranging calibration and updating records • Performs and Record survey works of setting out of works carried out. • Undertake as built surveys. • Maintain field books. • Responsible for the equipment issued to him • Establish and maintain survey points and bench marks Sr. Supervisors & Supervisors Responsibilities • Supervise and direct workmen and operator / driver • Ensure through supervision and verification (checking) that the works Conform to the drawings with regard to the specified tolerances and acceptance criteria • Ensure safety working practices are maintained • Liaison with the Site Engineer and Surveyor • Conduct inspections of the Works and Material deliveries’ as directed by Construction Manager • Prepare Work Inspection Records • Report discrepancies in drawings to Site Engineer Document Controller Responsibilities • Monitor submission status and maintain register in liaison with all departments • Maintain document register up to date • Stamps document with their current status TRAINING SCHEDULE DURATION 4/4 ~ 24/4/2005 25/4 ~ 16/5/2005 17/5 ~ 12/6/2005 Q.S DEPT. SITE QA/QC DEPT TRAINEE IRA From 4/4/2005 ~ 24/4/2005 - Report to SMCSB JB - Exposed about the company background & project that been going on by QA/QC Engineer. - Working under QS Department . 1. Check the total hours for normal and overtime working hours from subcontractor to claim to main contractor after one month. 2. Updating and key in data for interim progress claim No. 18 to Gerbang Perdana Sdn. Bhd. Gerbang Perdana Shd. Bhd is our client. ( please refer to Appendix 1 ) This progress must be done by sub-con to claim to main-con after once of the works are completed. 3. Updating and key in data for interim progress claim (certificate No. 15) for Geolab (M). Sdn. Bhd and other sub-contractor. ( please refer to Appendix 1 ) Name of the subcontractor are : Giga Engineering & Construction Sdn. Bhd – for Superstructure for Bridge 1 and Underpass 5 and variation order GEOLAB (M) SDN BHD – Provide all of testing for this project. Such as to carry out Field Density test, to carry out atterberg limit and to carry out the laboratory test such as sieve analysis (without hydrometer), flakiness index, california bearing ratio (CBR) soaked,PH value, and aggregate crushing value. Kompas Bina Sdn Bhd – for superstructure for Bridge 6 & Underpass 2 , 3 & 6. Sinnayah & Sons Sdn. Bhd – for roadworks. 4. Find the difference between Gerbang Perdana Sdn. Bhd payment and our claim from bill of quantity item. It is about 5 million. From 25/4/2005 – 16/5/2005 Working on site. 1. Study how to read plan or drawing and identified symbol on the drawing 2. Update the daily material delivery record for wash sand. The updating is refer from the delivery order sort by a day. 3. Find the location of pipe crossing and catchpit on site. 4. Check the progress drainage work on site. Must to make sure the working area are completed by the sub-contractor. ( please refer to Appendix 1 ) 5. Working for surveyor department. Find out and key in cross section from the drawing the original ground level for L1, and L2. ( please refer Appendix 1 ) 6. Go to the site and see what have happen on site. Base from the job sheet that have completed by the supervisor a day before. ( please refer to Appendix 1 ) 7. Learn and study the Daily Site Diary (why this diary have to do and how to do it properly) . Site Engineer is responsible on it. 8. Follow the M&E site supervisor and surveyor to detect the existing cable before excavating. ( see how they work and use the instrument. ) 9. Stamps the delivery order. From 17/5/2005 ~ 12/6/2005 Working under QA/QC department. 1. Study and read the method statement, Project Quality Plan (PQP) and Tender for INTERCHANGE NO.1. 2. Help the QA/QC TO prepare the paperwork for method statement. The title of method statement is ‘Traffic Lights Installation Procedures’ and ‘Post Tensioning Work For Bridge 2’. 3. Updating and filing the quality record for drainage. 4. Updating the environmental monitoring report. ( please refer to Appendix 1 ) 5. Updating the outstanding work order for Geolab (M) Sdn. Bhd. ( please refer to Appendix 1 ) 6. Updating record the Register Of Request for Inspection (RIN). REQUEST FOR INSPECTION The most important thing before starting any progress of work is RIN. The request for inspection (RIN) is a request form that request by the contaractor (SMCSB) for the employer’s representative (Gerbang Perdana Sdn. Bhd.) to inspect the preparation or completion of a certain element of the works or before proceeding with the next stage in such work It responsible by the Engineer. RIN shall be dated and numbered in an approved sequence and submitted for each of the element of works. It shall state the precise element of works to be inspected, time and date, and the relevant drawing reference number and revision for the works. There have 3 carbon coppies. The original submitted to the employer’s representative (Gerbang Perdana Sdn. Bhd.),one for contractor’s record office (SMCSB),and for contractor’s work section (SMCSB site office). All the record with complete comment from consultant and verification from Construction Manager In Charge, will update by QA/QC department for Quality Record. A notification copy of the RIN shall be submitted to the employer’s representative at least 48 hours prior to work being ready on-site. After all the procedure, we can proceed the work with the permission. ( On the next page is sample of Request For Inspection ) GERBANG SELATAN BERSEPADU PROJECT REQUEST FOR INSPECTION (RIN) RIN NO : (ICW1/ ) To be assigned by Contractor DESCRIPTION OF WORKS (By Contractor) Location / Level: ………………………………………..……………………... Grid Line: ….…………….……………...………… Drawing/Sketch/Plan/Spec No: …………………...……………………………………………………………………...(attached) Hold Point: The following works will be ready for inspection at …………………………...…..…... (date) on .............. (time) ….……………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………... ….……………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………... Witness Point: The following works is intended to commence at …………..............................… (date) on ……........ (time) ….……………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………... ….……………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………... Requested by: Signature: …..……………………….…. Date/Time: ...….………/………... RIN must be submitted to the Construction Manager in advance. Refer to RIN Procedures for the time limit to submit RIN. PPPP=Package Number, D=Discipline, TTT=Trade ID, XXX=Running number for that particular Package. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (By Construction Manager or Senior Manager in charge) Received by: Signature: ………………………....…… Date/Time: ……....….../…….….. Construction Manager to revert a duplicate cover copy to Contractor. Contractor to forward original to relevant Consultant, immediately. CONSULTANT’S COMMENT (By Relevant RA/RE/ARA/ARE/CoW) (Tick where appropriate) Hold Point (Formal approval required before proceeding with the next stage of works) Results / Inspection passed.* The contractor is allowed to proceed with the next stage of works. Please rectify the following. Re-inspection is required / not required.* (*delete as appropriate) ….……………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………... ….……………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………... Witness Point (For notification) Witnessing not required. The contractor is allowed to proceed with the following works. Works duly witnessed without further comments / with * the following comments (*delete as appropriate) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Commented By: Signature: …………………….…..……… Date/Time: …….….…/………... Consultant to return the original form to the Construction Manager or Senior Manager immediately after inspection. VERIFICATION (By Construction Manager or Senior Manager in charge) Comments: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... Verified by: Signature:. ……………………………..... Date/Time: …….../….…..... Construction Manager to distribute copies with attachments and forward original to Engineering Department for compilation. Copies : Contractor and Relevant Consultant. Original: Engineering Department FORM-PR-CM-401 R3 GERBANG SELATAN BERSEPADU PROJECT CLIENT KERAJAAN MALAYSIA CONSULTANT SMHB SDN.BHD. CONTRACTOR GERBANG PERDANA SDN.BHD. SUB. CONTRACTOR SERI MERAGA CONSTRUCTION SDN.BHD CONTRACT TITLE INTERCHANGE NO. 1 ( ICW – 01 ) PROJECT INFORMATION : Commencement Date : 1st August 2003 Completion Date : 24th August 2003 Duration : 647 Days Cost : RM 134,857,803.53 Introduction The Interchange No.1 is situated at the northern end of the CIQ Complex and functions to facilitate traffic entering and existing the complex as well as traffic using Jalan Lingkaran Dalam and Stulang Darat. This interchange consists of three tiers : The lowest tier (first tier) is an underpass linking Jalan Stulang Darat and the new CIQ, second tier is a single point diamond configuration with 2 phases of traffic light, and overpass bridge crossing the single point diamond configuration will be as the 3rd tier. This construction of Interchange will facilitate and further enchanced the traffic clearing system on the future of the CIQ. Scope of Works for Interchange No. 1 1) Permanent Works The scope of the works for the contract for the contract for the ‘Construction of Interchange No. 1’ includes, but is not limited to, the following. • Project planning and establish a detailed work programme indicating the construction phasing, temporary works such as temporary access, all major works items in master time location chart, with critical path analysis. • Provide soil laboratory with equipment, vehicles and survey equipment. • Site clearing covers the whole site with the boundary at 2m beyond the top of cut slopes or the toe of embankment on both sides of the road. • Earthworks including the supply, lay and compact of suitable fill materials and temporary works where required. • Hydroseding of all cut and fill slopes: berms and all exposed earth surface as directed by the S.O. • Provision and construction of all necessary temporary road diversions and temporary access works including temporary works and construction phasing for the proper and expeditious execution of this Contract. • works. Earth drains, lined drains, pipe box culverts and all associated drainage • Piling works including pile load test. • Four Bridges (two in piling only), one pedestrian bridge and their associated works. • Retaining walls and associated works as well as any other structural. • Five Underpass and associated works. • Road furniture including galvanized guardrails, pavement markings, traffic signs, road kerbs and gutters, street lighting and traffic light etc. • All works incidental to the Contract as shown in the Bill of Quantities and the Drawings and all other work necessary for the proper construction, completion and maintenance of the Works as specified in the Contract Document including any modification arise within the terms of the Contract. 2) Temporary Works It is intended that Contractor is to be responsible for managing, maintaining (daily and continuously) and re-constructing as necessary, all prime existing temporary sire access roads. Permanents at-grade roads such as, but not limited to, the road related to Interchange No.1 and Internal CIQ road system will be used for general construction site access for all contracts. Project Location. The Interchange No. 1 is situated at the northern end of the CIQ Complex and function to facilitate traffic entering and exiting the complex as well as traffic using Jalan Lingkaran Dalam and Jalan Stulang Darat. This interchange consists of three tiers, the lowest tier (1st tier) is an underpass linking Jalan Stulang Darat and the new CIQ, the second tier will be a single point diamond configuration with 2 phases of traffic light, and an overpass bridge crossing the single point diamond configuration as the 3rd tier. Under this Interchange No 1 are the structures of six underpasses, four bridge (two piling works only), one pedestrian footbridge and around twenty two thousand metre squares of retaining walls. ( view from SMC Project Office, Menara Sarawak) CONTRUCTION OF BRIDGE 1 Component / Type of Bridge Bridge No. 1 forms part of Interchange No. 1. The bridge when completed will be the main trunk for Jalan Lingkaran Dalam, at Interchange No. 1. The bridge will be the third tier level at the interchange where Underpass No. 1 will be two levels below this bridge. The bridge runs roughly in the north-south direction. Figure 1 below shows the general layout of the bridge. PIER 1 PIER 2 ABUTMENT A Prestress Coupler position Prestress Coupler position ABUTMENT B PIER 3 Prestress Coupler position PROJEK GERBANG SELATAN BERSEPADU (INTERCHANGE NO. 1) LAYOUT OF CASTING SEGMENTS FOR BRIDGE NO. 1 AND SECTION OF UNDERPASS NO. 1 Figure 1 : Layout of Bridge No. 1 This bridge has four spans. The 2 side spans are 50 m. long while the middle 2 spans are 75 m. long. Both the approaches to the abutment will be of reinforced soil wall construction. The main features of this bridge are as follows: Two lane dual carriageway bridge of 9.9 m. wide, with 1.5 m. shoulder on one side of each carriageway; Structure to be founded on 1000 mm. dia. bored piles; Pier column consist of a single solid bold I-section of 1.8 m. by 2.6 m., the web being 1.4 m. thick; The superstructure is basically a trapezoidal box section with a curve external surface. The bottom slab thickness is 500 mm. while the top deck slab is at least 375 mm. thick; The bridge parapet will be precast and stitched to the deck slab. Grade 50/20 concrete will be used for deck slab. Construction Method ( General Notes : A copy of drawing for construction Bridge 1 is attached herein Appendix 3 ) Setting Out Survey The horizontal control alignment for Bridge No. 1 is given by control line L3-1 as shown on drawing no. W/GSB/ICHIR/ICW-01/CE/ACP/212. The centre coordinate for the pile caps at each pier location is given in drawing no. W/GSB/ICHIR/ICW01/CE/ST/2103. The vertical profile for Bridge No. 1 is shown on drawing no. W/GSB/ICHIR/ICW01/CE/PP/340 to 342. The levels provided here refers to the finished road level on top of the bridge. Drawing no. W/GSB/ICHIR/ICW-01/CE/ST/2103 has also specified the structural deck level and the cut-of level (thus the pile cap level) at the pier locations. The super elevation for Bridge No. 1 is shown on drawing no. C/GSB/ICHIR/ICW01/CE/SE/354. Construction of Pilecap, Pier Column and Headstock PILE CAP CONSTRUCTION There are basically two types of pile cap for the piers, namely type ‘A’ and ‘C’. Type ‘A’ is 8 m. square and 3.0 m. deep and used at Piers 2 and 3. The pile cap at Pier 1, which is of type ‘C’ is rectangular in shape with a plan dimension of 9.08 m. by 7.31 m. and 3.0 m. deep. The construction work could only be carried out after the pile testing work has been completed. The sequence of construction of the pile cap will be as follows:• Excavate to the required level • One layer of 50 mm. thick lean concrete to be laid. • Bored pile to be cut to the required level. • Fix formwork. The formwork shall consist of 12 mm thick plywood sheathing with timber stiffeners. This timber form shall be strut against the earth side slope. • Reinforcement bars to be laid in accordance to drawing no. C/GSB/ICHIR/ICW01/CE/ST/2108. . As for the abutments, the reinforcement detailing is as shown on drawing no.. C/GSB/ICHIR/ICW-01/CE/ST/2107. • Grade 40 concrete to be used for the pile cap. Concrete will be placed using crane and bucket. Concreting of the pile cap will be done in a single pour. Soon after the top of the pile cap has been trowelled, it shall be covered with a layer of hessian cloth or plastic sheeting to minimise shrinkage cracks. CONSTRUCTION OF PIER COLUMN The pier column is a thick bold, solid I-section of 1.8 m. by 2.6 m. The height of the pier column varies from 4.8 m. high to 7.1 m. near the middle span. Casting of the pier column will be done in three lifts, as shown in Figure 3 below. The 1st lift, which is the kicker for the pier stump, will be fixed at a height of 0.7m. In the other hand, the 2nd lift height will be variable for every pier; the 3rd lift, which is the curved pier head, will be fixed at a height of 4.5 m. The whole pier column and pier head will be formed using steel mould. The sequence of construction of the pier column is as follows:• Reinforcement bars to be fixed in accordance to drawing no. C/GSB/ICHIR/ICW01/CE/ST/2108. • Fix steel mould. The 1st lift height varies from less than a metre to about 3.1 m. • Steel mould to be plumb for verticality. • Grade 40 concrete to be used and concreting will be done using crane and skip. In-situ Trapezoidal Box Section 3 rd concreting lift 2 nd concreting lift 1st concreting lift Figure 2 : Concreting lift for Pier Column . Pier column Construction of In- Situ Trapeziodal Box Girder a) Basic Details of the In-situ Box Girder • The cast in-situ box girder is a trapezoidal section with a top slab width of 9.9m. and a bottom slab width of 3.8 m. The depth of the box girder is 3.5 m. • The two external side surfaces are curved. • The box girder section are to be prestressed with continuity tendons from abutment to abutment. • Two of the side spans are 50 m. while the middle two spans are 75 m. b) Construction Sequence • For the construction of the in-situ box girder deck section, each carriageway will be divided into 23 segments as shown in Figure 1 above. Each of the segment shall be about 11 m. long. • Each of the segment will be concreted in 3 lifts as shown in Figure 2 below. Therefore the first stressing of the box section would only be carried out after 6 segments have been concreted. Similarly the 2nd round of stressing will only be done after segment 13 have been completed. The southbound carriageway will be constructed ahead of the northbound carriageway to facilitate concreting, as the mobility on the eastern side will be restricted by the traffic diversion. 1st Concreting Lift 2nd Concreting Lift 3rd Concreting Lift Figure 3 : Casting Configuration for Box Girder Deck Section c) False work System • Heavy-duty support shoring will be used to support the box girder deck segments. • The soffit of the base slab will be formed using 12-mm. plywood supported on timber bearers. • The external curved web together with the two deck flanges will be formed using steel mould, while the internal web will be formed using timber and plywood sheathing. • The internal soffit form for the deck shall be made of 12 mm. thick plywood supported using timber. • After each panel of 11 m. has been cast, the external web form together with the internal form will be moved over to the next panel. Sequence of Concrete Casting for Trapezoidal Box Girder Superstructure SEGMENT LENGTH AND CONCRETING LIFT The segment length for each casting is as shown in attached Drawing No. GEC/0401/BR1-2/1. The longest segment length is 12 m. and the shortest is 7.95 m. These segment lengths are chosen to minimize bar lapping as well as to enable dismantling of the inner formwork. Each segment would be cast in either two or three lifts. The dimensional detail of a typical segment is as shown in Figure 1 below. Figure 1 : Dimensional Details of Typical Box Girder Section Drawing No. GEC/0401/BR1-2/1 also indicates the number of concreting lifts required for the various segments. The three lifts are required to enable the dismantling of the internal formwork. The joint locations for the 2nd and 3rd lifts are as shown in the sectional details on Drawing No. GEC/0401/BR1-2/2. Between the 1st and 2nd lift a 50 mm groove line has been introduced to ensure a neat, straight and horizontal construction joint throughout the full length of the bridge box girder section. The dimensional details of the groove line are shown in Figure 1 above. The horizontal groove line is located at 900 mm from the soffit of the box section. The horizontal construction line is located at this position for the following reasons: ¾ To be above the splay of 125 mm (note that the thickest section of the base slab is 750 mm, near the pier diaphragm location); ¾ To be below the lowest prestressing couplers at C.J. 1, 2 and 3; To accommodate the two and three casting for each segment, there are some changes in the reinforcement lapping position, which has been proposed. Attached drawing no. GEC/0401/BR1-2/3 showing the changes in the location of rebars lapping for bar mark 07 and additional lapping for bar mark 01. SEGMENT CASTING SEQUENCE Base Slab Casting There will be a set of base mould for casting the 1st lift. For the base slab (or 1st lift) the casting sequence will be from Segment 1 at Abutment A and moving towards Pier 1 and then Pier 2. However it is to be noted that Segment 21 base slab shall not be cast until the stressing at C.J. 3 (near Pier 3) has been completed. This is necessary because the lowest coupler position at C.J. 3 is rather low and therefore is not possible to fit in the stressing jack if Segment 21 base is cast. Hence Segment 21 will be skipped and casting of the base slab may proceed on Segment 22. Once stressing at C.J. 3 (at the end of Segment 20) has been completed, the castings of base slab Segment 21 may be proceed. Web and Deck Slab Casting The web and deck slab will proceed from Segment 1 at Abutment A towards Pier 1. The web and deck slab for Segment 5 and 6 will be cast separately to enable the dismantling of the internal form. Following this, casting of Segment 7 web and deck slab will be skipped and instead work will be proceed on Segment 8 to 13. Segment 7 is skipped to enable the prestressing tendons are treaded into the ducts and locked into the couples at C.J. 1 (i.e. end of Segment 6). (Only after all the tendons have been locked into C.J. 1, the web and deck slab of Segment 7 would be cast.) The web and deck slab of Segments 7, 11, 12 and 13 shall also be cast separately to enable dismantling of the internal form. Similarly at C.J. 2, Segment 14 would be skipped and would only be cast after the tendons have been treaded in from C.J. 3 (at the end of Segment 20). Here again the web and deck slabs for Segments 14, 18, 19 and 20 would be cast separately to enable the dismantling of the internal formwork. Again at C.J. 3, Segment 21 would be skipped and cast last, after all other segments have been completed. The deck slab for Segments 21 and 24 would be cast separately to enable the dismantling of the internal formwork. In summary the sequence of casting for the web and deck slab shall be as follows: From Abutment A to C.J. 1: Segment 1 ► 2 ► 3 ► 4 ► 5 ► 6 From C.J. 1 to C.J. 2 : ► 8 ► 9 ► 10 ► 11 ► 12 ► 13 ► 7 From C.J. 2 to C.J. 3: ► 15 ► 16 ► 17 ► 18 ► 19 ► 20 ► 14 From C.J. 3 to Abutment B : ► 22 ► 23 ► 24 ► 21 Reinforcement All the reinforcing bars shall be high yield deformed bars (460 N/mm2 ) or mild steel bars (Fy = 250 N/mm2 ) complying to B.S 4449 : 1988. The bending of bar reinforcement shall be in accordance with B.S 4466 ; 1989. Minimum lap and anchorage for reinforced concrete must be : BAR SIZE C40 & C50 T10 450 T12 550 T16 750 T20 900 T25 1125 1450 T32 In – situ Concrete – Concreting Method • Concreting shall be done using crane and bucket. • Robin engine pokers (60 mm. dia. Pokers) will be used for vibrating and compacting the concrete. • The unformed surface of the deck slab shall be trowelled with a timber trowel • The following class of concrete shall be used throughout : LOCATION CONCRETE GRADE (N/mm2) / mm Blinding C15/20 Bored, Cased In Place piles C40/20 Pile Caps C40/20 Abutment Walls C40/20 Piers C40/20 Bearing Plints C50/20 Parapet C40/20 Curing Curing Compounds Liquid curing compounds for use of concrete can comply with the following : i. Only products which have proved to be effective through extensive use can be proposed and manufacturer literature shall include recent test certificate illustrating effective control and high curing efficiencies. All materials shall be supplied in the containers marked by the manufacturer with his name, date of manufacturer, shelf life, pot life and instructions for handling and application. ii. The liquid shall contain a white or silver colour pigment in sufficient surface. iii. The liquid shall be of such chemical composition and consistency that it can be applied by an approved mechanical sprayer in fine spray to product an even, uniform, impervious, continuous film within one hour of application which will not crack, peel or disintegrate within three weeks application. iv. The compound can not be poisonous, odorous or explosive and shall not react chemically with cement. v. Curing compounds can be stored and used strictly in accordance with the manufacturer instructions. vi. Curing compound can not be applied to surfaces to which further concrete or a surface finish is subsequently to be bonded. Curing of concrete shall be done using SIKA Antisol-S concrete curing compound. This compound shall be sprayed onto the concrete surface after the formwork has been dismantled Expansion Joint A flat and level monolithic haunch or recess should be formed in the structural deck to accommodate the DR Joint and the transition strips. At the design stage, care should be taken to locate the reinforcement avoiding the position of the bridge joint anchor studs. In the interest of achieving a smooth traffic ride over the joint, the wearing course should be machine laid continuously over the structural joint and subsequently removed by cutting just prior to installing the bridge joint. The removal of the surfacing over the joint in the deck is facilitated by placing a hardboard bond breaker of a width slightly less than the combined width of joint and the transition strips prior to the laying of wearing course. Depending on the temperature of the deck slab during installation, the DR joint unit may required to be pre-compress or pre-extending to suit the relative position of the bridge deck. The DR joint module installation width and the new bolt hole center have been determined the joint mo The exposed concrete should be roughen and the final level of bed adjusted using epoxy mortar. A leveling template is used to achieve the required recess depth i.e. 75mm in the case of model DR 165. The bridge joint modules centered over the expansion joint in the deck may be used as templates fo The final bolt holes should be drilled and studs installed using chemical fixing anchors. Each bridge joint unit may then laid into position on beads of sealant, plain clipped washers supplied with each unit located, and the assembly bolted down. Subsequent modules should then be located and fixed in the same way, the sealant first being applied to the tongue and groove edges to each unit prior to jacking into position to ensure substantially waterproof junction. The fixing nuts should be tightened to the required torque and Isoflex resin transition strips laid level with the wearing surface. Following final torque checks on fixing nut, the bolt caps should be filled with sealant to protect the stud against corrosion. The joint is allowed to cool to ambient temperature and may be trafficked in 2-3 hours. Bridge Expansion Joint Installation Layout Post Tensioning Stressing PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS The pre-stressing system is the DYWIDAG post-tensioning system incorporating strands with 0.62” (15.7mm) diameters in the design of post tensioning structures. MATERIALS Strands 0.62” Nominal Diameter 15.7mm Nominal Area 150mm2 Nominal weight 1.18kg/m Tensile strength 1770N/mm2 Modulus of elasticity 195kN/mm2 Min breaking load of strand 265kN International standard used BS Ducts The sheathing consists of corrugated spiral ducts made from galvanized steel strips of 0.3 to 0.4mm thick cut in lengths of 5.5 m. Anchorages The type of anchorages commonly used are Flat Anchorage (FA), Multiplane Anchorages (MA), Couplers Plate Anchorage and Bond Head (Dead End) Anchorages. The purpose of the anchorages are when the strands are stressed, the tendon force would be transferred to the concrete. Bursting reinforcement is provided behind the anchorage to distribute the stressing force. DESIGN DATA FOR FRICTION / ELONGATION CALCULATION : 0.2 } or as per the consultants Friction of coefficient u recommendation Wobble factor k : 0.0017/m } design parameters Draw in of wedge : 6mm (approximately) Stressing anchorage : Type FA, MA & Coupler Loss in jack : Varies from 0 to 2.0% for various type of jacks HANDLING AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS • The pre-stressing strands shall be free of grease and corrosion enhancing properties. • No flame cutting of strands is allowed • Care should be taken during handling of construction work in order to avoid mechanical damage to the strands. • Strands should be raised above ground level to prevent ingress of soil. • Suitable ropes or slings shall be used for loading and unloading in order to avoid mechanical damage to the strand coil. • The component must be handled and stored such that any contamination, mechanically damage or corrosion can be avoided. GUIDELINES FOR TENDONS INSTALLATION • Tendon alignment and height shall take precedent over reinforcement whenever there is a clashing point(obstruction). • All dimensions measured shall be based on the formwork level. Therefore an accurate formwork level is necessary. • The Multiplane Anchor is fixed to the end formwork by support bars to avoid any displacement during concreting. • The Multiplane Anchor must be orientated perpendicularly to the cable axis and with the grout hose connection at the top of the duct. • If the side formwork is to be erected early, the main contractor has to arrange for hole protrusion to be made for each anchorage to accommodate protruding duct and strands. • Tolerances for vertical tendon profiles are ±10mm for all high and low points. Tolerance for horizontal profiles are ±150mm (to avoid small M&E openings or other obstructions). Specialist designer shall be consulted for tolerances bigger than ±150mm. • Handle ducts with care to avoid damage. • Support bars and bar-chairs are placed at intervals of each 1m (approx) and secured with binding wire to avoid any movement during concreting. • Duct joints are sealed with tape. • Care should be taken during concreting to avoid grout hoses from being embedded in concrete or removed completely. • Avoid stepping on ducts placed. • Care should be taken to avoid damaging ducts with tie bars of the formwork. • Check visually axis of ducts and fixation at supports and anchorages before concreting. • The tolerances of formwork shall be ±5mm or in accordance to the specifications. STRESSING Stressing shall not commence unless the main contractor has confirmed that the concrete for the pour to be stressed has achieved the minimum cube strength as required. Preparation for stressing • Removal of formwork and polyfoam / plastic blockout from the anchorage blockout. • Placing of wedge plate and wedges. It is important that this operation be carried out after concreting so that the anchorage is not fouled by grout or dirt. • Ensure that the protruding strand length is sufficient for stressing. Stressing With Multistrand Jacks IHS CH4006 • At the beginning of stressing the strands are locked in the jack pulling head. • Stressing pressure is increased in stages, usually increase at interval of 10MPa until the correct pressure is achieved. • The pressure of the manometer and the measured elongation at these intervals are recorded in the stressing report. • When the jack has reached the end of its stroke or the desired force has been obtained, the pressure in the jack is released and the strands become locked uniformly by the wedges in the wedge plate. • The jack piston returns. • Stressing is continued in as many stages as are necessary to obtain the required force. • After approval by consultants / main contractor the protruding strands are to be cut off to a minimum of 10mm from the wedge plate. • All stressing results shall be tabulated on a stressing record and submitted for approval by the engineer. The pressure gauge and jack no’s shall also be indicated. • If the average stressing result of the whole pour is within ±8% it shall be deemed as satisfactory. • In accordance to the Federation Institute of Prestressing (FIP) code, the average shall be within ± 8%.If any individual tendon of a pour falls outside this, then the average extension over the whole respective pour should be checked and this falls within the tolerance of ±8%, then the stressing operation is considered satisfactory. . • Stripping of formwork can be carried out after full stressing of beam / slab is completed. • However the Resident Engineer on-site shall be consulted by the main contractor before any stripping of formwork can commence. GROUTING Proposed grout mix • Cement in standard 50kg package (Ordinary Portland Cement) • Water = 0.45 x 50kg = 22.5 kg = 22.5 litres • Admixture = 0.4% weight of cement (50 kg) = 200gm (ISPO CONCRETIN AEG) Mixing sequence = water - additive – cement Min mixing time = 3-4 min Tests for grouting • Viscosity • Compressive strength. Viscosity test • Viscosity test will be executed by means of a flow cone. • Flow time is measured with a stop watch. • It is the measurement of time that the grout takes to completely flow out of the cone. • It is carried out after the 3-4 min minimum mixing time. • The flow time should be between 10 to 25 seconds. 178 mm Ø Filled Level 76 mm 191 mm 38 mm 12.7 mm Ø Measurement for compressive strength of grout cubes • During trial mix period, compressive strength test shall be carried out. • 6 samples per grouting session are required. • After 18 to 24 hours, remove cubes from mould and store in water storage tank. • Compressive strength shall be measured for 7 & 28 days. • According to specification ,compressive strength of cube shall be: 7 days : minimum of 17 N/mm2 28 days : minimum of 30 N/mm2 Grouting of tendons • After the trial mix is done and a suitable mix is determined, than the grouting is ready to proceed. • Prior to grouting, all anchorage block outs are to be patched up by cement / mortar or equivalent approved mortar based material. • All ducts must be flushed thoroughly with compressed air to remove all entrapped water and to check for chokages. • After this is completed and the mix is ready, start injecting grout from the inlet hose of the tendon. • When grout outflow appears at the intermediate vents, close vents in direction of grout flow. • Grout must flow out from outlet until visible residual water and entrapped air has been removed. Lock the outlet hose. • Continue pumping until the desired pressure of 3-5 bar is achieved. Close the inlet hose and proceed to the next tendon. Precautions to be taken during grouting. • Pressure should be duly controlled so as not to cause segregation of grout. • Excessive mixing (especially at high temperatures) can stiffen the grout already in the mixing drum. • In case of interruption (more than 45 minutes) the grout shall be flushed out of the tendon using water and compressed air. pre – stressing for bridge 1 Bearing MECHANICAL POT BEARING The details of the bearing are as given in drawing no. W/GSB/ICHIR/ICW01/CE/ST/2115. Before the bearings are manufactured, shop drawings will be submitted for approval. These bearings will be designed with preset to accommodate for the longitudinal movement of the superstructure during stressing of the prestressed cables. The bearings must be supported on a flat rigid plinth. Once the bottom plate of the bearing has been adjusted to its correct position and level, the bearing plinths may be grouted using epoxy or non-shrink grout. Before stressing of the cables are carried out, the locking bolts for preset shall be loosen to allow for movement of the bearings Method Of Work Before casting of the sub-structure. Polystyrene blocks or PVC pipes is used for forming the blockouts (recesses) for the bottom cast in sockets. The dimensions of the cast in sockets would be as indicated in the drawing no W/GSB/ICHIR/ICW01/CE/ST/2115. The blockout plan area or diameter must be at least 50mm larger than the cast in sockets. The setting out of these blockouts to be checked and confirmed by the engineer prior to casting the sub-structure The blockouts and concrete surface area where the bearing is to be positioned should be cleaned and roughen prior to installing the bearing. The centerline at the bearing to be marked by the surveyor and confirmed by the engineer. Positioning the bearing to correct height and orientation by means of 4 sets of steel shims or grout wedges/packers at approximately equidistant to ensure the installation tolerance is not exceeded. Having confirmed the alignment and levels of the bearings, place formwork around the perimeter of bearing. Soft sponge is to be placed underneath the formwork to avoid draining of grout. The height of the bottom formwork shall be 5mm minimum higher than the soffit of the bearing base/sole plate. Mix non-shrink grout with fine shipping & sand at a ratio of 5:1 & 5 liter of water. Fill all bottom blockouts with high strength non-shrink grout. Fill the gap underneath of the bearing with non-shrink cementitious grout by pouring from one side to another to ensure all air is expelled from beneath the bearing. For the same reason, pouring should be slow and constant until the grout level on all sides of the bearing is approximately 5mm above the soffit of the bearing base plate. Check the level and position while the grout is wet to ensure no movement has taken place during the grouting. When the grout is set (lead time is subject to engineer’s approval, we suggest 12 hours minimum) remove the parameter formwork. After that the formwork to the superstructure can be fixed around the top bearing plate. Different widths of formwork to be used if taper are required for the upper plinth. Note that this plywood and formwork is to be firmly supported at the bottom to avoid pre-mature settlement of the formwork thence the bridge deck. Masking tape/sponge strips are to be used to seal the butt joint between the bearing top plate and superstructure formwork. This is to avoid ingress of concrete into the pot bearing. Remove temporary transportation brackets, after the superstructure has achieved the strength. Once the deck has been constructed, if required, the bearing can be removed by first removing the attachment bolts followed by the bolts of the external lateral guides, if any. The deck is required to be jacked up by approximately 15mm. The jacking force would be the dead load plus any superimposed dead load (i.e. DL + SDL). The jacking locations are to be confirmed with the consulting engineer prior to jacking. The top slide plate can then be slided out horizontally along the direction of traffic, hammer to break the bond of silicon grease if required. This is the followed by removal of the piston plate and finally the cylinder pot/ bearing base plate. This method is preferred because it is easier and lighter to remove component after component in lieu of the entire bearing in one single operation. Removal of the whole bearing is recommended after the transit brackets have been fastened (if access of crane is possible). General Notes on Handling of Bearings During Site Installation Removal of Temporary Fixity and Transportation Bolt Construction of Parapet CASTING OF PCP PANELS a. Casting yard and storage area Area been allocated for this purpose is the previous lot 20289. This area will be levelled and laid with suitable material, compacted and well drained in order to prevent ponding of rainwater causing breeding of mosquitoes. Area will be always kept tidy and orderly. Area is divided into three thus; cutting and bending yard, casting yard and storage area. b. Steel Mould Steel mould will be used in the casting of parapet panels to achieved F3 finish thus; typical PCP panel and PCP panel with street lighting base. The mould shop drawing will be submitted to the engineer to check conformity to the construction drawing prior to fabrication. Once fabrication completed, the steel mould will be inspected in the factory in conformity with the approved shop drawing. Rectification if any has to be carried out in the factory prior to delivery of the mould to the casting yard. The steel mould will be placed in the casting yard area in an orderly manner to allow sufficient working space for the installation of reinforcement and cast in items, assembly, casting process, disassembly and lifting of completed PCP panel product. c. Reinforcement Reinforcing bars to be used in the casting of parapet panel must be free from rust and oil substance that will cause inferior effect. The reinforcement will be cut, bend and assemble (using tie wires) according to the construction drawing. Completed reinforcement (rebar cages) will be store in an orderly manner covered with plastic sheets ready for use. d. Cast in items Sufficient quantity of J- bolts, uPVC electrical conduits cut in to length and other cast in items must be kept available in the casting yard in order not to delay any casting of parapet panel. e. Concrete Grade C40/ 20 concrete supplied by SMC-mix will be used in casting of parapet panel. f. Preparation and casting of panel I. Open the steel mould, clean and apply mould oil. II. Install the assembled rebar cage inside the mould. Secure the necessary cast in items, fix concrete spacer blocks and hi-rib. III. Close the mould and tighten all necessary bolts and nuts. Any gaps must be sealed properly to prevent concrete leak during concreting. IV. Prepare necessary checklist and call for inspection. Rectification if any has to be carried out prior to concreting. V. Once everything is ready, order the concrete. Sampling (slump and cubes) if required has to be carried out prior to concreting. VI. Pour the concrete carefully and vibrate using poker until concrete reach mould brim. Trowels smooth the exposed portion of the panel before concrete harden. VII. Once the concrete set (minimum 10 Kn/ mm2), open the mould and lift (using backhoe) carefully the harden PC panel and transfer to the store yard. VIII. Next casting, refer to procedure 1 and so on. g. Rectification on completed PCP panel Any remedial works or patching will be carried out using approved grout material. INSTALLATION OF PCP PANELS a. Installation of the PCP panel From the store yard, the accepted PCP panel will be transported to the erection site. The PCP panel will be lifted and position using mobile crane. One set of turnbuckle complete with necessary accessories will be installed to hold each PCP panel in position (refer to sketch no. ). This turnbuckle will then be anchored to the concrete up stand. Panel to install side by side with a gap of 20 mm. Adjustment of the PCP panel to achieved the desired alignment, verticality and level by turning the turnbuckle and providing shim pad. When the PCP panel is in place, minimum one number of distribution steel bar will be fixed through the links to connect the PCP panel to the RC copping. This is to protect parapet from dropping during the fixation. b. Casting the Stitch Kerb After installing sufficient numbers of PCP panel, the balance distribution bars can be place accordingly. Alignment, verticality and levels must be check again in this stage prior to installing the formwork. Gaps between formwork, PCP panel and copping beam must be sealed off to avoid any concrete leakage during the casting. Once everything in order, prepare checklist and call for final inspection. Order concrete and cast. As much as possible concrete will be poured direct in the stitch kerb from the truck. The exposed portion of the stitch kerb will be smooth troweled finish before the concrete hardens. c. Finishing works Once concrete achieved the minimum strength (10 N/mm2), dismantle the formwork and remove the turnbuckle. Carryout patching works if any. ISOMETRIC VIEW (SHOWING INSTALLATION OF FORMWORK) MATERIAL Below is the material list and suppliers to be used in this job : Material Description Suppliers 1. Concrete SMC Mix Sdn. Bhd 2. Rebar Malayawata Sdn. Bhd 3. Bearing Hercules Engineering (SEA) Sdn. Bhd. 4. Expansion Joint Doshin Rubber Porduct ( M ) Sdn. Bhd. 5. Post Tensioning Stressing Utracon Structural Systems Sdn. Bhd. 6. Curing compound ( Antisol – S ) Sika Kimia Sdn. Bhd Some copy of catalogue for the material is attached at Appendix 4 MACHINERY RESOURCES The following plant and machinery resources will be deployed for the construction of Bridge No. 1 :- 1. 25-tonne mobile crane; 2. Backhoe; 3. 1 set of bar-bending and cutting machine; 4. 175 cfs air compressor; 5. 20 lbs. jack hammer; 6. 2 ½ - inch vibratory pokers; 7. Heavy-duty shoring; ( please refer to Appendix 2 ) SAFETY PLAN It is Seri Meraga Construction Sdn Bhd. policy to perform all our works with due regard to safety, practice safe working methods, and create a risk free, healthy working environment. The following key areas in construction shall be adhered by all site personnel, working on Bridge No. 1. They are not an all inclusive set of rules, but a guidance of the level of care and attention on safety matters, that every site personnel shall observe and follow. Personal Protective Equipment The personal protective equipment which will be provided to the workers on site includes the following: o Safety helmet (hard hat); o Safety belt or harness, for workers who will be working on elevated areas; o Hand gloves, for steel workers; o Eye goggles / face protective shield, for workers involve in welding works or grinding and hacking works; o Safety vest, for workers involve in traffic control; o Rain coat, when required to work in the rain; Housekeeping Housekeeping is an essential part of construction safety. This should be part of our daily routine. Housekeeping would include the following work items: o Maintain an obstruction free access/egress to all working areas; o Store and stack all construction materials in a safe and orderly manner; o Avoid littering around the jobsite; o Do not throw anything from height; o Do not leave timbers with nails lying around, the nails are to be remove or bent over; Elevated Workplace When a person is required to work at height or an elevated workplace, all open sides shall be adequately guarded, and the working platform must be strong, rigid and capable of withstanding the imposed load. A safe means of access/egress such as stairways or ladders must be made available. Shoring/Falsework Timber shoring or sheet pile used for retaining wall be adequately design to withstand the imposed loads. Shoring and props, where used shall be securely held in position, suitably spaced with adequate footing. It should also be adequately braced horizontally and diagonally in both directions. All falsework should be inspected before loading is applied. No workers shall be allowed in the vicinity or under structure supported by falsework whilst casting of concrete is going on above. Night Works For night works, the area of work shall be adequately lit to facilitate production works and movements on site. Warning light, directive signs, reflective aids, barriers shall be placed at suitable location to forewarn all potential hazards. Prestressing Works Whenever any post-tensioning works are being carried out, ensure no workers are working in front of the stressing jacks until the cables have been adequately locked. In summation, in order to achieve a safe, risk free and healthy working environment, including loss prevention, every practicable step must be taken by each and everyone engaged in this project site. COMMENT After 10 weeks I have been here to complete my industrial training, personally I can say that there are a little bit of differences between theoretical and practical. I say that because I can see many actual progress on site. Such as I can see the tendon on bridge, how to fixing rebar, how to cut and bending rebar, construction sequence of road, and many more. All that I have learn from my training was explain clearly what have I learned from my lectures before. I agree that expose on construction activities can make me more confident to figure out all the incoming subject that I had to learn on next semester. I think that the duration of practical training is not sufficient to me to learned more than this. However, I think that these practical training should go on and should be a compulsory program for each student in every faculty especially FKA. This is because it gave the student a lot of benefit and helps them to build their future career. The relationship between me and all staff is fine. They all give their cooperation and concern to me. They always give me a hand when I need a help. They not mean to teach me and spend time for me to explain something about work although they busy. I think I am luckily to be here. CONCLUSION After 10 weeks in training, I have exposed myself on construction activities whether on site or office. I gain a lot of information and experience with actual site working condition throughout from my industrial training. Site activities are new for me. It is exciting and new for me to learn and get information for our working experience. It is my pleasure and great opportunity to joint and gain experience from a big company like Seri Meraga Construction Sdn. Bhd. .Therefore it is a big project such as Project Gerbang Selatan Bersepadu. A part from this experience that I have gain, I am capable to communicate with various type of people. I am able to interpret various type of work either it is complicated or not. It is important to me to know how work will progress and the important it is. I also learn something new and quite challenging. For example when a critical time on site happens such as when diesel is not enough to ensure the machineries move and works as daily, when sand wash is not delivered, when weather becomes unstable : raining everyday, and when the company have a internal problem such as not enough workers to monitoring works on site. I learn from the site coordinator how to solve this problem smoothly. From the experience I get, I learned new Method and Technology in construction field. More over, it is a practice to me with what I learned previously from textbooks and lecture. I have improve my interpersonal skills a lot from this industrial training. I also become more confident and more open minded in making decision in whatever condition. I think involving this project are great opportunities to gain experience and contribute before developing my future career. It is very useful to me. It is a great time for me have an experience with this company and many senior staff which have more experience to learn a lot. I hope that I can be such a good worker in the future and become a good successful engineer. It is a great to get involve in this project. Thank you to all staff.