DRA Directed Reading Activity - Howard County Reading Council

The DRA: Putting it all Together
The Directed Reading Activity (DRA), developed at Towson University by Dr. Gloria
Neubert, is a lesson format that combines before, during, and after reading strategies into
one package.
1. Readiness (Before)
Constructing Meaning
a. Motivation—Generate interest, focus
attention, relate lesson’s objectives to real KWL
world scenarios.
 Anticipation Guides
b. Developing Prior Knowledge/Background
of Experience – Assess prior knowledge,
 PreP
correct misperceptions, tap background,
 Graphic Organizers
connect to students’ lives by building prior
 Brainstorming
c. Concept Development – Prime vocabulary,
 Concept Attainment
set the context of the reading, use concept
 Other Pre-Reading
to inductively teach essential
vocabulary, etc.
d. Purpose for Reading -• Traditional Approach: A question based on the text organization and thinking
patterns, e.g. “Identify and explain the six major roles of the President.”
• Graphic Organizer: Based on the text organization and thinking pattern, e.g.
“Complete the venn diagram comparing life in the New England Colonies with Life
in the Southern Colonies.”
• Reader Response Approach:
 Summary: “In one to five sentences, summarize this reading.” or “What happens in this
reading?” or “How does this reading end?”
 Reaction: “What three things ‘pop’ into your mind as you think back on this reading?’ or
“How does this reading make you feel?” or “What does this reading remind you of that is
happening currently?” or “What questions do you have about this reading?” or “What
surprised you in this reading?”
Silent Reading (During)
Constructing Meaning
While student read, the teacher circulates helping individual students employ fix-up
strategies to monitor their comprehension. Students can read individually, or you can
use some of the pairs reading strategies.
Discussion of the Purpose for Reading
Examining Meaning
The entire class discusses for consensus of meaning and to clear up any
Re-Reading (AFTER)
Extending Meaning
Students revisit the text for additional information related to higher order thinking.
Follow-up Activity (AFTER)
Extending Meaning
The follow-up activity should enrich or reinforce the information from the reading.
Can be answering a central question, RAFT, journal entry, etc.
From the HCPSS Document Repository Secondary Social Studies: Content Literacy Folder