Chapter 8 Experiments Chapter Outline eTopics Appropriate to

Chapter 8
Chapter Outline
eTopics Appropriateto Experiments
eThe ClassicalExperiment
e Variationson ExperimentalDesigns
eAn Illustrationof Experimentation
e"Natural" Experiments
eStrengthsand Weaknesses
of the ExperimentalMethod
Appropriate to Experiments
eProjectswith limited andwell-definedconcepts.
eProjectsthat are exploratoryratherthandescriptive.
eStudiesof small groupinteraction.
Componentsof Experiments
Three Pairs
e Independentand dependentvariables
e Experimentalandcontrol groups
Experimental and Control Groups
e Must beas similar aspossible.
eControl grouprepresentswhatthe experimentalgroupwould havebeenlike had it not
beenexposedto the experimentalstimulus.
e Probabilitysampling
e Randomization
Randomization and Matching
e May not know which variableswill be relevantfor matchingprocess.
e Most statisticsusedto analyzeresultsassumerandomization.
e Randomizationonly makessenseif youhavea largepool of subjects.
Posttest-onlyControl Group Design
elncludesGroups3 and 4 of the Solomondesign.
e With properrandomization,only thesegroupsareneededto control the problemsof
internal invalidity andthe interactionbetweentestingand stimulus.
"Natural" Experiments
e Importantsocialscientificexperimentsoccuroutsidecontrolledsettingsand in the
courseof normal socialevents.
e Raisevalidity issuesbecauseresearchermusttakethingsas they occur.
Experimental Method
e Isolationof the ex~rimenta1variableovertime.
eExperimentscanbereplicatedseveraltimesusing differentgroupsof subjects.
Experimental Method
e Artificiality of laboratorysetting.
eSocial processesthat occurin a lab might not occurin a morenaturalsocial setting.
Key Terms
The measurementof a dependentvariable among subjects before they are exposedto an
The remeasurementof a dependentvariable among subjects after they've beenexposedto
an independentvariable.
8Experimental group
A group of subjectsto whom an experimental stimulus is administered.
8Control group
A group of subjectsto whom no experimental stimulus is administered and who resemble
the experimental group in all other respects.
8 Dou ble-blind experiment
An experimental design in which neither the subjects nor the experimenters know which
is the experimental group and which is the control.
8 Randomization
A technique for assigning experimental subjectsto experimental and control groups
In connection with experiments, the procedure whereby pairs of subjects are matched on
the basis of their similarities on one or more variables, and one member of the pair is
assignedto the experimental group and the other to the control group.
8 Internal invalidity
Refers to the possibility that the conclusions drawn from experimental results may not
accurately reflect
what went on in the experiment itself.
8 External invalidiw
Refers to the possibility that conclusions drawn from experimental results may not be
generalized to the "real" world.
Chapter 9
Survey Research
Chapter Outline
.Topics Appropriate to Survey Research
.Guidelines for Asking Questions
.Questionnaire Construction
.Self -administered Questionnaires
eInterview Surveys
Chapter Outline
.Telephone Surveys
eNew Technologies and Survey Research
.Comparison of the Different Survey Methods
.Strengths and Weaknessesof Survey Research
.Secondary Analysis
Topics Appropriate to Survey Research
e Exploratory
Guidelines for Asking Questions
.Choose appropriate question forms.
.Make items clear.
.Avoid double-barreled questions.
.Respondents must be competentto answer.
Guidelines for Asking Questions
.Respondents must be willing to answer.
eQuestions should be relevant.
eShort items are best.
.Avoid negative items.
.Avoid biased items and terms.
Guidelines for Questionnaire Construction
eOne question per line.
eUse contingency questions when necessary.
.Format matrix questions so they are easily answered.
.Be aware of issues with ordering items.
.Include instructions for the questionnaire.
.Pretest all or part of the questionnaire.
Acceptable Response Rates
.50% -adequate for analysis and reporting
e70% -very good
Guidelines for Survey Interviewing
.Dress in a similar nianner to the people who will be interviewed.
eStudy and become familiar with the questionnaire.
eFollow question wording exactly.
.Record responsesexactly.
.Probe for responseswhen necessary.
Training for Interviewers
8 Discussion of general guidelines and procedures.
8Specify how to handle difficult or confusing situations.
8Conduct demonstration interviews.
8Conduct "real" interviews.
Telephone Surveys
8Money and time.
8Control over data collection.
8Surveys that are really ad campaigns.
8 Answering machines.
New Technologies and Survey Research
8CAPI -computer assistedpersonal interviewing.
8CASI -computer assistedself interviewing.
8CSAQ -computerized self-administered questionnaires.
8mE -touchtone dataentry.
8 VR -voice recognition.
Strengths of Survey Research
8Useful in describing the characteristics of a large population.
8Make large samplesfeasible.
8 Flexible -many questions can be asked on a given topic.
Weaknesses of Survey Research
8Can seldom deal with the context of social life.
8Inflexible in some ways.
8Subject to artificiality.
8Weak on validity.
Chapter 9
Survey Research
Key Terms
Personwho provides data for analysis by responding to a survey questionnaire.
Instrument designedto elicit information that will be useful for analysis.
80pen-ended questions
Respondentis askedto provide his or her own answer to the question.
8Closed-ended questions
Respondentis askedto select an answer from among a list provided by the researcher.
Refers to any property of questions that encouragesrespondentsto answer in a particular
8Contingency question
Survey question intended only for some respondents, detennined by tIleir response to
some oilier questions.
8Response rate
Number of people participating in a survey dived by tIle number selected in tIle sample.
A data-collection encounter in which one person (an interviewer) asks questionsof
anotIler (a respondent).
A request for elaboration.
Font} of researchin which tIle data collected and processedby one researcherare
analyzed -often for a different purpose -by anotIler.
Chapter 10
Qualitative Field Research
Chapter Outline
eTopics Appropriate to Field Research
eSpecial Considerations in Qualitative Field Research
eSome Qualitative Field ResearchParadigms
eConducting Qualitative Field Research
e ResearchEthics in Qualitative Field Research
eStrengths and Weaknessesor Qualitative Field Research
Topics for Field Research
e Attitudes and Behaviors best understood in a natural setting.
eSocial processesover time.
Elements of Social Life Appropriate to Field Research
ePractices: talking, reading a book
eEpisodes: divorce, crime, illness
e Encounters: people meeting and interacting
eRole: occupations, family roles
eRelationships: friendships, mother-son
Elements of Social Life Appropriate to Field Research
eGroups: cliques, teams, work groups
eOrganizations: hospitals, schools
eSettlements: neighborhoods,ghettoes
eSocial worlds: "wall street", "the sportsworld"
eLifestyles (or subcultures): urban, homeless
Field Research Paradigms
e Ethnomethodology
eGrounded theory
eCase studies and the extended casemethod
e Institutional ethnography
eParticipatory action research
Preparing for Field Work
eFil1 in your knowledge of the subject.
e Discuss the group you plan to researchwith an informant.
e Develop an identity with the people to be studied.
e Realize that your initial contact with the group can influence your observations.
Seven Stages of Interviewing
e Thematizing
e Design
e Interviewing
e Verifying and checking facts
e Reporting
Advantages of Focus Groups
eSocially oriented researchmethod
;,i '
8High face validity
8Speedy results
8Low in cost
Disadvantages of Focus Groups
8Less control than individual interviews.
8Data can be difficult to analyze.
8 Moderators must be skilled.
Disadvantages of Focus Groups
8 Difference between groups can be troublesome.
8Groups are difficult to assemble.
Discussion must be conducted in a conducive environment.
Guidelines -Taking Research Notes
8 Don't trust your memory.
-Take notes while you observe.
8Take notes in stages.
-Take sketchy notes in the field and rewrite them later, filling in the details.
Guidelines -Taking Research Notes
8 Record everything.
-Things that don't seem important may turn out to be significant after all.
8Realize that most of your field notes will not be reflected in your final project.
Strengths of Field Research
8 Pemlits a great depth of understanding.
8 Flexibility -research may be modified at any time.
8 Has more validity than surveys or experiments.
Weaknesses of Field Research
8Qualitative and not appropriate for statistical descriptions of populations.
8Has potential problems with reliability since field researchmethods are often personal.
Is It Ethical?
8To talk to people when they don't know you will be recording their words?
8To g(i:tinformation for your own purposes from people you hate?
8To see a severeneed for help and not respondto it directly?
Is It Ethical?
8To be in a situation but not commit yourself wholeheartedly to it?
8To be strategic in your relations with others?
8To take sides or avoid taking sides in a factionalized situation?
Is It Ethical?
8To "pay" people with tradeoffs for accessto their lives and minds?
8To "use" people as allies or informants in order to gain entreeto other people or to
elusive understandings?
Chapter 10
Qualitative Field Research
Key Terms
Approach to field researchbased on the asswnption that an objective social reality exists
and can be observed and reported accurately.
A report on social life that focuses on detailed and accuratedescription rather than
e Ethnomethodology
An approachto the study of social life that focuses on the discovery of implicit, usually
unspokenasswnptions and agreements.
eGrounded Theory
An inductive approachto the study of social life that attemptsto generatea theory from
the constantcomparing of unfolding observations.
In-depth examination of a single instance of some social phenomenon, such as a village, a
family, or a juvenile gang.
eExtended case method
Technique in which case study observationsare used to discover flaws in and to improve
existing social theories.
eInstitutional ethnography
Researchtechnique in which the personal experiencesof individuals are used to reveal
power relationships and other characteristics of the institutions within which they operate.
eParticipatory action research
Approach to social researchin which the people being studied are given control over the
purpose and proceduresof the research.
eQualitative interview
An interaction betweenan interviewer and a respondentin which the interviewer has a
general plan of inquiry but not a specific set of questions that must be asked with
particular words and
in a particular order.
eFocus Group
A group of people are brought together in a room to engagein guided discussionof a
Chapter 11
Unobtrusive Research
Chapter Outline
8Content Analysis
8Analyzing Existing Statistics
8 Historical/Comparative Analysis
Three Types of Unobtrusive Research
8Content analysis -examine written documents such as newspapereditorials.
8Analyses of existing statistics.
8Historical/comparative analysis -main resources for observation and analysis are
Strengths of Content Analysis
8 Economy of time and money.
8It's simple to repeata portion of the study if necessary.
8Permits you to study processesoccurring over a long time.
8Researcher seldom has any effect on the subject being studied.
8 Reliability.
Weaknesses of Content Analysis
8 Limited to the examination of recorded communications.
8 Problems of validity are likely.
Analyzing Existing Statistics
8 Existing statistics can be the main sourceof date or a supplemental source of data.
8Problems with validity -Often existing data doesn'tcover the exact question.
8 Reliability is dependenton the quality of the statistics.
Historical/comparative Analysis
8Can't trust the accuracyof records -official or unofficial, primary or secondary.
8 Must be wary of bias in data sources.
Chapter 11
Unobtrusive Research
Key Terms
8Unobtrusive research
Methods of studying social behavior without affecting it.
8Content AnalysisI
Study of recorded human communications.
Processof transforming raw data into a standardizedform.
8Manifest content
The visible, surface content.
.Latent content
The underlyingmeaningof the content.
Involvesthe useof historicalmethodsby sociologists,political scientistsand othersocial
Chapter 12
Evaluation Research
Chapter Outline
8Topics Appropriate To Evaluation Research
8Formulating the Problem
8Types of Evaluation ResearchDesigns
8 The Social Context
8 Social Indicators Research
Evaluation Research
8Appropriate for any study of planned or actual social intervention.
8Goal is to determine whether a social intervention has produced the intended result.
8Results are not always well received.
Types of Measurement in Evaluation Research
80utcome (responsevariable)
8Experimental Context -aspects of the context of an experiment that might affect the
8 Experimental Stimulus (interventions)
8 Population -demographic variables as well as variables defining the population.
Evaluation Research Designs
8 Experimental designs
8Quasi -experimental designs
-Time-series design
-Nonequivalent control groups
-Multiple Time-Series designs
8Qualitative evaluations
Ethical Issues
8Social interventions being evaluated may raise ethical issues.
8 Evaluation researchmay be a mask for unethical behavior.
Why Results Are Ignored
8 Implications may not be presentedin a way that nonresearcherscan understand.
8 Res~ts sometimes contradict deeply held beliefs.
8 Vested interest in a program.
Social Indicators Research
8 Provides an understandingof broader social processes.
8 Researchersare developing more refined indicators.
8 Researchis being devoted to discovering the relationships among variables within
whole societies.
Chapter 12
Evaluation Research
Key Tenns
8 Evaluation research
A process of detennining whether a social intervention has produced the intended result.
8Quasi experiments
inquiries somewhatresembling controlled experiments but lacking key
elements such as pre- and posttesting and/or control groups.
8Time-Series designs
Studies that involve measurementstaken over time.
8Non-equivalent control group
A control group that is similar to the experimental group but is not created by the random
assignmentof subjects.
8Multiple time-series designs
The use of more than one set of data that were collected over time, as in accident rates
over time in severalstates or cities, so that comparison can be made.
8Social indicators
Aggregated statistics that reflect the social condition of a society or social subgroup.
jO "
Chapter 13
Qualitative Data Analysis
Chapter Outline
8 Linking Theory and Analysis
8Qualitative Data Processing
8Computer Programs for Qualitative Data
8The Qualitative Analysis of Quantitative Data
Qualitative Data Analysis
8Searches for explanatory patterns.
8Links data collection, analysis and theory.
Six Ways to Discover Patterns
8 Frequencies
8 Magnitudes
8 Structures
8 Processes
8 Causes
8 Consequences
Grounded Theory Method (GTM)
Four Stages:
8Comparing incidents applicable to eachcategory.
8Integrating categories and their properties.
8 Delimiting the theory.
8Writing the theory.
Matching Signs and Their Meanings
e1. Poinsettia
82. Horseshoe
83. Blue ribbon
e4. "Say cheese"
8S. "Break a leg"
8a. Good luck
8b. First prize
8C. Christmas
8d. Acting
8e. Smile for a picture
8The "science of designs".
8Signs are anything t)1atis assigneda special meaning.
Conversation Analysis
Fundamental Assumptions:
8Conversation is a socially structured activity.
-Conversations must be understood contextually.
-Structure and meaning of conversations must be transcribed.
Coding Methods
8 Memoing -writing notes about the project.
8Concept mapping -graphically classifying individual pieces of data.
Three Kinds of Memos for GTM
8Code Notes -identify code labels and their meanings.
-Theoretical Notes -reflect meaning of conceptsand theories.
80perational Notes -methodological issues.
Chapter 13
Qualitative Data Analysis
8Qualitative analysis
Methods for examining social researchdata without converting them to a nwnerical
8 Variable-oriented analysis
Focus of analysis is on interrelations among variables and the people observed would be
the carriers of those variables.
-Case oriented analysis
Analysis that aims to understanda particular case or several casesby looking at the
details of each.
8Cross-case analysis
Analysis that involves an examination of more than one case, either a variable-oriented or
8Grounded Theory Method (GMT)
An ind\lctive approachto researchin which theories are generated solely from an
examination of data rather than being derived deductively.
8Constant comparative method
Component of the Grounded Theory Method in which observationsare compared with
one another and with the evolving inductive theory.
Study of signs and and the meanings associatedwith them.
8Conversational Analysis (CA)
Meticulous analysis of the details of conversation, based on a complete transcript hat
includes pauses,hems and also haws.
Writing memos that becomepart of the data for analysis in qualitative researchsuchas
grounded theory.
eOpen coding
Initial classification and labeling of concepts in qualitative data analysis. Codes are
suggestedby researchersexamination and questioning of the data.
eConcept Mapping
Putting concepts in a graphical fomlat.
Chapter 14
Quantitative Data Analysis
Chapter Outline
8Quantification of data
8 Univariate Analysis
8SUbgroup Comparisons
8Bivariate Analysis
8 Introduction to Multivariate Analysis
Developing Code Categories
Two basic approaches:
8 Beginning with a coding schemederived from the researchpurpose.
8Generate codes from the data.
Codebook Construction
8 Primary guide used in the coding process.
8Guide for locating variables and interpreting codes in the data file during analysis.
Entering Data
8Data entry specialists enter the data into an SPSS data matrix or Excel spreadsheet.
8Optical scan sheets.
8 Part of the process of data collection.
Quantitative Analysis
8Univariate -simplest fo~describe a case in terms of a single variable.
8 Bivariate -subgroup comparisons, describea casein terms of two variables
8Multivariate -analysis of two or more variables simultaneously.
Univariate Analysis
8Describing a casein terms of the distribution of attributes that comprise it.
8Gender -number of women, number of men.
Presenting Univariate Data
8 Provide reader with the fullest degreeof detail regarding the data.
8 Presentdata in a manageablefrom.
Subgroup Comparisons
8 Describe subsetsof cases,subjects or respondents.
8 "Collapsing" responsecategories.
8Handling "don't knows."
Bivariate Analysis
8Describe a casein terms of two variables simultaneously.
8 Example:
-Attitudes toward equality for men and women
Constructing Bivariate Tables
8Divide casesinto groups according to the attributes of the independentvariable.
8Describe each subgroup in terms of attributes of the dependentvariable.
8Read the table by comparing the independentvariable subgroupsin tenus of a given
attribute of the dependentvariable.
Multivariate Analysis
8Analysis of more than two variables simultaneously.
8Can be usedto understandthe relationship betweentwo variables more fully.
,\ ..
Chapter 14
Quantitative Data Analysis
Key Tenns
8Quantitative analysis
Numerical representationand manipulation of observationsfor the purpose of describing
and explaining the phenomena that those observations reflect.
Document that describesthe locations of variables and lists the assignmentsof codesto
the attributes composing those variables.
8 Univariate analysis
Describes a case in tenus of a single variable -the distribution of attributes that comprise
8Frequency distribution
Description of the number of times that the various attributes of a variable are observed
in a sample.
Measure of central tendency.
Result of diving the sum of the values by the total number of cases.
The most frequently occurring attribute.
8 Median
Middle attribute in the ranked distribution of observed attributes.
Refers to the way values are distributed around some central value.
"' ,
8Standard deviation
Index of the amount of variability in a set of data.
8Continuous variable
Increases steadily in tiny fractions.
" ,
8Discrete variable
Jwnps from category to category without intervening steps.
8 Bivariate analysis
Analysis of two variables simultaneously. Focus is on the variables and the empirical
8Contingency tables
Values of the dependentvariable are contingent on values of the independentvariable.
\ !
8 Multivariate
Analysis of more than two variables simultaneously.
p p
Chapter 15
; :
The Elaboration Model
Chapter Outline
8The Origins of the Elabomtion Model
8The Elaboration Paradigm
8Elaboration and Ex Post Facto Hypothesizing
Steps in the Elaboration Model
-A relationship is observedto exist betweentwo variables.
-A third variable is held constant in the sensethat the casesunder study are subdivided
according to the attributes of that third variable.
in the Elaboration Model
-The original two~variable relationship is recomputed within eachof the subgroups.
-The comparison of the original relationship with the relationships found within each
subgroup provides a fuller understanding of the original relationship itself.
Possible Outcomes of Elaboration Analysis
8Replication -A set of partial relationships is essentiallythe same as the corresponding
zero-order relationship.
8Explanation ~A set of partial relationships is reduced essentially to zero when an
antecedentvariable is held constant.
Possible Outcomes of Elaboration Analysis
8Interpretation -A setof partial relationships is reduced essentially to zero when an
intervening variable is held constant).
8Specification -One partial relationship is reduced, ideally to zero, and the other
remains about the sameas the original relationship or is stronger.
8The result when partial relationships are essentially the sameas the original
8The original relationship has beenreplicated under test conditions.
.When an original relationship is shown to be false through the introduction of a test
Requires two conditions:
-The test variable must be antecedentto both the independentand dependent variables.
-The partial relationships must be zero or significantly less than those found in the
8The outcome in which a test or control variable is discoveredto be the mediating factor
through which an independentvariable has its effect on a dependentvariable.
8 Does not deny the validity of the original causal relationship but clarifies the process
through which that relationship functions.
8 Partial relationships that differ significantly from eachother.
8Example: one partial relationship is the sameas or strongerthan the original twovariable relationship, and the secondpartial relationship is less than the original and may
be reduced to zero.
8Specifies the conditions under which the original relationship holds.
Ex Post Facto Hypothesizing
8Development of hypotheses "predicting" relationships that have already beenobserved.
8Invalid becauseit's impossible to disconfirm them.
Chapter 15
The Elaboration Model
Key Terms
8Elaboration model
A logical model for understanding the relationship betweentwo methods by controlling
for the effects of a third.
8Test variable
A variable that is held constant in an attempt to clarify further the relationship between
two other variables.
8Partial relationship
In the elaboration model, this the relationship betweentwo variables when examined in a
subsetof casesdefined by a third variable.
8Zero-order relationship
In the elaboration model, this is the original relationship betweentwo variables, with no
test variables controlled for.
8 Replication
A technical term used in connection with the elaboration model, referring to the
elaboration outcome in which the initially observed relationship betweentwo variables
persists when a control variable is held constant, thereby supporting the idea that the
original relationship is genuine.
An elaboration model outcome in which the original relationship betweentwo variables
is revealed to have beenspurious, becausethe relationship disappearswhen an
intervening test variable is introduced.
8 Interpretation
A technical term used in connection with the elaboration model. It representsthe research
outcome in which a control variable is discovered to be the mediating factor through
which an independentvariable has its effect on a dependentvariable.
8 Specification
A technical term used in connection with the elaboration model, representingthe
elaboration outcome in which an initially observed relationship betweentwo variables is
replicated among some subgroups created by the control variable but not among others.
In the elaboration model, a test variable that preventsa genuine relationship from
appearing at the zero-order level.
eDistorter variable
In the elaboration model, a test variable that reversesthe direction of a zero-order
; i
post facto hypothesis
A hypothesis created after confirming data have already beencollected. It is a
meaninglessconstruct becausethere is no way for it to be disconfinned.
" p
Chapter 16
Chapter Outline
eThe Origins of the Elaboration Model
eThe Elaboration Paradigm
eElaboration and Ex Post Facto Hypothesizing
Descriptive Statistics
eUsed to summarize data being studied.
eCan be used to summarizethe following:
-Distribution of attributes on a single variable.
-Associations betweenvariables.
Measures of Association
eDescriptive statistics that summarize the relationships betweenvariables.
eBased on a proportionate reduction of error (PRE) model.
Proportionate Reduction of Error Model
.Number of errors we would make if we knew the distribution of attributes on that
.Number of errors we would make if we knew the joint distribution overall and were told
for each casethe attribute of one variable eachtime we were asked to guessthe attribute
of the other.
Regression Analysis
eRelationships betweenvariables in the form of equations, which can predict the value of
a dependentvariable on the basis of values of independentvariables.
eComputed on the basis of a regressionline, the actual location of points in a
Types of Regression Analysis
e Linear regressionanalysis
eMultiple regressionanalysis
ePartial regressionanalysis
eCurv,ilinear regressionanalysis
Other Multivariate Techniques
eTime series analysis -study of processesoccurring over time.
ePath analysis -a method of presenting graphically the networks of causalrelationships
among several variables.
eFactor analysis -a method of discovering the general dimensions representedby a
collection of actual variables.
Inferential Statistics
eUsed to estimate generalizability of findings arrived at through analysis of a sample to
the larger population from which the sample was selected.
eInferences about ~me characteristic of a population must indicate a confidence interval
and a confidence level.
Statistical and Substantive Significance
eSubstantive -observed associationis strong, important and meaningful.
eStatistical -make assumptions about dataand methods that are almost never
completely satisfied by social research.
Chapter 16
The Elaboration Model
Key Terms
8 Descriptive statistics
Statistical computations describing either the characteristics of a sample or the
relationship among variables in a sample.
; I
8Proportionate reduction of error (PRE)
A logical model for assessingthe strength of a relationship by asking how much knowing
values on one variable would reduce our errors in guessingvalues on the other.
8 Regression analysis
Method of data analysis in which the relationships among variables are representedin the
form of an equation, called a regressionequation.
8Linear regression analysis
A form of statistical analysis that seeksthe equation for the straight line that best
describesthe relationship betweentwo ratio variables.
8Multiple regression analysis
A form of statistical analysis that seeksthe equation representingthe impact of two or
more independentvariables on a single dependentvariable.
8 Partial regression analysis
A form of regressionanalysis in which the effects of one or more variables are held
constant, similar to the logic of the elaboration model.
8Curvilinear regression analysis
A foml of regressionanalysis that allows relationships among variables to be expressed
with curved geometrical lines instead of straight lines.
8Path analysis
A form of multivariate analysis in which the causal relationships among variables are
presented in graphic format.
8Time-series analysis
An analysis of changes in a variable (e.g., crime rates) over time.
8Factor analysis,,?
A complex algebraic method for determining the general dimensions or factors that exist
within a set of concrete observations.
8Nonsampling error
Those imperfections of data quality that are a result of factors other than sampling error.
eStatistical significance
A general tenD referring to the likelihood that relationships observed in a sample could be
attributed to sampling error alone.
eTests of statistical significance
A class of statistical computations that indicate the likelihood that the relationship
observed between variables in a sample can be attributed to sampling error only.
The degree of likelihood that an observed,empirical relationship could be attributable to
sampling error.