9.3 Textbook

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Gold-mining tools 䊳
Seeking a Mountain of Gold
By 1849, poor farmers in China had received word
of a “mountain of gold” across the Pacific Ocean.
Soon, thousands of Chinese men joined fortune
seekers from all over the world in a rush to the
gold fields of California. However, the Chinese
newcomers often faced a hostile reception. In a
letter home to his parents, one young American
miner described the unfair treatment of Chinese
“They are coming by thousands all the time The
miners in a great many plases will not let them work
The miners hear drove off about 200 Chinamen
about two weeks ago but they have com back about
as thick as ever (I would not help drive them off as I
thought they had no rite to drive them).
—Robert W. Pitkin, 1852
As you teach this section, keep students
focused on the following objectives to help
them answer the Section Focus Question and
master core content.
• Explain the effects of the MexicanAmerican War on the United States.
• Trace the causes and effects of the
California Gold Rush.
• Describe the political impact of California’s
application for statehood.
Chinese miners in California
Effects of Territorial Expansion
• Explain the effects of the Mexican-American
War on the United States.
• Trace the causes and effects of the California
Gold Rush.
• Describe the political impact of California’s
application for statehood.
Terms and People
California Gold Rush
placer mining
hydraulic mining
Treaty of Guadalupe
Gadsden Purchase
Wilmot Proviso
Why It Matters As a result of its quick victory in the MexicanAmerican War, the United States would finally achieve the expansionists’ goal of Manifest Destiny. Yet, the long-term effects of the war
served to highlight growing differences between North and South and
set the stage for future conflict. Section Focus Question: What were the
effects of the Mexican-American War and the California Gold Rush?
America Achieves Manifest Destiny
In February 1848, the defeated Mexicans made peace with the
Americans. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (gwah duh LOO pay ee
THAHL goh) forced Mexico to give up the northern third of their country and added 1.2 million square miles of territory to the United States.
Prepare to Read
Background Knowledge
Remind students of some northerners’
reactions to Polk’s compromise with
the British over the Oregon Territory,
and how it indicated a growing
national division over slavery. Have
students read to find out how territorial expansion further heightened the
North-South conflict.
Set a Purpose
Reading Skill: Understand Effects Trace
MexicanAmerican War
• Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo;
United States gains territory
쐍 WITNESS HISTORY Read the selec-
tion aloud, or play the audio.
Witness History Audio CD,
Seeking a Mountain of Gold
The United States Gains Territory In return for leaving Mexico
the effects of the Mexican-American War.
City and paying $15 million, the victors kept New Mexico and California. They also secured the Rio Grande as the southern boundary
of Texas.
The treaty disgusted and humiliated Mexicans, who continued
for decades to feel bitterness toward the United States. The treaty
also dismayed Polk, but for a different reason. After Scott captured
Mexico City, the President decided that he wanted to keep more of
Mexico. He blamed his negotiator, Nicholas Trist, for settling for too
little. But Polk had no choice but to submit the treaty to Congress
because northern public opinion would not support a longer war.
Ask According to Pitkin, how did
the American miners treat the
Chinese newcomers? (They drove
them off to prevent them from working.) What is Pitkin’s attitude
toward his fellow miners? (Sample response: He thinks they are
wrong to treat the Chinese workers
in this way, and he refuses to help
them drive off the Chinese workers.)
쐍 Focus Point out the Section Focus
Question and write it on the board.
Tell students to refer to this question as they read. (Answer appears
with Section 3 Assessment answers.)
Use the information below and the following resource to teach students the high-use words
from this section. Teaching Resources, Vocabulary Builder, p. 10
High-Use Word
Definition and Sample Sentence
v. to include; to make up
Eventually, a total of 50 states would comprise the United States.
v. to reduce in status or rank
The introduction of machinery into the factory threatens to degrade the
skilled worker to a mere drone.
쐍 Preview Have students preview
the Section Objectives and the list
of Terms and People.
Using the Structured
Read Aloud strategy (TE, p. T20),
have students read this section. As
they read, have students record the
effects of the Mexican-American
War. Reading and Note Taking
Study Guide
Chapter 9 Section 3
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Ceded by Britain,
(Convention of 1818)
the United States had
achieved Manifest Destiny and stretched from
the Atlantic to the Pacific.
1. Locate: (a) Oregon,
(b) Texas, (c) Mexican
Cession, (d) Gadsden
the three key terms of this blue
heading around a concept web with
the center oval labeled “Expansion.”
Then, have students add information
to the satellite ovals relating each
term to U.S. territorial expansion.
쐍 Teach Ask Why was Polk disap-
pointed with the outcome of the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
(He wanted to keep more of Mexico.)
Have students discuss how railroad
needs drove westward expansion.
What made the Wilmot Proviso
so divisive? (It made slavery a
prominent issue, splitting the two
main political parties along NorthSouth lines, or proslavery and antislavery lines.)
2. Regions What territory did the United
States acquire as the
result of war?
(Purchased from France, 1803)
ua da
o, 1848lupe
Vocabulary Builder
comprise –(kuhm PRìZ) v. to
include; to make up
Independent Practice
Mexico,ed from
1 85 3)
120° W
3. Connect Past and
Present Is your own
state on this map? If
so, how and when was
it acquired by the
United States?
THE UN(I1T783)
y of G
H id a lg
Lake o
Brita ment with RY
in , 1 8
4 6)
쐍 Quick Activity Have students
access Web Code ncp-0906 to use
the Geography Interactive map
and then answer the map skills
questions in the text.
쐍 Introduce: Key Terms Organize
L. Michigan
Map Skills By 1853,
th Gr842
ed wi
Disputtain until 1
400 km
L 1
Conic Projection
400 mi
America Achieves
Manifest Destiny
For: Interactive map
Web Code: ncp-0906
Growth of the United States to 1853
At l a n n
(Annexed by Congress, 1845)
Pa c i f i
30° N
, 18 19
y S ai n
(C eded b
(Annexed, 1810)
Present-day state boundaries
Gul f of Me x i
80° W
90° W
110° W
In the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, the United States obtained from Mexico
another 29,640 square miles in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The Americans
bought this strip to facilitate a railroad across the continent. Along with the
annexation of Texas, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Gadsden Purchase
increased the area of the United States by about one third. Only the Louisiana
Purchase had added more territory. The new lands comprised present-day New
Mexico, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and half of Colorado.
The Wilmot Proviso Divides Americans Even before the war ended, the
prospect of gaining land from Mexico stirred fierce debate in the United States.
In 1846, Whig congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania had proposed a law,
known as the Wilmot Proviso, that would ban slavery in any lands won from
Mexico. The proposal broke party unity and instead divided Congress largely
along sectional lines. Most northern Democrats joined all northern Whigs to
support the Wilmot Proviso. Southern Democrats joined southern Whigs in
opposition. The Proviso passed in the House of Representatives, but it failed
narrowly in the Senate.
The Wilmot Proviso would reappear in every session of Congress for the next
15 years. Repeatedly, it passed in the House only to fail in the Senate. The Proviso brought the slavery issue to the forefront and weakened the two major parties, which had long tried to avoid discussing the issue in Congress. Thus, the
lands won from Mexico increased tensions between North and South.
쐍 Have students fill in the Note Tak-
ing chart for this section.
쐍 To help clarify the geography of U.S.
territorial expansion, have students
complete the Outline Map: Mexican
Cession and the Gadsden Purchase
worksheet. Teaching Resources, p. 17
Monitor Progress
As students fill in their charts, circulate to make sure that they have correctly matched effects with events. For
a completed version of the chart, see
How did the Mexican-American War serve to heighten
tensions over slavery?
Note Taking Transparencies, B-49.
Map Skills
1. Review locations with students.
2. Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California,
Utah, Nevada, and parts of Wyoming and
3. Students should accurately explain how
and when their state joined the Union.
The war gave the United States new
territories—potential states—which
could upset the balance of North-South
power in Congress.
Manifest Destiny
L1 Special Needs Students
L2 English Language Learners
To help students understand the effects of the MexicanAmerican War and the Gadsden Purchase, have them
research one state created out of the territory won
from Mexico. Then, ask them to use their findings to
create a timeline to show at least five major events
in the chosen state’s history from the year it was
L2 Less Proficient Readers
acquired to the present day. For example, students
may note the year in which the chosen state joined
the Union. Students may annotate their timelines
with text, symbols, or pictures and include a title.
Have students use their timelines to summarize the
state’s history for a partner.
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The California Gold Rush
The California
Gold Rush
To most Americans, the new lands in the West seemed too distant for rapid
settlement. But in early 1848, workers at John Sutter’s sawmill found flecks of
gold in the American River east of Sacramento, California.
Forty-Niners Flock to California By summer, news of the gold strike caused
a sensation in the eastern United States. In a mass migration known as the
California Gold Rush, some 80,000 fortune seekers headed for California in
search of easy riches. About half of these forty-niners traveled by land trails.
Another half went by ship around South America or via a short land passage at
the Isthmus of Panama. The ships landed their human cargo in San Francisco.
The golden news also attracted miners from around the Pacific Rim. Many
fortune seekers came from South America, especially Peru and Chile. Another
25,000 laborers migrated from China to California during the 1850s. From a
mere 14,000 in 1847, California’s population of outside settlers surged to
225,000 in just five years.
Miners Lead a Rough Life Forty-niners flocked to the gold fields with high
hopes. One young man described the excitement of departing for California
from Indiana:
쐍 Introduce: Key Terms Write the
The Lure of California Gold
The California gold fields attracted
thousands of men and a smaller
number of women (bottom). The
poster (below, left) advertises ship
passage to California. What does the
guidebook (below, right) suggest
about the appeal of the California
Gold Rush?
The diggings had been discovered but a twelvemonth before, and the glowing tales of their marvelous richness were on every
tongue. Our enthusiasm was wrought up to the highest pitch, while the hardships and perils . . . were scarcely given a passing thought.
—David Rohrer Leeper, “The Argonauts of ’49”
At first, the miners used cheap metal pans, picks, and shovels to harvest
gold flecks from the sand along the banks and bottoms of rivers and
streams. This process was known as placer mining. A few miners got rich,
but most worked hard for little gain. Because food and clothing were so
expensive, shrewd traders made more money selling goods to the miners
than the miners made by panning for gold.
Conditions were hard in the crowded mining camps.
Poor sanitation promoted diseases, especially cholera and
dysentery, killing hundreds. In addition, life was cheap
and law was scarce in the camps. Almost all of the inhabitants were men, who felt frustrated by their failure to
find much gold and by their lack of family life. Competition and fights became common. One forty-niner noted,
“It is surprising how indifferent people become to the
sight of violence and bloodshed in this country.”
In search of order, the miners carried out their own
rough justice. Without official legal authority, they acted
as judges, juries, and executioners.
key terms California Gold Rush
and forty-niners on the board and
provide the definitions. Have students read to find out what life was
like for forty-niners who joined the
California Gold Rush.
쐍 Teach Display Color Transpar-
ency: Mining for Gold. Using the
Idea Wave strategy (TE, p. T20), discuss with students the conditions for
miners in California during the Gold
Rush. Ask What was early gold
mining like? (At first, most gold was
found by using placer mining, or panning or picking gold from rivers and
streams.) What were conditions
like for the miners? (Many died
from diseases in the crowded, dirty
camps or from violence because of the
lack of law enforcement.) How did
mining change over time? (Placer
mining was replaced by more expensive and complicated, although efficient, methods such as hydraulic
mining or hard-rock mining. Mining became a big business, bringing
to an end the era of the independent
miner.) Color Transparencies A-36
쐍 Analyzing the Visuals Refer
students to the photograph on this
page. Ask What type of mining
are these miners doing? (placer
Independent Practice
Methods of Mining Change Placer mining soon
Refer students to the Infographic
“San Francisco: Growth of a City” on
the next page. Have students convert
the information in the chart “Growth
of San Francisco” to a bar or line
graph. Then, have them answer the
Thinking Critically questions.
gave way to more efficient methods that required more
money and equipment. One method was to dam and divert
rivers to expose their beds. Another method, hydraulic
mining, employed jets of water to erode gravel hills into
long lines of sluices to catch the gold. Hydraulic mining
damaged the environment by leveling hills and clogging
rivers with sediment.
Monitor Progress
Blue Jeans Denim blue jeans were one of the more
spectacular successes of the Gold Rush. In 1853, new
U.S. citizen Levi Strauss left his family’s dry goods
business in New York City to start his own company
in the burgeoning port of San Francisco. To outfit miners and their families, Strauss sold imported dry
goods such as clothing, umbrellas, and whole cloth.
Strauss prospered, and Levi Strauss & Co. soon
became a major business in the city. Then, in 1872,
Strauss received a letter from a tailor named Jacob
Davis. Davis had devised a unique way to make pants
that could survive the toughest treatment and repeated
washings. He used durable denim fabric and he reinforced the pieces that were most likely to rip apart
with copper rivets. Because he did not have the money
to apply for a patent, Davis invited Strauss to pay for
and then share the patent, which Strauss did. The
riveted “waist overalls,” as they were called, were a
huge hit with miners, cowhands, and others who
worked at rough jobs. Today, “Levis” are famous
around the world as a symbol of American popular
As students complete their graphs and
answer the questions, circulate to make
sure that students understand how to
convert the chart information to a
graph format.
Caption that stories of the gold in California
reached as far as France
Chapter 9 Section 3
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Effects of the
Gold Rush
Vocabulary Builder
degrade –(dee GRAYD) v. to reduce
in status or rank
쐍 Introduce Remind students that
when the forty-niners and other
newcomers began to flock to California, many Mexicans, or Californios,
and Native Americans already lived
there. Ask students to predict the
kinds of conflicts that might arise
with the arrival of huge numbers of
white settlers.
Those with the most money turned to “hard rock mining,” searching in the
mountains for veins of quartz that contained gold. Miners extracted gold by digging deep tunnels and shafts braced with posts and beams and drained by
pumps. One California newspaper complained that the new type of large-scale
mining operation “degrades the sturdy miner into a drudge . . . while [mine
owners] reap the great profit of his endeavor.” The democratic age of placer mining was over. With few exceptions, wealthy investors rather than common
miners owned the mines and enjoyed the profits.
What problems did forty-niners face in the California gold
쐍 Teach Ask How did white min-
ers exclude Chinese and Mexican people from the gold fields?
(They forced them to pay a heavy
tax.) How were Native Americans in California treated?
(Thousands were terrorized and
killed.) Why do you think Californians wanted statehood so
much? (Sample response: They may
have believed lawlessness would be
reduced if California were a state,
and that statehood would help the
economy grow.)
For those traveling by ship, San Francisco was the gateway
to the California gold fields. It was also a place where miners
could come to buy supplies, exchange gold for cash, or relax.
Through migration and trade, San Francisco quickly became
the major American city on the Pacific coast in the 1800s.
A Fast Trip West
This 1851 advertisement promises a
superfast trip from New York around
the southern tip of South America to
San Francisco—in as little as 97 days!
쐍 Quick Activity Have students
read the HISTORY MAKERS feature
about Mariano Vallejo. Ask How
was Vallejo’s experience with
white settlers typical and yet
unique? (He lost much of his land
through unjust court decisions, but
he also served as a delegate to the
California constitutional convention
and as a state legislator.)
Before and After What happened to San Francisco
between 1848 (above) and 1850 (below)? One word
explains the rapid building boom: GOLD!
Street Scene
This painting shows a busy street
market in 1850 San Francisco.
Independent Practice
Have students write a summary statement for each red heading below the
blue heading “Effects of the Gold Rush.”
Thinking Critically
Monitor Progress
As students work on their summary
statements, circulate to make sure
that students are not paraphrasing,
but summarizing, the information in
one statement.
overcrowding, loneliness, disease, and
Thinking Critically
1. Sample response: general stores, saloons,
restaurants, and shops owned and operated by tailors, photographers, jewelers,
and goldsmiths
2. Possible responses: famine, epidemic, war,
natural disaster; a boom in a new industry
Manifest Destiny
2. Draw Conclusions What other circumstances
might cause rapid changes in a city’s population?
For: To discover more about the growth of San Francisco
Web Code: ncp-0910
SOURCE: CIA World Factbook Online
L4 Advanced Readers
1. Draw Inferences What kind of businesses do
you think sprang up in San Francisco as a result
of the Gold Rush?
Growth of San Francisco
L4 Gifted and Talented Students
Ask students to do research to identify one company
that was founded in California during the Gold Rush,
such as Levi Strauss & Co. or Wells Fargo Bank, and
write a report about it. Have students present the
history of the company from its inception to the
present day in an oral report that includes visuals
such as posters and maps. Students should describe
the company’s growth, include a description of the
products or services it provided originally, and
explain how those products or services have evolved
in the last 150 years. Students should also include
background information about the founders of the
company, including their reasons for starting the
company and how the company has participated in
or affected the community in which it is located.
hsus_te_ch09_na_s03_s.fm Page 315 Monday, April 19, 2004 8:16 AM
Effects of the Gold Rush
Newcomers from the eastern United States quickly
asserted their dominance over California. To discourage
the Chinese, they levied a heavy tax on foreign miners.
Indians and Mexicans Face Discrimination
White miners also terrorized and killed Native Americans by the thousands. Losing their land, many surviving Indians became workers on farms and ranches.
Mob violence drove most Mexican Americans away
from the gold fields. Those who stayed had to pay the
foreign miners’ tax, though Mexicans had been in
California long before the new American majority.
Californios, or Mexican Californians, also lost most
of their land. Contrary to the Treaty of Guadalupe
Hidalgo, the courts ignored land titles created under
Mexican law.
Assess and Reteach
Mariano Vallejo
Mariano Vallejo lived under Spanish, Mexican, and U.S. rule. The
son of wealthy landowners, he became a general in the Mexican
army. Critical of the Mexican
government, Vallejo welcomed the
arrival of U.S. settlers. Though he
was briefly imprisoned during the
Bear Flag revolt, he continued to
support the American cause,
serving as a delegate to the
California constitutional
convention and as a state
legislator. But like many
Californios, he lost most of
his land to white settlers
when the courts refused to
recognize his family land
grants. Vallejo lived his final
years on a small fragment
of his once large ranch.
Assess Progress
쐍 Administer the Section Quiz.
Teaching Resources, p. 20
쐍 To further assess student under-
standing, use Progress Monitoring
Transparencies, 57.
If students need more instruction,
have them read the section summary.
California Seeks Statehood The new Californians wanted quickly to organize a state and enter the
union. In October 1849, their leaders held a convention
and drew up a state constitution. The new constitution
excluded African Americans, both slave and free. Most
of the new Californians were northerners who did not
want to compete with southern slaveholders who could
use slave labor to seek gold. Nor did the miners want any free blacks to live in
California’s application for statehood stirred discord between North and South.
At the time, the Union was comprised of 15 free states and 15 slave states. Admission of a new free state would thus tip the delicate regional balance in the Senate.
Over the next decade, debate over the spread of slavery into the lands won from
Mexico would grow increasingly bitter. Thus, westward expansion became a
major source of the division that ultimately led to the tragic Civil War.
1. Terms and People Write a
sentence explaining how each of the
following was connected with
westward expansion.
• Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
• Gadsden Purchase
• Wilmot Proviso
• California Gold Rush
• forty-niners
• placer mining
• hydraulic mining
Reading and Note Taking
Study Guide
Adapted Reading and
Note Taking Study Guide
L1 L2
Spanish Reading and
Note Taking Study Guide
Have students write a short story that
takes place during the California Gold
Rush. Stories may be in the first person
or third person, and characters may be
from any walk of life or work at any
kind of job, as long as the story is realistic fiction and takes place between 1849
and 1855. After you have read the stories, ask volunteers to share their work
with the class.
What impact did the settlement of California have on
Mexicans already living there?
쐍 Have students complete the Section
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-test with vocabulary practice
Web Code: nca-0907
Reading Skill:
Recognize Effects Use your chart to
answer the Section Focus Question:
What were the effects of the MexicanAmerican War and the California Gold
Writing About History
3. Quick Write: Write an Editorial
Write an editorial on the Wilmot
Proviso that might have appeared in an
1846 newspaper. Define the issue and
give reasons to support one position.
Section 3 Assessment
1. Sentences should explain how each term
is connected with westward expansion.
2. The war and the Gadsden Purchase
together enlarged the United States by
one third. Issues surrounding the new
territory, however, led to increased tensions between the North and the South
over slavery. The Gold Rush brought people from around the world rushing to
California, and it also brought about the
quick addition of California to the Union.
Critical Thinking
4. Apply Information How did the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo settle the
chief issues that led to the MexicanAmerican War?
5. Draw Conclusions Who benefited
most from the California Gold Rush?
Who benefited least?
6. Evaluate Information What do you
think was the most important longterm result of the Mexican-American
War? Explain.
3. Editorials should express a clear point of
view representative of the time period
and include details supporting that point
of view.
4. The treaty confirmed the annexation
of Texas and gave the United States New
Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, parts of
Wyoming and Colorado, and California,
which appeased expansionists.
5. Early miners and businesspeople whose
companies provided goods and services
to the miners benefited, as well as later
investors in large mining companies.
Mexicans faced a great deal of discrimination; Mexican miners were either
taxed or forced away from the gold
fields, and many people lost their land.
Native Americans, Mexicans, and Chinese
miners benefited least because they
faced discrimination and, in the case of
Native Americans, were often killed.
6. Sample response: the huge territorial
gains that brought the United States
vast natural resources, such as gold in
California and later, oil in Texas
For additional assessment, have students access
Progress Monitoring Online at Web
Code nca-0907.
Chapter 9 Section 3