Informal Changes to the Constitution Executive Agreement: A pact made by the President directly with the head of a foreign state, avoiding the need for Senate approval. Basic Legislation Definition: Passage of laws that refine or define the Constitution Examples: amendment restrictions Executive Action Definition: Using the President’s power to act independently of Congress. Examples: Expanding President’s war powers: making pacts with foreign leaders without Congressional approval Court Decisions Definition: Using court cases to interpret the Constitution Constitutional Change Definition: Using practices of political parties to change the political process Examples: Roe vs. Wade Custom Treaty: A formal agreement between 2 or more sovereign nations. Party Practices Definition: Upholding long held customs as constitutional necessity. Examples: Making executive department heads the President’s cabinet Examples: Nominating Presidential candidates at national conventions.