MS. MCELROY – OCEANOGRAPHY FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE 1. Do ocean surface temperatures follow latitude or longitudinal lines? 2. Where are ocean temperatures highest? 3. Where on Earth is salinity lowest? 4. What three things affect the density of sea water? 5. What is a thermocline? Halocline? Pycnocline? 6. By density, the ocean is divided into three parts: surface layer, pycnocline, and deep layer. Describe each layer. 7. What makes something acidic? Neutral? Basic? What scale do we use to measure these and where on the scale do each fall? 8. How does carbon dioxide affect sea water? What does it produce? What affect does it have on corals? Why are most corals in warm, shallow waters? 9. What is solubility? 10. What are anoxic waters and what lives there? 11. What is a buffer? 12. Describe high pressure and low pressure systems, what type of air is associated with each, and which way does the air move in each? 13. What three things control the density of air? 14. What is a pressure gradient? 15. What is the movement of air called? 16. What is a gyre? 17. What is insolation? 18. What is Coriolis deflection? How does it affect winds? 19. What is a convection cell? Name three and tell where each is found. 20. What are hurricanes? What other name are they known by? How do we name each hurricane? 21. What is a wave? 22. How are most waves formed? 23. What is a fully developed sea? 24. Name three types of breakers. 25. What is a storm surge? What storm are they most associated with? When can storm surges cause the most damage? 26. Label the 4 parts of the wave above. 27. What is fetch? 28. What are progressive waves? 29. What are internal waves? Where do we find them? How do they differ from surface waves? 30. What is a Tsunami? When are tsunamis a danger? 31. What moves as a wave moves? 32. When does a wave interact with the ocean bottom? 33. What two celestial bodies have an affect on tides? Which has more influence? Why? 34. What is a spring tide and what moon phases are associated with it? How often does it occur? 35. What is a neap tide and what moon phases are associated with it? How often does it occur? 36. List the classification system in the correct order. 37. What is correct format for a scientific name? 38. List the 5 kingdoms of the ocean and a description for each. 39. What is an ecosystem? What is a biota? How do they differ?