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States of Consciousness Review Activity

Waking Consciousness

Our _________________ attention allows us to focus on one thing and filter out background stimuli. It is our figurative “spot light”.

As a result, we suffer from _______________blindness, meaning that we are largely “blind” or ignorant to stimuli that we are not actively processing.

Which of the videos in class demonstrated these phenomena by exposing how “blind” we were to other elements that we were not focusing on?:

What is the difference between change blindness and choice blindness?

Daydreaming is defined as:

We have the urge to engage in daydreaming every ______ minutes.

Our 24-hr biological clock is known as our ______________________ rhythm.

Sleep

We are genetically encoded to sleep during the night and be awake during the day. What is the scientific explanation behind this? (hint: melatonin release and the pineal gland):

While we are asleep, we experience ______ distinct stages.

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Stage 1: Feelings of ____________; hypnogia

Stage 2

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Stage 3

Stage 4: Deep sleep; NREM dreams; Reduced with age

REM: Rapid Eye _____________; When most dreams occur o

Explain why it is known as “paradoxical sleep”: o

How does REM rebound support the theory that REM is our most important sleep stage?

List some effects of sleep deprivation:

Sleep disorders:

Insomnia- _____________________________________________

_______________- random lapse into sleep, sometimes REM; characterized by muscle paralysis

Sleep apnea- cessation of ______________ during sleep

Night terrors- Stage ___________sleep disorder- High levels of arousal (screaming, kicking) without ability to be woken up

Sleepwalking (_________________________)- Stage 4 sleep disorder; Genetic

Why are many of these sleep disorders experienced by children and not adults?

Dreams

Manifest content: ___________________ of the dream

________________ content: Underlying meaning of the dream objects

Freud’s theory of dreams- __________fulfillment: we dream to safely unleash our unconscious desire;

many objects carry _______________ meaning

Information processing theory of dreams- Dreams are _________________________________________

________________________ theory of dreams- Dreams mean nothing; Brain is weaving meaningless stories out of random neural firing

________________________functioning theory of dreams- Dreaming allows us to grow our neural connections and prune the ones that are not used (“Mental housekeeping”)

Hypnosis

Posthypnotic _____________- commands given during hypnosis to affect a person after hypnosis

Posthypnotic ___________________- forgetting details of hypnosis afterwards

___________________- used for pain reduction, psychological disorders

Why isn’t hypnotherapy effective for drug addictions?

Meditation

Concentrative meditation- Concentrating on one stimulus to achieve relaxation; Activate parasympathetic nervous system and suppress ____________________ nervous system; achieve

“alpha” (creative, relaxed) brain waves

Zen meditation- focus on ________________

Sufism: _______________________

Transcendental meditation: focus on a ________________________

Drugs

_________________________drugs- Produce psychological changes

Tolerance- Neuroadaptation - body’s neural communication changes in response to the drug

-causes the need for _____________ of the drug to produce same effects

Depressants- _____________ neural firing in central nervous system

Alcohol

Barbiturates- ___________________ ; produce sedation

Benzodiazepine- used to treat _____________________________

Propofol

*What neurotransmitter does each of these depressants increase ?: ______________________

Stimulants- ____________________, activity in the CNS

Methamphetamine

Caffeine

Nicotine

MDMA/Ecstasy- destroy _______________-producing neurotransmitters

Cocaine- increase release of _______________, making it very addictive

Hallucinogens- changes in __________________; minimal ________________ properties or autonomic changes

LSD

Marijuana/cannabis

PCP

Opiates/Narcotics- mimic __________________ to reduce pain; Produce severe withdrawal symptoms, which include:

Short Answer- Be prepared to discuss the elements of this chapter and previous chapters that were present in Inception

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