Our _________________ attention allows us to focus on one thing and filter out background stimuli. It is our figurative “spot light”.
As a result, we suffer from _______________blindness, meaning that we are largely “blind” or ignorant to stimuli that we are not actively processing.
Which of the videos in class demonstrated these phenomena by exposing how “blind” we were to other elements that we were not focusing on?:
What is the difference between change blindness and choice blindness?
Daydreaming is defined as:
We have the urge to engage in daydreaming every ______ minutes.
Our 24-hr biological clock is known as our ______________________ rhythm.
We are genetically encoded to sleep during the night and be awake during the day. What is the scientific explanation behind this? (hint: melatonin release and the pineal gland):
While we are asleep, we experience ______ distinct stages.
Stage 1: Feelings of ____________; hypnogia
Stage 4: Deep sleep; NREM dreams; Reduced with age
REM: Rapid Eye _____________; When most dreams occur o
Explain why it is known as “paradoxical sleep”: o
How does REM rebound support the theory that REM is our most important sleep stage?
List some effects of sleep deprivation:
_______________- random lapse into sleep, sometimes REM; characterized by muscle paralysis
Sleep apnea- cessation of ______________ during sleep
Night terrors- Stage ___________sleep disorder- High levels of arousal (screaming, kicking) without ability to be woken up
Sleepwalking (_________________________)- Stage 4 sleep disorder; Genetic
Why are many of these sleep disorders experienced by children and not adults?
Manifest content: ___________________ of the dream
________________ content: Underlying meaning of the dream objects
many objects carry _______________ meaning
________________________ theory of dreams- Dreams mean nothing; Brain is weaving meaningless stories out of random neural firing
________________________functioning theory of dreams- Dreaming allows us to grow our neural connections and prune the ones that are not used (“Mental housekeeping”)
Posthypnotic _____________- commands given during hypnosis to affect a person after hypnosis
Posthypnotic ___________________- forgetting details of hypnosis afterwards
___________________- used for pain reduction, psychological disorders
Why isn’t hypnotherapy effective for drug addictions?
Concentrative meditation- Concentrating on one stimulus to achieve relaxation; Activate parasympathetic nervous system and suppress ____________________ nervous system; achieve
“alpha” (creative, relaxed) brain waves
Zen meditation- focus on ________________
Transcendental meditation: focus on a ________________________
_________________________drugs- Produce psychological changes
Tolerance- Neuroadaptation - body’s neural communication changes in response to the drug
-causes the need for _____________ of the drug to produce same effects
Depressants- _____________ neural firing in central nervous system
Barbiturates- ___________________ ; produce sedation
Benzodiazepine- used to treat _____________________________
*What neurotransmitter does each of these depressants increase ?: ______________________
Stimulants- ____________________, activity in the CNS
MDMA/Ecstasy- destroy _______________-producing neurotransmitters
Cocaine- increase release of _______________, making it very addictive
Hallucinogens- changes in __________________; minimal ________________ properties or autonomic changes
Opiates/Narcotics- mimic __________________ to reduce pain; Produce severe withdrawal symptoms, which include:
Short Answer- Be prepared to discuss the elements of this chapter and previous chapters that were present in Inception