Taken from Literally, The Best Language Book Ever – Annoying Words and Abused Phrases You Should Never Use Again by Paul Yeager Errors of Redundancy and Repetition 1. Brief Summary A summary is a condensed (meaning shortened) version of a larger piece of information; it should be brief by definition, so avoid saying brief summary. 2. Combine Together Unless combine apart makes sense, adding together to combine is not necessary. Combine already means to bring together. 3. Completely Finished Finished means that it’s done. It’s time to stop. There’s nothing left to do. In other words, it’s completed. Adding the word completely, as in completely finished, doesn’t make it more so; in fact, it means there’s one more word to get to before the finish. 4. Follow After To follow means to come after, as in follow the leader, not follow after the leader. 5. Postpone Until Later Postpone means until later, so postpone until later is redundant. 6. Revert Back Revert means to return to a previous condition, such as revert to my old ways. In other words, it means to go backward in some way; therefore, the word back is not needed in revert back. 7. 12 Midnight and 12 Noon The 12 part is already included in the midnight or noon, so there is no need to say both (12 midnight or 12 noon). It’s either midnight or noon, or 12 a.m. or 12 p.m. For the record, the m in a.m. and p.m. stands for meridian, which means midday. Since ante means before and post means after, a.m. means morning and p.m. means afternoon; therefore, saying a.m. in the morning and p.m. in the afternoon both mean that you spend too much time repeating yourself.