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Title The Prison Project Grade Level Algebra II-A: This is the first year of a two-year Algebra II class. This class was created to meet the needs of juniors and seniors in high school who want to take Algebra II and who would benefit from a slower-paced, activity-based class. Objectives Students will be able to identify the independent and dependent variable, as well as the domain and range for various graphs related to incarceration in the U.S. Students will use these terms with the graphs to describe the trends they notice. Students will choose a data set related to incarceration in the United States. Each data set involves two related trends. Students will create a scatterplot for each trend on a shared grid. Students will do this by hand and will also learn how to do this with the graphing calculator. Students will develop mathematical models for the linear trends they find in their data sets. They will describe what the numbers in their equations tell us about the trends in the data. Students will describe two factors that are related to the increasing trends in imprisonment in the United States. Students will describe one idea for a plan to change the increasing trend of incarceration. Background Mathematical Knowledge Independent Variable, Dependent Variable, Domain and Range are vocabulary words that students have been introduced to. Comfort with these words/concepts varies greatly among students. Students have worked with graphing calculators to make scatterplots. Many have not mastered the procedure and most have never created more than one plot at the same time. Students have background knowledge of linear equations from previous math classes. Ability to relate a linear equation to a real situation varies. Engage 1) Display the graphs below and facilitate a class discussion that includes the following prompts: What is the independent and dependent variable for this graph? What function family does this graph seem to belong to? What domain and range and displayed on this graph? What might be a problem with looking at the total number of people incarcerated? What other measure could be used instead? Why do you think the trend shows such increase? What factors might have affected the growth? http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US_incarceration_timeline-clean.gif http://www.justicepolicy.org/images/upload/00-05_REP_PunishingDecade_AC.pdf http://www.prisonpolicy.org/graphs/incrate19252001.html 2) Word Splash: Academic Disadvantage Disaggregate Disparity Ratio Emotional Impact Imprisonment Incarceration Law Enforcement Projected Property Crime Rhetoric Social Ills Violent Crime Choral Reading: The class reads through the list of words together. Word-Sort: Students work in pairs to sort these words based on what they think the words mean. Share: Students share ideas about sorting methods and the class discusses meanings for words. The teacher is prepared to define words and answer questions. Explore Students choose a set of data to explore. Students will make scatterplots for their data. This will involve two plots on one grid, with careful labeling of variables and numbering of axes. Students will use their graphing calculators to get linear equations for their data sets. Students with the same graphs will form a group. They will check their work with each other and discuss the trends and implications of their data. Each data group will share their findings with the class. 1) Independent Variable: 1st Dependent Variable: 2nd Dependent Variable: Year Money Spent on Incarceration Money Spent on Education One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008, p. 32 http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/8015PCTS_Prison08_FINAL_2-1-1_FORWEB.pdf 2) Independent Variable: 1st Dependent Variable: 2nd Dependent Variable: Year % of Black Americans Who are Drug Users % of Black Americans Who are Incarcerated for Drug use. 3) Independent Variable: 1st Dependent Variable: 2nd Dependent Variable: Year % of White Americans Who are Drug Users % of White Americans Who are Incarcerated for Drug use. The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs, p. 4, 6, and 8 http://sentencingproject.org/doc/dp_raceanddrugs.pdf 4) Independent Variable: 1st Dependent Variable: 2nd Dependent Variable: Year Lifetime chances of ever going to Prison if White American Lifetime chances of ever going to Prison if Black American The New American Apartheid, Table 5 http://www.sheldensays.com/Res-five.htm 5) Independent Variable: 1st & 2nd Dependent Variable: Year % of Men incarcerated for the 1st time by level of education Inequality in US Prison Incarceration, Table A.3. http://www.hks.harvard.edu/inequality/Summer/Summer01/papers/Western01.pdf 6) Independent Variable: 1st Dependent Variable: 2nd Dependent Variable: Year % of US Black Children with a Parent in Prison % of US White Children with a Parent in Prison Imprisoning America: The Social Effects of Mass Incarceration, p. 9 Table 1.3 http://books.google.com/books?id=7UCZ3Z8XwrIC&dq=Imprisoning+America+The+Social+Effects+of+M ass+Incarceration&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=sV3VvlzVrR&sig=0jMdC2H0xO8F3OWJYurHVmM dRHk&hl=en&ei=WWI5S_PQEojNeXH6PMI&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CB8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=&f=false Explain The teacher will present information to stimulate further thought and discussion. Resources include: In Politics, Fact, Fancy Can Blur in Keystroke: Bogus Claim Linking Jail, School Raised Election After Election http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/story/2009/06/03/ST2009060303653.html?sid=ST2009060303653 New PSA: Educate Us, Or Else http://criminaljustice.change.org/blog/view/new_psa_educate_us_or_else Bureau of Justice Statistics http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/ Uneven Justice:State Rates of Incarceration By Race and Ethnicity http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_stateratesofincbyraceandeth nicity.pdf The Justice Policy Institute http://www.justicepolicy.org/ One in 100 Behind Bars in America http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/8015PCTS_Prison08_FINAL_2-11_FORWEB.pdf Professor Pamela Oliver, Sociology Department, UW-Madison http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~oliver/RACIAL/RacialDisparities.htm The Effective National Drug Control Policy http://www.csdp.org/edcs/ http://www.prisonpolicy.org Discussion points might include: Claims that third grade reading scores are used to predict prison populations seem to be false—but there certainly is a connection between educational levels and incarceration. The rate of incarceration for Black Americans is historically higher than for White Americans—why might that be? The incarceration rate skyrocketed in the 1980’s—this is directly related to the “War on Drugs.” The money spent on incarcerating drug offenders is significantly higher than money spent on prevention and treatment. Even though use of drugs among Black Americans is proportional to their representation in the U.S. population—the rate of arrest among Black Americans is much higher than for White Americans. Evaluation Students will create a display of their work and will be graded using the rubric on the following page. The teacher will share the rubric with students when giving the assignment and will create an example of an excellent project for students to look at. Algebra II-A Prison Project Grading Rubric Name _______________________________ Score: /30 Excellent work (Score of 4) looks like: Scatterplot Scatterplot is made with graph paper. The x & y axes are both carefully and correctly numbered. Both axes are labeled with the variable they represent. Colors are used to enhance the graph. Points are precisely plotted, but not connected. Mathematical Model (Equation) The equation must be obtained by accurately entering data into the calculator and performing a linear regression. The equation is displayed neatly in the presentation. First Paragraph The paragraph relates both the slope and y-intercept of the equation to the data situation. The connection between the data and the equation is made very clear. Second Paragraph The paragraph gives 2-3 factors that have contributed to growth in incarceration in the United States. The factors are stated, but also described with some detail. An excellent paragraph makes your opinion clear and backs it up with facts. Third Paragraph The paragraph gives an idea for decreasing incarceration growth. The idea must be well thought-out and you must describe why you think it could be effective. Presentation These requirements are put together in an organized display of your choice. 3= The requirements are met. The project demonstrates good skills and understandings. 2= The requirements are met. The project demonstrates satisfactory skills and understandings. 1= The requirements are partially met. The project demonstrates some skills and understandings. 0= The requirements are not met. The project demonstrates little or no skill and understanding. On the back of this paper, please respond to the following prompts: 1) Explain one thing you learned by completing this project. 2) Explain the most difficult part of this project. 3) Explain the most enjoyable part of this project. (2 pts each)