Chapter 12 The Second War For Independence, and the Upsurge of Nationalism C. The War - U.S. fought against Britain as well as Indian tribes from the west. The U.S. military was smaller and less experienced than the British; however, Britain was also fighting a major war in Europe. American troops invaded Canada but had little success in defeating the British there. Some victories were won against Native American forces in the west. The U.S. won some early naval battles, but in time, were overmatched by the strong British navy. The British navy set up a blockade of the Atlantic coast which severely hurt American trade. Britain landed a large force in Washington D.C. forcing President Madison to flee. The city was burned. Baltimore was successfully defended inspiring Francis Scott Key to write the “Star Spangled Banner.” D. The War Ends - the war was very unpopular among many Americans In December of 1814, delegates from New England met at the Hartford Convention to consider leaving the Union. Both the U.S. and Britain came to realize that the war offered little opportunity for gain. December 24, 1814, the Treaty of Ghent ends the War of 1812. E. The Battle of New Orleans - took place two weeks after the treaty was signed due to slow communication. The battle ends up as an overwhelming U.S. victory with Britain suffering heavy casualties (2036 to 21). The leader of the U.S. troops, Andrew Jackson, becomes an American hero. F. Post-War Economy - peace between the U.S. and Britain, as well as throughout Europe, creates a period of economic prosperity beginning in 1815. The level of trade between the U.S. and Europe greatly increased. The Second Bank of the United States is chartered in 1816, increasing the amount of credit available in the U.S. The rate at which Americans were moving west increased due to available land and credit. In 1819, the U.S. experienced a serious depression known as The Panic of 1819. The depression was caused largely by the overextension of credit during the economic boom. Many Americans who had taken out loans suffered severe economic hardships. II. The Missouri Compromise - arose due to the issues of slavery, and the balance of power between free and slave states in Congress. By 1819, nine additional states had been admitted to the Union. There were 11 states that allowed slavery and 11 states that did not. When Missouri applied for statehood in 1819, there was a battle in Congress over whether it should enter as a slave or a free state Neither the northern (free) nor the southern (slave) states wanted to face a disadvantage in the Senate. The south argued that the national government should not be able to determine whether or not a state could allow slavery. The Missouri Compromise was reached in 1820. 1. It allowed slavery in Missouri. 2. Maine was created out of land controlled by Massachusetts and admitted as a free state. This preserved the balance in the Senate between free and slave states. 3. The latitude of 3630' is set as a line that would separate free and slave states as the U.S. expanded westward.