You can get a copy of this sheet at http://www.sju.edu/biology/dratterm/cepracI.doc Are you ready for the practical? As you finish studying for the practical, here is a review sheet for you to see if you are ready. Disclaimer: This is just an aide. It is not meant to be an exhaustive list (albeit it is pretty long) --- there may be questions on the practical about other items covered in lab that are not on this list. Each instructor asks questions in a different way so don’t memorize – LEARN. The practical is typically only 25 questions, so not all of these areas may be covered on your specific practical (but all good for you to know!). Some solution, dilution, and units practice problems are at http://www.sju.edu/biology/ceprob.htm Are you ready? Can you …. Measure a chicken egg’s length and width with a caliper? Use a toploader balance to determine an egg’s weight? Record values accurately with correct units? Covert from mL to uL? uL to mL? nsec to msec? pm to um? Convert from nm to m? Write your answer in scientific notation? Show a distance given in Angstroms in the modern unit nm (nanometers)? Determine how many mm per ocular unit for a microscope using a stage micrometer? How many um/ocular unit? Convert an ocular unit measure into actual size using this um/o.u. conversion? Drag out 100 um on the stage micrometer image to tell the SPOT software what distance on the screen is equal to 100 um? Drag out a correct cell diameter or length of a rbc or wbc for the software to tell the actual size? Tell the difference between a rbc and a wbc in a blood sample? Count the number of white blood cells you see in the microscope field? Focus in a blood slide or other slide using the microscope? See the image in a microscope with both eyes open? See the ocular micrometer? Measure a cell’s size using the ocular units? Measure both the length and width of the same cell using the ocular micrometer? Find the meristem region on an onion root tip slide? Recognize any protists (Blepharisma, Paramecium, Flagellates, maybe) your class got a chance to look at? Could you focus in to see them in the microscope? Determine the total magnification you are using on the microscope? Distinguish a TEM micrograph from an SEM micrograph? Set up a yeast/sugar trial in a pipette as we did for the yeast experiment? Read the volume of carbon dioxide in a yeast run accurately? Determine which sugars are used by yeast given yeast experimental data in a table or graph? Rank them? Compare rates or lag times from a graph of yeast data? Read the volume of carbon dioxide from a graph of yeast data? Calculate the rate of carbon dioxide release in ml/min from a line on graphed yeast data? (calculate slope) Determine which variable goes on the X axis and which on the Y axis of a graph? Set up an X or Y axis properly for a graph? Correctly plot points? What type of data would be considered qualitative data? Quantitative data? Read X or Y values from graphs? Turn on the spectrophotometer? Blank the spectrophotometer and read from a sample? Read absorbance readings from the spec accurately? Set and use any of the pipetmen? Prepare a protein standard using a recipe? Determine the concentration of protein in a diluted unknown, given its absorbance reading from the Bradford Assay and the standard curve? Plot a point correctly on a graph to construct a protein assay standard curve? Calculate the concentration of the very concentrated unknown, given the concentration of the dilution and the dilution factor? Convert from ug/ml to mg/ml? Change a large or small number into scientific notation? Calculate the correct amount of solute to weigh out to make a % (w/v) solution? Determine how much to measure out and how much water to add to dilute a stock solution by a certain dilution factor? (such as diluting 2x, 10x, 100x, …) Determine the dilution factor given your starting concentration and the desired concentration? Zero and use a top-loading balance (the scales we used in lab) to weigh out solute? Convert from mM to M? from M to mM? Use a graduated cylinder or volumetric flask? Name an item of glassware from the glassware display? Make a simple dilution? Explain how to make a solution? Tell which glassware to use for this? Do you know …. Which unit is smaller – a um or a nm? --- a km or a mm? Which “thing” is a mitochondrion on a TEM micrograph of a cell? The nucleus? Where the ends of the cell are for one bacterium on a micrograph? How to determine the actual size of a bacterium or organelle on a micrograph that has magnification given in the legend? How to do determine the actual size of a bacterium or organelle on a micrograph that has a scale bar? How to calibrate a microscope’s ocular micrometer using a stage micrometer? How to calibrate the cell measuring software (SPOT) using a stage micrometer? What you should use to clean off the objective or ocular of a microscope? What an objective or an ocular IS? What we call those other knobs on the microscope? What an onion root tip longitudinal section looks like? A blood smear? Which objective we use immersion oil with? Which objectives will NOT crash into the slide? Which could? What to do if you lose the sample or focus when using 400x power What DOMAIN bacteria such as E. coli are in? What DOMAIN you are in? Which KINGDOM? What about yeast? Oak trees? Paramecium? Bread mold? Bees? Do you know what is directed through the sample in light microscopy? TEM? How the “beam” is focused in these two types of microscopy? Which sugars we tested were monosaccharides? Disaccharides? Isomers? Which sugars we found no carbon dioxide production for in the yeast/sugar mixtures? How to figure out how much water to add to make a 4x dilution that starts with 100 ul of the solution to be diluted? a 10x dilution? A 2x dilution? How to figure out how much sample to start with for a 10x dilution for a final volume of 1000 ul? a 4x dilution? A 2x dilution? When using serial dilution, what 2nd step is needed for an overall1000x dilution if your first step diluted 100x? The difference between interpolation and extrapolation? Which one you should do with standard curves? You can? You know? Then, You Should be ready ! Get a Good niGht’s sleep & BrinG your non-graphing calculator – your practical starts at your regular lab time. Remember to read the question and answer the question that is actually asked. Double-check your calculations.