Waste Management Info Graphics KEY 1&2- Compost 1) http://sharpexblog.com/2012/07/the-friendly-earthworm-infographic/the-friendly-earthworms-infographic/ 2) Scroll to the composting series: http://wordpress.ed.pacificu.edu/kinderlaurie/2012/03/21/project-3-infographics/ a. How do worms aid in the compost process? Worms break up thatch, which is organic material like leaves and such that has fallen to the ground. They eat parasites that destroy the soil. Break up the soil and help with water flow and irrigation. b. How is compost beneficial? Converts garbage to soil fertilizer. By doing so, you are reducing the amount of waste that ends up in landfills. Doing so can save you money on fertilizer and produce better gardens/crops. Reducing pollution (less methane being produced by garbage in landfills) c. Explain is the difference between hot and cold composting. Hot composting Cold composting - Raises the temperature which aids the microbes that process the waste Requires attention: needs to be turned every 2-3 weeks Can be ready in a few months - Not as precise as hot Can take up to a year to fully decompose Best for one person that doesn’t produce much waste d. What is the role of bacteria in compost? Help break down the organic material. Key component of the nitrogen cycle 3&4- Upcycling 3. http://www.scoop.it/t/ecology-news/p/3190598828/infographic-one-tshirt-the-skinny-on-trashing-textiles 4. Click on Terra Cycle on scoopit magazine page. a. Explain the advantage of upcycling. Reduces waste and saves you money. By generating less waste, you can minimize your negative impact on the environment. b. Explain Terracycle’s mission. Goal is to eliminate the idea of waste by creating national recycling systems for previously non-recyclable or hard-to-recycle waste. 5. Recycling http://harmony1.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/waste_management-714x1024.png a. Determine which country is the greenest based on their waste disposal methods? Austria- they have the highest percentage of waste that is either composted or recycled, which are greener methods of waste disposal than incineration or landfills. b. From a strictly environmental point of view, what is the best material to make a container out of and why? Aluminum- can be recycled indefinitely, so there’s never a point where it needs to be thrown away. BUT Glass- melts at a lower temperature so it requires less energy than aluminum to recycle. Can also be recycled indefinitely. 100% of glass can be recycled (1kg of old glass bottles will make 1kg of new glass bottles) BUT Paper – decomposes readily and is not as heavy as glass, so it costs less to transport. 6&7- Recycling 6) http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_uYXq2Brlccw/TQkyWZz0yCI/AAAAAAAALOo/EIspSubXLmg/s1600/eco+garbage+trash.jpg a. Explain the process of single stream recycling, from the trash bin to all the single pieces. All recyclable material gets put into one container; those are then separated by hand into non-recyclables, cardboard and everything else. Paper is first to be separated out and then magnets overhead pull up any steel materials. Plastics are separated by hand. A special type of current separated the metal from glass. 7) http://metrouk2.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/landfill.png b. Why should we recycle? Use data from your infographic. Reduces waste and prevents pollution. People produces tons of waste, many isn’t biodegradable or takes thousands of years to biodegrade. For example, it takes 1,000 years for a plastic bag to completely degrade. 8. Landfill 8) http://images.mnn.com/sites/default/files/user-75/landfill.jpg a. Diagram a landfill with a plastic liner. The liner is needed to contain the leachate so it doesn’t leak out into the ground. b. Explain why methane is produced in a landfill and how it’s managed. (additional research required) Methane is produced due to fermentation of garbage. The methane is either vented, burned or collected and used as a fuel. 9. Trash-based bio fuels- need to scroll 9) http://urbnfutr.theurbn.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/TrashBasedBioFuels_550.jpg a. How do trash-based biofuel plants work? Additional research required. As organic waste ferments, the cellulose that is present is chemically converted to ethanol. Ethanol can be burned for it’s energy and used for fuel. 10. Incineration 10) http://bit.ly/MZ0nDH a. Diagram an incineration plant b. Explain the process occurring in an incineration plant. Liquid and solid waste are separated, solid waste is burned and turned to ash, which is sent off to a landfill. Liquid is heated and turned to steam, which spins a turbine and power a generator creating electricity. The steam is then cleaned and released to the atmosphere. c. Describe the hazardous materials that are produced. Mercury, dioxin, nitrogen oxides, acid gases and pollutants. 11. Sewage 11) http://thumbnails.visually.netdna-cdn.com/waste-water-and-sewage-treatment-process_5050c695bb73f.jpeg a. Create a flow chart showing the process of waste water treatment. Waste is pumped under ground separated into solid and liquid solids are burned and used for fertilizer effluent (liquid waste) is purified with bacteria and then chemically treated by chemicals (chlorine, UV light etc) Water is released to streams 12&13- Septic 12) http://images.reachsite.com/a3e2ea58-f8e9-4491-895f-4dc499f25f51/media/638216/original/638216.png?gen=1 13. http://thumbnails.visually.netdna-cdn.com/understanding-how-your-septic-system-works_5112d88edf071.png a. Where are septic tanks most common and why? Urban areas due to the large amounts of landed needed for the septic tank. b. Explain how a septic tank works. Powered by gravity, water and waste flows into the ground. Heavy, solid waste sinks to the bottom of the septic tank forming the sludge layer. Liquids are channeled through a pipe at the bottom of the septic tank deeper into the ground and are absorbed by the surrounding soil.