Ricercaforestale

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Ri.Selv.Italia
SubTask 2.2
Wood production outside forest – Wood production arboriculture with fast-growing species
(poplar cultivation)
Scientific referent
dr. Achille Giorcelli
(C.R.A. – Unità di Ricerca per le Produzioni legnose fuori foresta, Casale Monferrato – AL)
Final Report
Title: 2.2.1 – Technical and economic evaluationof of poplar logging.
Working Unit (W.U.): C.R.A. – Unità di Ricerca per le Produzioni legnose fuori foresta, sede
distaccata per le colture da legno in ambiente mediterraneo, Via Valle della Quistione 27 –
00100 ROMA
Head of W.U.: dr. Stefano Verani [email protected]; [email protected]
1) Object of the research
In the forest logging operation, the use of the high mechanization (harvester especially), in
comparison to other European countries, in Italy is limited. Traditional mechanization ( using
chain-saw for felling and processing and agricultural tractor for extraction ) is mostly
employed. Even in the poplar plantations, despite their peculiar technical characteristics, the
advanced mechanization is not very employed. In fact, if we consider the technical point of
view, the use of a harvester on these plantations, generally consisting of regulated stem and
rather contained branches plants, is particularly suitable emphasizing the machine productive
abilities. In our country today about 50 harvesters are in working, with different settings (on
agricultural tractor, on excavator and specialized engine) and some wood enterprises are
endowed with forwarder, for lumber extraction, and with chipper, for chips production.
Certainly, the problematic tied to the elevated price of purchase of these vehicles (at least
200.000 Euro) and the high specialization of the operators required as well as the excessive
private ownership splitting up that hinders the use on ample surfaces, remain as negative
elements. It’s necessary remember that from an economic point of view,
the poplar
assortments (particularly the veneer log) obtain excellent prices on average, and they
guarantee the company a possible increase of amortization and the invested capital for the
new machines purchase recovery.
In this context, the main objective of research has been to verify if the technical-economic
conditions for a further diffusion of this specialized machines are available in our country.
The technical performances and the operating costs of the specialized machines, for single
logging operations, are calculated. These data, with those recorded for the machines in the
traditional mechanization using, are compared.
2) Materials, methods and working plans
In a first phase the research has foreseen with the location of different work sites: among
these nine have been selected in connection with the level of mechanization employed. The
work sites are situated in center-northern Italy. Three degrees of mechanization are
individuated: the traditional mechanization; the traditional advanced mechanization and the
high mechanization.
In traditional mechanization, for the felling and trees processing the chain-saw is used; for the
extraction, in the case of limbed stems, the agricultural tractor partially suited for the forest
use, or, in the case of logs, the trailed pulled by tractor, are used.
Using the mechanization the type traditional advanced a machine (generally an excavator),
moving the stems or the logs, is employed.
Using the high mechanization, all the harvesting operations are mechanized: harvester, for
felling and trees processing is used; forwarder for logs loading and extraction is used. In some
work site the chipper, for chipping the tops and limbs, is used.
The work sites with a traditional mechanization were three and all situated in Lazio region;
that one with a traditional advance mechanization is situated in Toscana region. Those with
1
Cost (euro/t)
high mechanization are five and situated in the Lombardia region (two), in the Emilia Romagna
region (one) and in the Toscana region (two).
Before dealing with poplar plantation logging, stands in every single work site are
characterized
for
many
Traditional mechanization
Advanced mechanization
parameters (age, planting
scheme, clone) as well as
the average volume of the
4,078
4,500
trees and the the different
final assortments (veneer
2,842
2,207
logs, sawlogs, pulpwood)
3,000
are
determined.
This
1,216
parameter, compared to the
1,000 1,000
1,500
480
390
execution’s
times
295
331
operations, has allowed a
0
calculation
of
work
Felling and
Extraction
Chipping
Loading
Total logging
processing
productivities
for
each
operation.
Figure 1-Comparison of the average costs per hectare of the poplar
Comparing
the
plantation logging for the different degree of mechanization adopted.
productivities of work to the
operating
cost
of
the
machines, the unitary production cost of every assortment is determined. The work
productivities, on the basis of the execution times recorded in every operation (felling, limbing,
bucking, extraction, load of the logs and chipping), are calculated. Only in the two work sites
the chipping time are recorded, and consequently therefore the unitary production cost is
calculated. The work times are recorded, according to the logical sequence, of the logging
operation.
3) Scientific results and innovation.
The productivity and costs of every operation (felling and processing, extraction and chipping)
in the examined work sites are determinated. The whole productivity of work sites is
determinate too. The results got,
degree of mechanization
Parameters
Traditional
Advanced
from the examined work sites, in
-1
connection
with
employed
200
200
Wood harvested (t ha )
mechanization degree, are gathered
Average tree weigth (t)
0.72
0.72
in
two
principal
typologies:
Operator (N.)
2
1
traditional work sites, which are
-1
73.57
12.16
Gross working time (h ha )
work
sites
with
traditional
-1
2.72
16.45
Productivity (t h )
mechanization and those with
traditional advance mechanization,
Table 1 – Gross times and average productivity of the felling and
processing operation.
and
advanced
work
sites,
characterized
by
an
high
mechanization employed. The values, for the two typologies showed, represent the average of
the results of the work sites and they are related to four assortments: veneer logs, sawlogs,
pulp wood and chips.
In table 1, the gross times and
degree of mechanization
Parameters
Traditional
Advanced
the
gross
average
productivities of the felling and
160
160
Average extracted load (t ha-1)
processing
operation,
in
Average extraction distance (m)
184
184
reference
to
a
poplar
Operator (N.)
1
1
plantation with 277 trees per
Average Transported load (t)
1.60
14.60
hectare and an average stand
-1
11.48
6.03
Gross working time (h ha )
production hypothesized of
-1
13.93
26.63
Productivity (t h )
200
t
per
hectare,
are
reported. In the advanced
Table 2 – Gross times and average productivity of the extraction
system the gross times of work
operation.
per hectare are middly reduced
of about six times in comparison to the traditional system and realizing hourly productivity of
about six times higher.
2
In the extraction, the gross average productivities of the advanced system increases to 90% in
comparison to the traditional system (table 2); the work times per hectare in the advanced
system reduce it of around the half.
Of the total wood manufacture, middly 40% are
Average value
destined to veneer production, while for the
Assortments
euro/t
sawmill, paper mill and chips production, the
Veneer
log
135.00
same 20% are esteemed. Therefore, limbs and
Sawlog
70.00
top excluded, timber represents the 80% of the
Paper
wood
45.00
commission.
Various
assortments
average
market prices hypothesized and stumpage are
Chips
40.00
reported in table 3. Chips production cost, for
Stumpage
50.00
both work sites typologies, is considered equal,
Table 3 - Hypothesis of market’s prices of the
assortments and stumpage.
supposing that the operation is submitted to a
outside contractor with a cost of 25 Euro/t wood,
load on truck included.
The economic evaluation is finalized to the calculation of the production cost and budget of
the two typologies of enterprises. The economic elements and manpower rates are referred to
a year 2005. The hourly rate imputed to manpower, is of 20 Euro for the harvester’s operator,
and 12 Euro for all the other operators. The average investment of capital for purchasing
machines is considered of 50.000 and 370.000 Euro respectively for the traditional and
advanced system. In this last case is considered the hypothesis of machines on the secondhand market purchase. Considering economic elements above suitable and average
productivities, in figure 1 the unit average costs of the single effected operations and the
whole poplar plantation logging, for the two systems, are reported.
Proceeds are calculated in reference to the average market’s prices of the assortments and the
quantities obtained, on the basis of the percentages above reported. The elements and the
calculation of the economic budget and the profitability, for the two typologies of enterprises,
are showed in table 4.
4) Conclusions, general comments and possible further investigations
The analysis shows a smaller average cost of production in the advanced work system. The
production cost is reduced of 30% (2.842 against 4.078 Euro). Work times, for unit of surface,
results four times lower: theoretically using advanced work system, 68 hectares per year are
harvested forehead. On the other hand, using the traditional work system, 17 hectares per
year are harvested.
Traditional
Advanced
ratio (b)/(a)
The
annual
capital
Technical-economic parameters
mecanization (a) mecanization (b)
%
invested
in
-1
200.00
200.00
100.0%
Stand production (t ha )
mechanization
160.00
160.00
100.0%
profitability
in
the
Timber production (t ha-1)
-1
advanced
system
95.72
23.62
24.7%
Gross time of extraction (h ha )
-1
results equal 32%,
200
200
100.0%
Average working period (day year )
against few more than
16.71
67.75
405.4%
Average surface harvested (ha year-1)
the
17%
of
the
-1
10,000.00
10,000.00
100.0%
Stumpage (euro ha )
traditional system. In
-1
4,077.62
2,842.39
69.7%
Average
cost
of
extraction
(euro
ha
)
synthesis, in reference
-1
2,400.00
2,400.00
100.0%
Average cost of transport (euro ha )
to
the
technical-1
16,477.62
15,242.39
92.5%
Total
production
cost
(euro
ha
)
economic parameters
-1
17,000.00
17,000.00
100.0%
Average proceeds (euro ha )
and to the economic
results,
can
be
522.38
1,757.61
336.5%
Net income (euro ha-1)
affirmed
that
the
8,728.97
119,078.08
1364.2%
Annual net income (euro year-1)
conditions
for
a
Purchase machines cost (euro)
50,000.00
370,000.00
740.0%
greater diffusion of the
Return on investment
17.46%
32.18%
184.3%
advanced
Time of return of the capital (years)
5.73
3.11
54.2%
mechanization subsist.
Table 4 - Elements of the economic budget in the two typologies of enterprise.
The
values
of
obtainable profitability
from the work site to smaller mechanization, also considering the actual contingency of the
poplar market, are satisfactory.
3
The possible expansion of an advanced mechanization is subordinate to the availability of
operators with high professionalism, able to exploit to full the potentialities of the machines,
and to the good organizational and administrative enterprises ability in quickly reacting to any
sudden poplar wood market variation.
Participants
Dott. Giulio Sperandio –Ricercatore, CRA-Unità di Ricerca per l’ingegneria agraria di
Monterotondo
(Roma)
Tel.+390690675218
Fax
+390690625591
e-mail:
[email protected]; [email protected]
Dott. Giuseppe Pignatti- Ricercatore, CRA- Unità di Ricerca per le produzioni legnose fuori
foresta sede distaccata di Roma. Tel. +390661571034 Fax+390661571030 e-mail:
[email protected]
Total funds
1st year:
2nd year:
3rd year:
TOTAL:
€ 11.104,00
€ 16.500,00
€ 8.000,00
€ 35.604,00
Publications
Verani S., Sperandio G., 2003. Utilizzazione del pioppeto. Sherwood n. 88: 37-44.
Verani S., Sperandio G., 2003. Meccanizzazione spinta per la raccolta di biomassa lungo alvei
fluviali. Mondo Macchina 12(4):56-59.
Verani S., Sperandio G., 2004. Valutazione tecnico-economica dell’impiego della
meccanizzazione nell’utilizzazione del pioppeto. In: Convegno “Presentazione e discussione dei
primi risultati di Ri.Selv.Italia”. Sessione Poster. Milano,16 settembre. Pubblicato sul sito
www.ricercaforestale.it/riselvitalia/poster.
Verani S., Sperandio G., 2004. Valutazione tecnico-economica dell’impiego
meccanizzazione nell’utilizzazione del pioppeto. EM-Linea Ecologica 36 (6): 61-64.
della
Verani S., Sperandio G., 2004. Technical economic evaluation of the use of mechanization in
poplar plantation logging. In: 22 nd session International Poplar Commission. Santiago, Chile
November 28- December 2.
Verani S., Sperandio G., 2005. Potatura meccanizzata di un giovane pioppeto. Alberi e
Territorio 2 (4/5): 50-53.
Verani S., Sperandio G., 2005 - Valutazione tecnica ed economica delle macchine per
l’abbattimento e l’allestimento del pioppeto ---Poster n. 1/2/3/4/5 – In: Giornata dimostrativa
sull’utilizzazione del pioppeto con meccanizzazione spinta. CRA ISMA Monterotondo
Verani S., Sperandio G., 2006. Meccanizzazione avanzata nella raccolta del pioppeto. Quali
margini di convenienza economica? Sherwood n. 122: 31-35.
Verani S., Sperandio G., 2006. La meccanizzazione avanzata nel taglio del pioppeto: analisi di
convenienza. In: Convegno “Gestione forestale sostenibile tra bioenergie, utilizzo energetico
delle acque e impatti socio-economici ambientali nelle aree protette”Sessione Poster. XIV
D.I.M.A.F., San Severino Lucano (PZ), 6-7 ottobre 2006.
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Publications in press
Verani S., Sperandio G. - Meccanizzazione spinta nel taglio del pioppeto: analisi di un cantiere.
Sherwood
Title: Use of high mechanization in poplar plantation logging: work site analysis.
Abstract
The paper deals with logging poplar 14 years old poplar plantation in Tuscany in the Pisa
district.
The degree of, harvester for cutting and processing, forwarder for hauling and large chopper
for chipping, was employed. The average daily production was 120 ton for sawlogs. The
economic point wiew the high mechanization it guarantee a 13,9% profitability. The results
suggest the possibility of high mechanization diffusion in poplar plantation logging.
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