history 110b - California State University, Fullerton

Dr. Nancy Fitch
Summer 2009
TWTH 6:00-8:50
H 224
Office: Humanities 820M
Office Phone: 657-278-2964
Office Hours: TWTh 5:00-6:00 and by appointment
E-mail: [email protected]
My Web Site: http://faculty.fullerton.edu/nfitch/ [When you click on World
Civilizations since the 16th Century, it will get you to the class website. There is also a
Blackboard site for this class. You can access it through your student portal.]
**[NOTE 1:
REQUIRED READING: Available at the Little Professor Bookstore. A map to the
store will be provided.
--Howard Spodek, The World’s History, Third Edition, Vol. II (Prentice-Hall, Inc, 2006).
[Available at Little Professor Bookstore—Please be sure to get the Third Edition and the
Second Volume.] NOTE: This edition contains a CD-Rom with primary sources.
We will use these primary sources in Discussion. If you purchase a used book
without the CD, don’t worry, copies of the Documents are available in Blackboard
under “Course Documents.”
There will be one mid-term and one-final exam. The mid-term will cover the first part of
the class; the final will cover the last part of the class. The exams will consist of broad
questions designed to get you to bring the course material together as well as some
identifications. I will give you study questions in advance so that you can structure your
studying around them. Both examinations will be in class exams. Except in
extraordinary circumstances, there will be no make-up examinations.
Mid-Term: 35%
Discussion: 15%
Final: 50%
Tuesday, July 14
1. Introduction: Historical Perspectives on the Contemporary World
Wednesday, July 15
2. Columbus’s World – The Significance of Southernization
A. Winds, Currents, and the Technologies of Early Trade
B. Xheng He and the Ming Treasure Ships
C. Arab and African Traders
D. Did Africans Discover the Americas?
E. Europe on the Periphery of the World Economy
F. The Ecological and Medical Impact of Global Encounters
Required Reading
Spodek, 388-414, 421, 438-447
CD 14.5: “Christopher Columbus”
3. The Clash of Cultures: Europeans in the Americas
A. The Conquest of Mexico
B. The Conquest of Peru
C. Controlling the Conquered
Required Reading
Spodek, pp. 452-458
CD 14.9: “The Prospects of Christian Conversion: Saint Francis Xavier”
Thursday, July 16
4. Capitalism and Empires: New Economics/Old Politics
A. What is capitalism and why is it important?
B. “Pyramid-Shaped” societies, dynasties, empires, diasporas, and nationstates
Required Reading
Spodek, “The Expansion of Europe and the Birth of Capitalism,” pp. 451-453,
465 (“Weber and Tawny on Religion and Capitalism”), 466-469, 471-472
Spodek, “The Nation State,” pp. 472-473
Spodek, “Demographic Changes in a New Global Ecumene, 1300-1750,”
pp. 486-487, 508-514
5. The Rise of Islamic Empires in the Middle East, Europe, and India
A. The Rise of the Ottoman Empire (Centered in Modern Day Turkey)
B. The Safavid Empire (Persia/Iran)
C. State and Society in India
Required Reading
Spodek, “Ottomans and Mughals,” pp. 476-477
Spodek, “The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1700,” pp. 500-502
Spodek, “India: The Mughal Empire, 1526-1707,” 502-505
Spodek, “Safavid Persia, 1400-1700,” pp. 505-506
CD 8.9: “Shiism and Caliph Ali: Controversy Over the Prophetic
CD 12.1: “Sunni versus Shi’ite: ‘We Exhort You to Embrace the True
CD 12.2: “Suleyman ‘the Lawgiver’ and the Advantages of Islam: Oigier de
CD 12:3: “Women in Ottoman Soceity” Oigier de Busbecq
CD 12:4: “The Ottomans: Empire-builders at the Crossroads of Three
CD 12:5: “The Safavid Shi’ite Empire of Persia”
CD 12:6: “Shah Abbas the Great: The Resurgence of the Persian Empire”
CD 12:7: “Moghul Apogee: Akbar the Enlighted”
Tuesday, July 21
6. Pyramid Shaped Societies and Economic Development in China
A. State and Society in Ming and Qing China
B. Chinese Economic Development: Harnessing Internal Resources,
Exporting Manufactured Goods
Required Reading
Spodek, “Ming and Qing Dynasties in China,” pp.477-481
Spodek, “China: The Ming and Manchu Dynasties, 1368-1750,” p. 507
CD: 2.4: “Confucius: Analects”
CD 16.1: “Matteo Ricci, Journals”
CD 16.2: “Dynastic Change in China Tears a Family Apart”
CD 16.3: “Ceremonial for Visitors: Court Tribute”
CD 16.4: “Taisuke Mitamura, The Palace Eunics of Imperial China”
CD 16.5: “Letter to King George: China and Great Britain”
CD 16.6: “Japan Encounters the West”
CD 16.7: “The Laws for the Military House (Buke Shohatto), 1615
(The Tokugawa ‘Hostage’ System)”
Wednesday, July 22
7. Religion and the Scientific Revolution
A. The Scientific Revolution in Western Europe from Copernicus to Newton
B. Resistance to the New Learning in the Western and Non-Western Worlds
Required Reading
Spodek, “Intellectual Revolutions in Science and Philosophy,” pp. 526-531
CD 17.1: “The Heliocentric Statement (ca. 1520): Nicolaus Copernicus”
CD 17.2: “’I Think, Therefore, I Am’: Discourse on Method (1637)”
CD 17.3: “’I Learn and Teach from the Fabric of Nature’: On the Circulation
of the Blood (1628)”
CD 17.4: “Isaac Newton”
CD 17.5: “Francis Bacon”
8. Science and Technology in Europe, the Middle East, and China
Required Reading
Spodek, “How Europe Surpassed China Economically and Militarily,” p. 479
CD 8.7: “Islamic Science and Mathematics”
Thursday, July 23
9. Africa Before and After the Slave Trade
A. The Mali and Songhai Empires and the Trans-Sahara Trade
B. The Swahilli Trading States
C. Central African Kingdoms
D. The Impact of Slavery in Africa
Required Reading
Spodek, “Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa,” pp. 397-400 (reread)
Spodek, “Portugal’s Empire” pp. 458-460
Spodek, “Africa, 1652-1912,” pp. 617-620
CD 11.1: “Mansa Musa: The “King Who Sits on a Mountain of Gold”
CD 11.2: “The Cities of the Zanj and the Indian Ocean Trade”
CD 14.1” “Kilwa, Mombasa, and the Portuguese” Realities of Empire”
CD 14.3: “The Portuguese in Africa and India: Duarte Barbosa”
CD 15:2: “’Our Kingdom is Being Lost’: Nzinga Mbemba (Afonso I)”
CD 15.4: Commerce, Slavery, and Religion in North Africa”
10. Slavery and the Formation of an Atlantic World
A. The Impact of Slavery in Saint Domingue (Haiti)
B. The Impact of Slavery in Brazil
C. The Impact of Slavery in the United States
Required Reading
Spodek, “The ‘New Europes,’” pp. 486-490
Spodek, “Slavery: Enforced Migration, 1500-1750,” pp. 494-499
Spodek, “Haiti: Slave Revolution and the Overthrow of Colonialism,
1791-1804,” pp. 547-548
Spodek, “The Abolition of Slavery and the Slave Trade,” pp. 548-550
CD 15.3: “Olaudah Equiano, The Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus
Vassa, The African”
CD 15.5: “Thomas Nelson, Slavery and the Slave Trade of Brazil”
Tuesday, July 28
11. The European Intellectual Revolution: “The Enlightenment”
A. The Chinese Influence on the Enlightenment
B. Enlightenment and Politics
C. Enlightenment and Economics
D. Enlightenment and Slavery
E. Enlightenment and “The Woman Question”
Required Reading
Spodek, “The Birth of Human Rights in the Age of Enlightenment,
1649-1830,” pp. 520-526
Spodek, “England’s Glorious Revolution, 1688,” pp. 531-533
Spodek, “The Philosophes and the Enlightenment in the Eighteenth Century,”
pp. 533-536
CD 17.6: “On Universal Toleration: Voltaire”
CD 17.8: “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations:
Adam Smith”
CD 17.9: “What Is Enlightenment? (1784) Immanuel Kant
12. The Enlightenment and the American Revolution
A. The Emergence of Democratic and Republican Ideas in the 13 Colonies
B. The U.S. Constitution and Its Influence
(1) The Idea of Representation and Protecting Interests
(2) The Idea of a “Bill of Rights” Protecting Individuals
C. Who Gained? Who Lost?
(1) Traditional Elites, the Middle Class, Urban Workers, and Farmers
(2) Native Americans; African-Americans, free and slaves
(3) Women
Required Reading
Spodek, “Revolution in North America, 1776,” pp. 536-539
CD 18.4: “Declaration of Independence: Revolutionary Declarations”
Wednesday, July 29
13. The French Revolution and Its Impact
A. The Ideas of the French Revolution
B. The Terror
C. Napoleonic Reforms
D. Who Gained? Who Lost?
(1) The Aristocracy and Traditional Elites, The Middle Class
(2) Urban Workers
(3) Peasants
(4) Slaves, Jews, Protestants, and Actors
(5) Women
Required Reading
Spodek, “The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789-1812,” pp. 539-547
CD 18.2: “The Ideal Absolute State (1697): Jean Domat”
CD 18.3: “The Sighs of Enslaved France (1690): Pierre Jurieu”
CD 18.5: “’What Is the Third Estate?’ (January 1789): The Abbé Sièyes”
CD 18.6: “The Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789)
CD 18.7: “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen”
“Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Citizen” (to be provided)
14. Latin American Independence Movements
A. The Haitian Revolution
B. Simón Bolivar Strikes from The North
C. José San Martin Strikes from The South
D. The Mexican Independence Movement
E. Latin American Independence Movements: Reform or Revolution?
F. Who Gained? Who Lost?
(1) Creoles and Peninsulares
(2) The Middle Class
(3) Mestizos
(4) Amerindians; Black Latin Americans, Free and Slave
(5) Women
Required Reading
Spodek, “Haiti: Slave Revolution and the Overthrow of Colonialism,
1791-1804, pp. 547-548
Spodek, “The End of Colonialism in Latin America: Independence and
Disillusionment, 1810-30,” pp. 550-557
Thursday, July 30
15. Industrialization, Nationalism, Darwinism, Social Darwinism, and NeoColonialism
A. Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
B. Racism and Darwinian Ideas in Europe and the United States
C. Japanese Social Darwinism
D. Imperialism and Neo-Colonialism in Asia, Africa, and Latin
E. Imperialism and Neo-Colonialism: Who Gained? Who Lost?
(1) The Traditional Elites in Western and Non-Western Societies
(2) The Bourgeoisie, Peasants, and Urban Workers
(3) “Peoples of Color”
(4) Women in Western and Non-Western Cultures
(5) Western and Non-Western Values and Cultures
Required Reading
Spodek, “The Industrial Revolution: A Global Process, 1700-1914,”
pp. 561-595
Spodek, “Nationalism, Imperialism, and Resistance: Competition among
Industrial Powers, 1650-1914,” pp. 597-640
Primary Sources on the Industrial Revolution
CD 19.1: “Sybil (1845) Benjamin Disraeli”
CD 19.2: “Women Miners in the English Coal Pits”
CD 19.3: “Sadler Report: Child Labor”
CD 19.4: “A Defense of the Factory System (1835): Andrew Ure”
CD 19.5: “The Chartist Demands (1838)”
CD 19.6: “Luddism: An Assault on Technology”
CD 19.7: “Utopian Socialism (1816): Robert Owen”
CD 19.8: “Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels”
Primary Sources on Nationalism and Imperialism
CD 20.1 “Program of the Serb Society of National Defense
[Narodna Odbrana]”
CD 20.2: “Irish National Identity and Destiny: Three Views”
CD 20.3 “Fustel de Coulanges, ‘What is a Nation?’ A Reply to Mr.
Mommsen, Professor in Berlin”
CD 20.5: “The Scramble for Africa”
CD 20.6: “Rudyard Kipling: ‘The White Man’s Burden’”
CD 20.7: “Francisco Garcia Calderon, ‘The North American Peril’”
Karl Pierson (To be provided)
16. The Chinese and Japanese Responses to Western Imperialism
A. Chinese Resistance to Western Ideas
B. Western Companies Gain Control of Chinese Industry
C. British India, Opium, and the Opium Wars
D. Japanese Transformation and Industrialization
E. Japan Becomes an Imperialist Power in Korea, Taiwan, and China
Required Reading
Spodek, “China, 1800-1914,” pp. 544-549
Spodek, “Japan: From Isolation to Equality, 1867-1914,” pp. 582-590
Spodek, “Japan: Fragile Superpower,” pp. 659-661
CD 21.1 “Lin Tse-his [Lin Zexu] Letter of Moral Admonition to
Queen Victoria”
CD 21.2 “Use the Barbarians to Fight the Barbarians” (1842):
Wei Yuan”
CD 21.3: “’Why Are Western Nations Small and Yet Strong?’:
Feng Guifen”
CD 21.4: “The Treaty of Nanking: Treaty of Peace, Friendship,
Commerce, Indemnity, etc”
CD 21.5: “The Abdication Decree (1912): Long Yu”
CD 21.7: “President Fillmore, ‘Letter to the Emperor of Japan’”
CD 21.8: “Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905, Imperial Rescript”
Tuesday, August 4
17. How Technology Changed the Face of War
A. Technology, Industry, and Warfare
B. Wartime Technology and the Rise of Interventionist States
C. Women’s Rights Movements and the War
Required Reading
Spodek, “Scientific and Technological Creativity,” pp. 649-655
Spodek, “The Ottoman Empire,” pp. 661-663
Spodek, “World War I, 1914-1918,” pp. 663-672
CD 22.1: “The Horror of Battle”
CD 22.2: “Slaughter of the Somme”
CD 22.3: “World War I: A Frenchman’s Recollections”
CD 22.4: “The Perversion of Technology: War in ‘No-Man’s Land”
18. The Consequences of the War in the 20th and 21st Century
A. Creating a Hostile Germany
B. The Making of Modern Eastern Europe
C. The Making of the Modern Middle East
Required Reading
Spodek, “The Ottoman Empire,” pp. 661-663 (again)
Spodek, “World War I, 1914-1918,” pp. 663-672 (again)
CD 22.5: “Sir Henry McMahon, Letter to Ali Ibn Husain”
CD 22.6: “The Balfour Declaration”
CD 22.7: “Woodrow Wilson, ‘Speech on the Fourteen Points’”
Wednesday, August 5
The Russian Revolution and the Soviet Union as a 20th Century Power
A. Russian Backwardness
B. The Failures of the Czarist Regime
C. The Russian Revolution
D. The Formation of the Soviet Union
E. Lenin’s Plans for Russia’s Future
F. The Stalin Era
(1) The Great Famine
(2) The Great Terror
G. Who Gained? Who Lost?
(1) The Traditional Ruling Class
(2) The Middle Class and the “New Class” (Communist Party
(3) Urban Workers
(4) Peasants
(5) Ethnic Minorities in the former Russian Empire
(6) Women
(7) The Revolutionary Ethos
H. The Commonwealth of Independent States (Russia) Today
Required Reading
Spodek, “The Russian Revolution,” pp. 672-678
CD 23.1: “The Bolshevik Seizure of Power (November-December
CD 23.2: “Nadezhda K. Krupskaya, ‘What a Communist Ought to
Be Like’” (Lenin’s wife)
CD 23.4: “Nadezhda Mandelstam, Hope Against Hope”
(on the Great Terror)
Thursday, August 6
20. Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany
A. Eugenics, Degeneration, and the Construction of a Race-Based
B. Why Men and Women Found Fascism Fascinating
Required Reading
Spodek, “Germany” pp. 687-690
CD 23.6: “Adolf Hitler”
21. Nazi and Japanese Expansion and the Outbreak of World War II
A. Hitler’s War Aims
B. The Munich Crisis and Appeasement
C. The Nazi-Soviet Pact
D. The Japanese Occupation of China
E. Hitler Conquers Much of Europe
F. Japanese Designs on Southeast Asia and the Philippines
G. The Betrayal of “Friends”: Hitler Invades the U.S.S.R.
H. Japan Moves into Southeast Asia
I. Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor
J. The U.S. Enters the War
Required Reading
Spodek, “Japan,” pp. 690-692
Spodek, “The Descent Toward World War,” pp. 692-710, 715-722
CD 24.1: “Kita Ikki, Outline for the Reconstruction of Japan”
CD 24.2: “Japanese Imperialism”
CD 25.1: “Adolf Hitler, The Obersalzberg Speech”
CD 25.3: “The Rape of Nanjing”
CD 25.5: “’Tojo Makes Plea of Self Defense’”
Tuesday, August 11
23. Consequences of the War in Europe and Asia
A. How the End of the War Created the “Cold” War
B. The Development of Nuclear Weapons and the Arms Race
C. How the Cold War Transformed International Revolutions
(1) The Chinese Revolution
(2) The Korean Revolution
(3) The Vietnamese Revolution
(4) The Making of Modern India and Pakistan
(5) Independence Movements in the Middle East and Africa
Required Reading
Spodek, “Cold War and New Nations,” pp. 725-763
Spodek, “China and India,” pp. 767-803
Primary Sources on the Chinese Civil War
CD 24.3: “Mao Tse-Tung: Report of an Investigation into the
Peasant Movement in Hunan”
CD 24.4: “’How to Be a Good Communist’ (1939): Li Shaoqi”
CD 24.5: “The New Communist State (1940-1950)
CD 24.6: “’From the Countryside to the City’ (May 1949):
Mao Zedong”
CD 24.7: “The Failure of the Nationalist Government:
The American Assessment (1949)”
Primary Sources on the Cold War
CD 26.1: “The Soviet Victory: Capitalism versus Communism
(February 1946): Joseph Stalin”
CD 26.2: “’An Iron Curtain Has Descended Across the Continent’
(March 1946): Sir Winston Churchill
CD 26.3: “The Truman Doctrine (March 1947): Harry S. Truman”
CD 25.4: “The Marshall Plan (June 1947): George C. Marshall”
CD 26.5: “Korea: The Thirty-Eighth Parallel”
CD 26.6: “General Douglas MacArthur, Report to Congress, April
19, 1951: ‘Old Soldiers Never Die’”
CD 26.8: “’The Victory of Communism Is Inevitable!’”: Speech
To the 22nd Communist Party Congress (1962): Nikita
CD 27.7: “Views of a Viet Cong Official”
CD 27.8: “An American Prisoner of War”
Wednesday, August 12
24. Historical Perspectives on the Contemporary World
Thursday, August 13
Course Learning Goals and a Discussion of Why Study History?
Many students ask the question, “why do I have to take a world history course”? This is
a good question. There are many answers. The most important is that in order to
understand the world we live in today, one must understand how developments from the
very distant past have profoundly shaped our present world. The world history course is
also designed to provide you with a common intellectual experience by broadening your
understanding of ideas and values drawn from different strands of our own culture and to
increase your understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity and the process of
cultural interaction.
Other students often ask the question, “what is world history?” This is another good
question. When we study world history we want to look at the history of humanity—
human experience. We do this by examining specific events and processes, but not
necessarily all civilizations. Successful world histories will provide a big picture and
include ideas of comparison, syncretism, looking at alternative worldviews using primary
sources as well as themes that demonstrate common and divergent experiences.
In other words, I do not believe that history is simply the memorization of facts about the
past. For this reason, I do not give multiple-choice examinations. I want you to develop
the ability to see the big picture, to think about causation, and to understand that history is
not about “facts” because historians often disagree over what the “facts” are. To be a
good historian, you need to use geographic skills, write analytical historical essays,
employ problem solving, identify problems, and challenge history (that includes
challenging the text and me). Historical knowledge, like other kinds of knowledge, is not
a fixed, finite body of information but something that is in flux. As historians (and
students) ask new questions about the past, new insights are gained.
To help you better understand what skills and knowledge you should have by the end of
the course, we have developed learning goals for all General Education Courses.
GE Learning Goals for the “Development of World Civilizations”
The two semester “Development of World Civilizations” sequence (History 110A and
110B) are required for all undergraduate students as part of CSUF’s lower-division
General Education (GE) core curriculum. The philosophy behind the GE program is
outlined below:
General education is central to a university education, and should enhance
students’ awareness of themselves in a complex universe, drawing upon
multiple points of view. As a result of general education experience,
students should acquire knowledge of diverse disciplinary and cultural
perspectives and skill in comparing, contrasting, applying, and
communicating effectively these perspectives in tasks considered
appropriate to particular courses.
In addition to these general objectives, there are specific GE learning goals for the
“Development of World Civilizations” sequence:
Understand the origins and forces that shaped the modern world from
1500 and the emerging factors that contribute to a multipolar world
Understand the recurring themes in the development of diverse cultures
and societies since 1500, including the socio-economic, political, cultural
and environmental impact of colonialism, industrialism, nationalism, and
Recognize and understand the encounter, interaction, clash, and
accommodation of various political, religious, ethnic, and gender groups and
their contributions to past and present societies.
Critically engage with source material, including original records,
eyewitness accounts, memoirs, newspapers, surveys, statistics, film, and
scientific treatises
Your grades on the exams and paper will be based on three major, closely related
1. Use of relevant class material, including readings, lectures, discussions, and
2. Expression of ideas in a clear, concise, and engaging prose (style)
3. Development of an argument or point of view that is pertinent to the issue at hand and
that has breadth, coherence, and insight (interpretation)
These criteria will translate into grades as follows:
A: excellent in all three areas. Offers an insightful argument based on ample, sound
B: good. Strong in all three areas or notable strengths in one balanced by weaknesses in
C: average. Adequate performance in one or more areas offset by serious weakness in
others that leaves presentation fragmented, unclear, or narrow.
D: poor. Notable problems in all three areas. Remedial work needed to improve
substantive understanding or basic communication.
F: unacceptable. Serious flaws in all three areas.
No evident engagement in the assignment.
If you do not understand the basis of the grade you received or if you disagree with the
assessment, please speak with the professor. Wait at least 24 hours after receiving the
grade to re-read professor comments and reflect on the evaluation. Please act within a
couple of weeks of the return of the exam.
Academic dishonesty: "Following procedures of due process established
pursuant to Section 41304 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations, any
student of a campus may be expelled, suspended, placed on probation or given
a lesser sanction for one or more of the following causes which must be campus
related: a. Cheating or plagiarism in connection with an academic program at a
campus; (...) "Academic dishonesty includes such things as cheating, inventing
false information or citations, plagiarism and helping someone else commit an
act of academic dishonesty . . . . Plagiarism is defined as the act of taking the
work of another and offering it as one's own without giving credit to that source.
When sources are used in a paper, acknowledgment of the original author or
source must be made through appropriate reference and, if directly quoted,
u/handbook/policy/discipline.htm; accessed 3 February 2004).
Behavior: The following is not acceptable: arriving late for class, leaving class
early, eating in class, bringing beepers and phones that "go off" audibly during
class meetings. Such "not acceptable" behavior will affect your in-class
participation grade.
Blackboard: Blackboard is a course management system which will be
available for this class. Course documents will be placed in respective
Blackboard folders.
E-mail: You are encouraged to e-mail the instructor your questions and
comments. However, I will only check my email every other day. If your campus
email is not your primary account you should make sure that your campus email
“points” to your main account—e.g. hotmail, yahoo, etc. If you do not do this you
will miss important messages.
Exams: Under most circumstances, there will be no make-up examinations.
 Special needs: If you have a special need that you would like for the instructor
to accommodate it is your obligation to contact Disabled Student Services as
mailto:[email protected]) and obtain written verification of this special
need and then present this verification to the instructor.
Submitting assignments: Unless otherwise specified in class (and in writing),
all assignments are to be submitted as hard copies, i.e. on paper, and not via email.
Syllabus Caveat: "Faculty shall not be bound to adhere to their course outlines
on a strict day-today basis, but should follow their outlines as much as is
reasonably possible. After distribution of course outlines to students, major
assignment or course requirement changes (e.g. additional term papers or
examinations) must be announced to students with reasonable timetable for
completion." (UPS 300.004)
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