Draft Concept Paper for the ARF Study on the Regional Security

(Draft as of 4th April,2014)
Background and Rational
1. In the early 1990s, Asia Pacific states, supported and prodded by
track-two processes, developed a set of creative ideas and initiatives,
including cooperative security which focuses on the importance of
inclusivity (both in terms of participants and subject matter), habits
of dialogue, confidence/trust building, as well as cooperative action
for the purpose of building security with rather than against other
countries. Some of these ideas have already permeated into the
practice and outlook of regional and sub-regional associations,
including ASEAN, ASEAN Regional Forum, as well as other
regional track-2 and track 1.5 processes for expert discussion and
2. This first phase of cooperative security (Cooperative Security
1.0)in Asia Pacific was successful in several respects but is
inadequate in addressing the challenges and opportunities of the 21 st
century, partially because Cooperative Security 1.0 was really just a
starting point in defining and instilling the habits of dialogue and
cooperation. It was also because some of the main ideas such as
confidence building and trust building are still long way to achieve.
Finally, it is the shifting tides in the distribution of power and
capacity in the Asia-Pacific as well as a changing context of regional
security landscape, that have highlighted the discrepancy in the
demand and supply of regional security institution.
3. This program of “Cooperative Security 2.0” is to revisit principles
of security cooperation in the region and the principles, norms and
public goods needed in a new set of circumstances by having a
broader look at the nature of the security order appropriate to the
region, specific measures to advance confidence and trust, and
consideration of actionable measures in the context of addressing
complex security challenges that are examples of constructive steps
The proposal
The proposed study is jointly conducted by four ARF experts and
eminent persons(EEP) as well as their affiliated institutes. They
include two Chinese EEPs (Dr. CHEN Dongxiao and Dr. ZHAI
Kun), one Canadian EEP (Prof. Paul Evans) and one Indonesian
EEP (Dr. Rizal Sukma). They will mainly stay in their respective
workplaces while undertaking studies. In addition to that, a couple of
field trips and interviews, two or three trilateral workshops will be
conducted as required based upon study agenda.
The initial draft of the studies is to be circulated to some other EEPs
for their comments and suggestions in first quarter of 2015 (or by the
ISG on CBMs and PD) and the final result of study shall be
submitted to the ARF ISG, the Senior Official's Meeting and
Ministers' Meeting in 2015 for their deliberations
Objective and Success Criteria
1. Clarify and examine the meaning and utility of several key
concepts that might be embedded in Cooperative Security 2.0,
among them: consociational security order; self-restraint;
reassurance measures; trust and empathy building measures;
opportunity engineering; new model of majar power relations,
ASEAN way and principles etc.
2. A specific look at gaps of threat and threat perception in the
Asia-Pacific, with the stress on Northeast Asia and South East Asia,
including regional hot spots. Countries and how to bridge them?
What are the nature of confidence and trust and consideration of
whether “empathy” is a necessary, and so far missing, catalyst to
make them work more effectively.
3. Analyze the building blocks for a desirable regional security
order/cooperative security 2.0, including how to apply some of the
key concepts to this process, priorities, difficulties and possible
roadmap, the role of bilateral security alliances, ASEAN-led
multilateral mechanism in the future security structure.
4. The recommendations shall be policy oriented, realistic and
5. The study should be completed within the timeframe stated in this
ARF project brief.
August 2014- August 2015 (between the 21st ARF and 22nd ARF)
Funding and Budget
The study program is to be covered by ARF Fund. A budget of
around USD 100,000 is estimated, which includes professional fee,
travel cost, field research, printing and reproduction as well as
miscellaneous and contingency.