Tentative Outline of the report on the Redevelopment of Walled city

The walled city of Delhi popularly known as Shahajahanabad was built
in 17 th century for a population of 60000 covering an area of about 5.69
Sq.Km.The city was developed in typical Mughal style, densely built with
organic street pattern. It is characterized by intense wholesale and retail
commercial activity. It is also the cultural, administrative and economic
heart of the old Delhi. Further the city is also renowned for it’s rich heritage
and secular architecture. As per the MPD –2001 and Zonal Development
Plan the walled city has been designated as Special Area(Zone-A) for which
conservation and environmental upgradation are the utmost need. As the
city suffers from inadequate infrastructure, traffic congestion, unauthorized
constructions and misuse of residential premises for non residential activities
there is an urgent need for redevelopment of these areas by decongestion
so as to provide better living environment which should be backed by
shifting of non-conforming industries, noxious and hazardous trade,
upgradation of physical and social infrastructure. Realizing the importance
of the revitalizing the walled city the Ministry of Urban Development and
Poverty Alleviation vide its D.O.letter No. A-11013/1/2001-DDIB dated
3.5.2001 constituted a committee to undertake the survey and prepare a
comprehensive report on the Walled City of Delhi. The members of the
Committee are as follows:
Sh.K.T.Gurumukhi,Additonal Chief Planner, TCPO
Sh.RajeshKumar, Secretary, DUAC
Sh.R.K.Safaya,Chief(Design& Development),HUDCO
Sh.S.C.Anand, Joint Director, DDA
Sh.Shamendra Nagi, Executive Engineer, MCD
Sh.R.N.Singhal, Building Officer, L&DO
To undertake a survey on the unauthorized constructions done in the
walled city area so as to ascertain the ground situation
To highlight the magnitude of the problems being faced in the walled
city area especially with reference to the unauthorized constructions.
To ascertain the implication of unauthorized constructions on the
urban infrastructure and living environment of the walled city area.
To suggest appropriate mechanism to tackle the problem of
unauthorized construction.
Scope of the Report
The report by and large depends on the primary and secondary
sources of data/information. The primary source of information have been
collected and analyzed on the basis of survey undertaken by HUDCO/MCD.
Further, the photographs made available by them also highlighted the
problems of unauthorized constructions. Based on the analysis of survey and
the existing situation the study has come up with suitable recommendations
for multiprong strategy to revitalize the Walled city. Due to time limitations it
was not possible to conduct a comprehensive survey with regard to
ascertaining the exact extent of unauthorized constructions. However,
information has been compiled mainly on (a) Number of Floors, (b) Whether
they are new or old constructions and (c) what is the main use of the floors.
The information furnished by them is to be mapped preferably on the Zone-A
map so as to facilitate the survey and highlight the problems more location
Follow up of the Study
While suggesting a multiprong comprehensive strategy to revitalize the
walled city it would be desirable to consider all aspects of development like
restricting the unauthorized constructions, prevention of misuse of residential
premises, conforming landuse, traffic management, and infrastructure
upgradation and heritage conservation in an integrated manner. This will
call for long-term strategy for revitalization of Walled city which ultimately
should lead to enhancing its economic role as a whole and improving the
quality of life of the inhabitants.
Historical Background.
Shahajanabad or the walled city is the seventh city of Delhi. Prior to it,
six other cities were built on different sites namely Lalkot, Siri,
Tughalakabad, Jehanpanah, Ferozabad and Purana Qilla. Barring
Shahajanabad all other six cities perished. With the passage of time and
the acquisition of power by the British in 1801 brought about basic
changes in the political, social and economic life of the city. However,
the Shahajanabad city by and large retained its tradition and original
character over the period by accommodating the growing and
changing population as well as various kinds of economic activities. The
city was developed in a typical Mughal style densely built with organic
street pattern. It was planned with a concept to have different identified
areas earmarked with specific uses such as different activities and trades,
and hence the city has a presence of mixed land use with commercial
activities in the ground floor and residential use in the second floor.
The streets /lanes and bye lanes of the walled city were of varying
width designed primarily for pedestrian movements and animal driven
vehicles. The original layout of the city was changed with the advent of
British regime. Subsequently, the introduction of railway line along with
growth of industries and commerce was largely responsible for increase in
population thereby making the area most densely populated in Delhi.
Of late, despite being so strategically and historically important, the
walled city is beset with problems of traffic congestion, infrastructure
deterioration, unauthorized construction dilapidated housing condition.
All these conditions have led to an overall deterioration in the quality of
life. The resultant decline in the population has led to soaring property
values. This has further encouraged the traders of the area to convert
their residential premises for non-residential uses thereby leading to
unauthorized constructions/encroachment.
Population Trend and Growth
The Walled city has an area of about 569 Hectares (5.69 sq km). As
found typical of central core of the metropolitan cities, the residential
population of the walled city has been steadily declining from 4.2 lakh in
1961 to 3.5 lakh in 1981 which is further expected to decline to 2.35 lakh in
2001 (MPD-2001). This has been mainly due to movement of people
away from the central core. This was, however, accompanied by a
reverse process of increase in the other activities and working population,
which have further aggravated the existing problems in the city. The
population figures indicate saturation by 1961 and afterwards it has been
declining continuously as evident in the following table:
Table 2.1:Population Growth in Walled city(1951-2001)
Source: Zonal Development Plan, Zone- A
Densities in the Walled City
The Walled city of Sahajahanabad is mostly a high-density area. The
density varies from 1596 to 17 persons per hectare. The highest density is
found in Chitli Kabar where as many as 1596 persons resides in a hectare. A
look at various planning zones reveals that generally all zones have high
residential densities. The lower densities are found in the areas of Red Fort,
Railway Station, Daryaganj and Kashmere Gate, which are relatively built at
later date in early forties. These areas contain some open spaces. In other
areas like Churi Walan, Kucha Pati Ram, Farash Khana and Tilak Bazaar are
also very high-density areas comprising of 1354 to 1501 persons per hectare.
2.4 Existing Land uses
The broad landuse analysis of the Walled city is shown in the following table:
Table 2.2:Existing Landuse of Walled city
Transport, Utilities
Parks& Open Spaces
Public&Semi Public
Govt.&Semi Govt.
Source: Zonal Development Plan, Zone- A
Area in Hectares
Out of the total area of 569.0 Hectares, the area under residential
measures 181 Hectares, which is 31.8% of the total area. The area under
commercial use is 11.7% of the total area. The public and semi public
facilities, (dispensaries, police and fire stations, dharamshalas, night shelters
and public toilets) occupy an area of 41.80 hectares, which is 7.5% of the
total area. Parks and playgrounds including Gandhi Grounds (in front of
Delhi Railway Station) and open space in front of Jama Masjid occupy an
area of 96.87 Hectares or 17.0 % of the Walled city area. Roads and streets
occupy 131.70 Hectares constituting 23.1% of the total area.
Housing conditions
The Walled City consists of high population density in a relatively small
area. This is evident by high gross density and intensity of land uses, which
are manifested in the acute overcrowding and congestion. The majority of
the households live in single dwellings primarily because of low-income
levels. The rent paying capacity of majority of the people is extremely low,
which in turn precludes the possibility of any radical improvement in their
habitats. Hence the existing state of dilapidation. A substantial majority of
dwellings are without the basic amenities.
Employment Scenario
As per the data made available by the Directorate of Economics and
Statistics, Govt of NCT Delhi, during 1998, out of the 656325 enterprises
located in urban Delhi, 46256 or about 7% are located in the Walled city. The
total employment was 196475 in these enterprises, which constituted 5.7% of
the total employment in urban Delhi. The average number of persons
employed per enterprise in the Walled city works out to 4.2 which is less than
the Delhi’s average of 5.2.The following table gives trade-wise employment
in the Walled city.
As observed from the table 2.3, the walled city is clearly dominated by
the retail trade, which constituted 35.80% of the total employment followed
by manufacturing and repair (18.42%). Beside these the other important
avenue of employment includes wholesale trade (11.90%), financial services
(9.05%) and Hotel & Restaurants (3.77%).
Table 2.3 : Trade-wise Employment in Walled city,1998
Manufacturing and Repair
Retail Trade
Wholesale Trade
Hotels and Restaurants
Financial Services
No.of Employees
Storage and Warehousing
Source: Department of Industries, Govt .of NCT Delhi
Industrial Activities within the walled City
The walled city is known for its concentration of small industries, like
metal shops, general engineering, foundries, electroplating, etc. The MPD2001 has listed the noxious and hazardous trades/industries and also
Department of Industries, Govt. of NCT Delhi have identified the pollutant
industries operating in the Walled City. These units are supposed to close
their present activities and restrict to household industries only.
Trade and Commercial Activities
Apart form residential use, predominant use has been the commercial
activity in nearly all parts of the Walled City .In fact, Chandni Chowk-Khari
Baoli –Shradhanand Marg Commercial Complex not only caters for the
needs of Delhi, but also serves as the major commercial center both
wholesale and retail for the entire Northern India. Food grain market at Naya
bazaar and Khari Baoli, hardware and paper trade at Chawri Bazaar, iron
and cement at Ajmeri Gate, cloth markets in ‘Katras’ of Chandni Chowk,
electrical appliances at Bhagirath Palace area, motor parts in Kashmere
Gate and cycle traders near Jama Masjid constitute the vast wholesale
trade for which Delhi is the major center.
Physical Infrastructure
2.9.1 Transportation
There are 10 main roads with the right of way of 80’ to 120’, where the
commercial activities are recommended on the ground floor and also
commercial activity on upper floors to continue.
Table 2.4: Main Roads of Walled city
Sl. No.
Name of the Road
R/W of Road
Chandni Chowk Road
Netaji Subhash Marg
Ansari Road
Khari Baoli
Naya Bazar Road
Shardanand Marg
Ajmeri Gate Bazar
S.P.M. Marg
H.C. Sen Road
Source: Zonal Development Plan, Zone- A
The area under traffic and transportation and utilities as per existing
land use is 23.1% (131.5ha) of walled city. Zone –A-29, which is fully under
Railway line/yard with one railway station i.e. Old Delhi Railway Station.
There are four bus stops from where the buses operate i.e. 1. West of
Subhash Marg 2. East of Subhash Marg, 3. Front of Railway Station and 4.
Bhai Mati Das Chowk.
2.9.2 Telecommunication
Presently two Telephone Exchanges are functioning in or around the
walled city.
2.9.3 Petrol Pump
At present two petrol pumps are functioning at Subhash Marg and
other one near Minerva Cinema in Kashmere Gate.
2.9.4 Parks And Open Spaces
Presently there are three big parks /open spaces in the Walled City
namely Netaji Subhash Park, Gandhi Ground and Open are around Red
Fort. Besides these, there are other three major open spaces available in the
Walled City.
The total open space available within the congested
residential areas of the city works out to 11.5 acres. It will be rather difficult to
increase the area under open space except by using the space left due to
evacuee properties.
Social Infrastructure
2.10.1 Education: As per MPD –2001 in Walled City most of the schools are
run by Municipal Corporation of Delhi and some aided and un-aided
schools are also functioning there. There are 51 Sr. Sec./Hr. Sec schools in
the city. The total area occupied by these schools is 11.69 ha. As on1989,
the total enrolment in these schools was about 43450 students. The location
of schools as far as the city is concerned is nearly uniform but the school
buildings, premises and playground and other facilities are below the norms.
The average area covered by 51 schools works out to 2297 sq. mt. The
Sr.Sec.Schools in the Walled City are sufficient in number but so far the space
is concerned they are highly deficient. Due to paucity of space it is difficult
to bring these schools to the desired standard. The University of Delhi meets
the demand of the college level education of the residents of the Walled
2.10.2 Health:
In Walled City there are four hospitals and 38 dispensaries
but this area is deficient in terms of number of beds in comparison to its
2.10.3 Police Station:
The Walled City has four Police Staions at Darya
Ganj, Chandani Mahal, Hauz Quazi and Lahori Gate. In addition to this, five
Police Posts are also functioning in different zones of the Walled City.
2.10.4 Fire Stations:
Two Fire Stations, one at Darya Ganj and another at
S.P. Mukherjee Marg are functioning in the Walled City.
Table 2.5: Availability of Physical & Social Infrastructure Facilities in Walled
Physical Infrastructure
Main Roads
With R/o 120’ to 80’
Railway Station
Old Delhi Railway Station
Bus Stops
- East of Subhash Marg
- West of Subhash Marg
- Front of Railway Station
- Bhai Mati Das Chowk
Petrol Pump
Petrol Pump
- Subhash Marg
- Kashmere Gate
Parks & Open spaces Parks
- Netaji Subhash Park
- Gandhi Ground
Open Spaces
- Open area around Red
Fire Service
Secondary school
Fire Station
Police Service
Police Station
Police Post
Source: Zonal Development Plan, Zone- A
Darya Ganj
S.P. Mukherjee Marg
Darya Ganj
Chandi Mahal
Houz Khas
Lahori Gate
The approach envisaged by the MPD-1962 for the redevelopment
of walled city was different from the one recommended for other areas.
The peculiar form of walled city and its subsequent historical growth and
compactness together with problems that steadily became acute and
demanded an altogether different strategy for planning. This required a
very careful and sensitive approach so that development of Walled City
was envisaged in the manner that does not caused much dislocation of
work and people; moreover it attempted to provide better environment
for living and work. This was a complex exercise and needed formulation
of policies appropriate to the tasks involved. A carefully worked out
development strategy and a sensitive approach was essential and
ingredients of modernization were introduced, however, the positive
elements and traditional texture were not to be destroyed in the process.
First Stage of Development
(Conservative Physical Programme)
Considering the serious repercussions that were likely to follow as a
result of redevelopment operations, the MPD-1962 recommended to
begin with the programme of conservation for the walled city. In the first
stage, the basic aim was to provide the essential community facilities like
schools, parks and health centers including improvement in the
circulation network. Large-scale redevelopment involving acquisitions of
properties and relocation of people was to be undertaken at a later
stage and had to be kept at minimum. This approach was subsequently
followed in the preparation of the Zonal Development Plan for the Walled
In recognition of the approach described above, the preparation
of ZDP aimed at:
Provision of a circulation pattern with minimum widening of roads
and demolition of structures in order to avoid major dislocation of
the people and work. Standards for roads out skirting the zone vary
from 24 to 36 feet. Suitable parking lots of sizeable areas were to be
provided at convenient points.
Provision of minimum community facilities in accordance with the
prescribed standards; substantially lower planning standards were
prescribed in MPD-1962 for the Walled city due to paucity of land.
The land for the provision of community facilities would be made
available by:
Utilizing the space under Evacuee and Government
Clearing the non-conforming land uses;
Acquiring and demolishing dangerous and the dilapidated
Second stage of Development
(Comprehensive Approach to the Problem of Redevelopment)
An action-oriented approach therefore was contemplated for
the gradual redevelopment of the old city. This approach was based on
the concept of urban renewal by careful phasing and step-by-step
action through which the needed environment improvement could be
realized without impairing the basic character of the Walled city.
The MPD-1962, therefore, suggested the “urban renewal
approach” to be evolved gradually as a major instrument for the
redevelopment of walled city, thus, enabling the city to be equipped for
the growing needs and functions; while it simultaneously envisaged a
positive programme for healthy living conditions and keeping its
compactness and social cohesion. The renewal approach was
conceived as a comprehensive activity to counteract functional
obsolescence of structures, which would have involved population shift
and redistribution and a degree of functional reorganization.
The Three Phases of Urban Renewal
An action oriented approach based on the modern concept of
urban renewal was subsequently worked out for the preparation of
ZDP.The entire Walled city was identified into three major components of
urban renewal on the basis of the degree of deterioration and
obsolescence. These were:
(a) Conservation Areas: The residential areas that needed protection
from the spread of slums. Katra Neel, Ballimaran, Dariba Kalan and
New Darya Ganj were grouped in this category.
(b) Rehabilitation Areas: The areas partially blighted where buildings
deteriorated due to neglect. Phatak Habash Khan,,Chadni Chowk,
Naya Bans,Farash Khana, Churiwalan and Kutcha Pati Ram were
classified as rehabilitation areas.
(c) Redevelopment Areas: The areas in very dilapidated conditions.
Jamuna Basti, Lal Darwaza , parts of Matia Mahal and Suiwalan were
classified as areas ripe for radical development
Relocation of certain Activities from Walled City
Relocation was considered as an important link between the three
major components of urban renewal. The process of urban renewal
considered as an intricate chain of interconnected development and
redevelopment efforts, making appropriate and balanced provision for the
proper rehabilitation of people, commerce, industry and related activities.
Then, the presence of activities considered incompatible within the Walled
city and require shifting and relocation in areas indicated for such uses in the
landuse plan. The MPD-1962 had proposed the relocation of the following
from the walled city.
(a) All the obnoxious and village like industries and the people
depending on them.
(b) All other industrial establishments operating as a part of mixed
landuse in the Walled City.
(c) The population rendered surplus as a result of urban renewal
The relocation schemes, in turn were to provide specially for the following:
(a) Establishment of ‘urban villages’ on the fringes of 1981 urbanisable
limits to house the obnoxious and village like industries and people
depending on them;
(b) The development of industrial sites and flatted factories to house the
industrial establishments being operated in the heart of the Walled
(c) New housing for accommodating the population rendered surplus on
account of urban renewal operations.
The land thus made available by clearing the non-conforming land
uses as well as the evacuee and public properties was to be utilized for the
provision of essential community facilities within the walled city.
Master Plan for Delhi-2001 Approach
As per MPD –2001 Walled city has been earmarked as Special Area for
the purpose of development. This area cannot be developed on the basis of
normal regulations. Special regulations have been worked out for this area
and incorporated in the Development Code. The main objective for the
development of Walled city is to clean the area from noxious and hazardous
industries and trades to check further commercialization and industrialization
of the area and to revitalize the same to its glory of the past.
In spite of numerous planning efforts envisaged in the MPD-1962, the
Walled city continuously suffer from unauthorized construction, congestion
and strained infrastructure.
Further quoting from MPD-2001:
a) “The walled city of Shahajanabad has become a core of vast
extended metropolis, accommodating a part of the business
district. The population in the walled city increased to saturation
upto the year 1961,but, since then, there is large-scale infill by
commercial use replacing residential use.”
b) “Presently, the trade and commerce activities have intruded
much more in all the residential areas in the Walled city. There is
every danger, that, whole of Walled city in due course of time
may get converted into full commercial area, thus, completely
destroying an area of important heritage”
c) It is extremely important, that, the commercial activity should
be as far as possible limited to the present.
The special regulations as per MPD-2001 specifically emphasizes:
a) The predominant land of this area is residential.
b) The noxious industries and hazardous trades shall be shifted from the
walled city immediately within a maximum period of five years to be
replaced by other compatible uses.
c) The public and semi –public uses and services like hospital,
dispensaries, colleges, school, police stations, fire stations, post offices,
local government offices, parking,etc shall be retained in their present
locations and also additional sites could be indicated in the Urban
Renewal and Zonal Plans .Any changes or additions thereof shall be in
accordance within the overall policy frame prescribed in the plan.
d) Control for building /buildings within the use premises:
Maximum ground coverage and FAR shall be same as
for the residential plot in plotted development.
The street width in front of the plot shall be left on the basis of
Urban renewal scheme of the area.
The building shall be permitted to be constructed practically in
the same form and style as existing as far as possible.
e) Within Walled city the building control regulations for special area
shall be as under:
Lajpat Rai Market : The single storied market on either
Chandni Chowk shall be retained.
side of
The isolated use premises like School adjoining Jama Masjid,
Presentation Convent School and the Church at Kashmere
Gate, Municipal Offices at Old Hindu College Building Complex
shall be retained with existing building volume. Any additions or
alterations shall be examined by the DDA within the overall
policy frame of conservation.
In order to ascertain the ground realities and to bring out the
magnitude of the problem, detailed survey was conducted by HUDCO and
MCD along the important roads/stretches in the Walled city. The following
roads were covered in the survey:
Fatehpuri to Redfort (Ward No II) old
Redfort to Fatehpuri (Ward No IV, V and VI) old
Ajmeri Gate and Chawri Bazaar Area
Hauz Qazi and Lal Quan
Chitli Qabr Chowk to Jama Masjid
Chitli Qabr to Chowk Tiraha Bairam Khan
The survey mainly focused on the properties located along the roads
with regard to (i) No of floors and (ii) The type of construction (old or new)
and (iii) specific use of the floor
Table 4.1 : Survey from Fatehpuri to Redfort
Ground Floor
First Floor
Second Floor
Third Floor
Fourth Floor
Government Office
Religious Building
Old but Not in Use
New Residential
Old Residential
New Commercial
Old Commercial
Fatehpuri to Red Fort (Ward No. II old)
No. %
No. %
No. %
No. %
No. % No. % No. % No. %
70 77.8 18 20.0
1 1.1
1 1.1
35 38.9 29 32.2 17 18.9
3 3.3
90.0 100.0
15 16.7 30 33.3 21 23.3 10 11.1
3 3.3 17 18.9 10 11.1 13 14.4
1 1.1
5 5.6
5 5.6
Total Properties Surveyed = 90
Source: MCD Survey
Table 4.2 : Survey from Redfort to Fatehpuri.
Ground Floor
First Floor
Second Floor
Third Floor
Fourth Floor
Government Office
Religious Building
Old but Not in Use
New Residential
Old Residential
New Commercial
Old Commercial
Redfort to Fatehpuri (Ward No. IV, V and Vi)
No. %
No. %
No. %
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
78 78.8 19 19.2
2 2.0
42 42.4 42 42.4 10 10.1
2 2.0
99 100.0
20 20.2 41 41.4 24 24.2
5 5.1
2 2.0 22 22.2 13 13.1
7 7.1
5 5.1
1 1.0
1 1.0
Total Properties Surveyed = 99
Source: MCD Survey
Fatehpuri to Redfort (Ward No II) old & Redfort to Fatehpuri (Ward No IV, V
and VI) old
A total number of 90 properties were surveyed from Fatehpuri to
Redfort in Ward II area and 99 properties from RedFort to Fatehpuri in Ward
No’s IV, V and VI. It is observed that the properties on the stretch from
Fatehpuri to Redfort are overwhelmingly put to use for commercial activities.
Out of the 90 properties, 88 (97.8%) are of commercial use while remaining
two are occupied by religious building and government office respectively.
In ground floor majority of the properties (77.8%) are old commercial use. In
contrast to the ground floor 64 properties (71%) are of commercial use in first
floor and among them 29 properties are new commercial. It is also observed
in some of the properties that first, second, third and even upto fourth floor
have been are residential use. About 26 properties have new residential on
the higher floor. This indicates that construction of additional floors has taken
place. However 5 properties have four floors but are old residential. In overall
it is observed that there are only 6 properties that have construction only on
ground floor and 8 properties with first floor. The remaining 76(84%) have
construction beyond first floor.
The properties situated from Red Fort to Fatehpuri also somewhat
show similar occupancies with out of 99 surveyed properties 97 are
commercial in the ground floor while the remaining 2 are religious buildings.
However it is observed that in 42 properties (42.2%) at the first floor are new
commercial, which indicates that these might have been converted to
commercial from residential use. Further in 5 properties even fourth floor is
being used for commercial purpose. There are only 2 properties with
residential occupancy at first floor. In 38 properties the second, third and
fourth floors are occupied by residential use. However only 15 properties
(15%) are new residential. The pattern of properties observed from Red Fort
to Fatehpuri signifies that the upper floors are likely to be used for
commercial use. Out of total 99 properties, 85 (86%)have construction
beyond first floor.
Table 4.3: Survey at Nai Sarak
Ground Floor
First Floor
Second Floor
Third Floor
Fourth Floor
Government Office
Religious Building
Old but Not in Use
New Residential
Old Residential
New Commercial
Old Commercial
Nai Sarak
No. %
No. %
No. %
No. %
No. % No. % No. % No. %
402 89.1 48 10.6
1 0.2
284 63.0 44 9.8 99 22.0 11 2.4
2 0.4
451 100.0
96 21.3 14 3.1 102 22.6 129 28.6
5 1.1
9 2.0
4 0.9 28 6.2
2 0.4
3 0.7
Total Properties Surveyed = 451
Surce: HUDCO Survey
Nai Sarak
From the above table it is revealed that a total number of 451
properties were surveyed in Nai Sarak area. Out of these properties 402
(89.1%)are old commercial while 48 (10.6%) are new commercial. Only one
property is found to be old residential at ground floor in Nai Sarak. This shows
the intensification of commercial use in the area. Further the upper floors
have also the presence of commercial uses. A total number of 389 (86.2%)
properties have commercial uses beyond ground floor while only 65 (14.4%)
are new commercial found to be at upper floors. About 229 (50.
&%)properties have old residential to be found above ground floor and 142
(31.4%) are new residential. The properties at Nai Sarak especially
commercial use are in operation for quite a long time. Out of total 451
surveyed properties,346 have construction more than first floor.
Table 4.4: Survey between Ajmeri Gate and Chawri Bazaar
Ground Floor
First Floor
Second Floor
Third Floor
Fourth Floor
Government Office
Religious Building
Old but Not in Use
New Residential
Old Residential
New Commercial
Old Commercial
Ajmeri Gate and Chawri Bazaar Area
No. %
No. %
No. %
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
127 92.0 11 8.0
101 73.2 17 12.3
9 6.5
6 4.3
138 100.0
47 34.1
3 2.2 37 26.8
6 4.3
8 5.8
3 2.2 20 14.5
8 5.8
Total Properties Surveyed = 138
Surce: HUDCO Survey
Ajmeri Gate and Chawri Bazaar Area
As observed from the above table, 138 properties were surveyed in
Ajmeri Gate and Chawri Bazar area .All properties at the ground floor are
commercial, majority of them 127(92%) are old commercial while 11(8%) are
new commercial. There is no residential occupation at the ground floor. A
considerable number of properties have old commercial use 101(73.2%) and
47(34.1%)are at first floor and second floor respectively. The residential
occupation is found in all the floors above ground floor, however majority of
them 74(53.6%) are old commercial. It is also observed that 8 properties are
found residential occupancy at fourth floor. The area between Ajmeri Gate
and Chawri Bazar also reveals presence of commercial establishments since
long time.
Table 4.5:Survey at Houz Qazi and Lal Kuan Area
Ground Floor
First Floor
Second Floor
Third Floor
Fourth Floor
Government Office
Religious Building
Old but Not in Use
New Residential
Old Residential
New Commercial
Old Commercial
Houz Qazi and Lal Kuan Area
No. %
No. % No. %
No. % No. % No. %
No. % No. %
42 100.0
4 9.5
7 16.7
7 16.7
42 100.0
6 14.3
4 9.5
Total Properties Surveyed = 42
Surce: HUDCO Survey
Hauz Qazi and Lal Quan
The area between the Houz Qazi and Lal Kuan area a total number
of 42 properties were surveyed all of them are old commercial at the ground
floor. Further at the first floor of the 4 properties new commercial
establishments have occupied. There are old residential occupancies at first,
second and third floors. Beside these 7 properties are occupied by the
religious buildings. Unlike other area, among the total 42 properties only 14
(33%) are constructed beyond the first floor.
Table 4.6: Survey from Chitli Qabar to Jama Masjid
Ground Floor
First Floor
Second Floor
Third Floor
Fourth Floor
Government Office
Religious Building
Old but Not in Use
New Residential
Old Residential
New Commercial
Old Commercial
Chitli Qabar Chowk to Jama Masjid
No. %
No. %
No. %
No. %
No. % No. % No. % No. %
119 52.2 109 47.8
25 11.0 31 13.6 74 32.5 87 38.2
228 100.0
10 4.4 37 16.2 39 17.1 93 40.8
19 8.3 12 5.3 21 9.2
2 0.9
4 1.8
Total Properties Surveyed = 228
Surce: HUDCO Survey
Chitli Qabr Chowk to Jama Masjid
As observed from Table 4.6 all the properties at ground floor are put
to commercial use while there are more new commercial at first, second
and third floor than old commercial. The new commercial is found in 89
properties (39%). Similarly there are more new residential than old residential
in the same floors. There are 205 (90%)new residential, which signifies that of
late there has been construction of additional floors so as to accommodate
both new residential and commercial use. Out of the total 228 surveyed
properties, there are 179(78%) properties with construction more than first
Table 4.7:Survey from Chitli Qabar Chowk to Tiraha Bairam Khan
Ground Floor
First Floor
Second Floor
Third Floor
Fourth Floor
No. % No. % No. % No.
155 42.5 210 57.5
147 40.3 193
71 19.5 141
5 1.4 68
Government Office
Religious Building
Old but Not in Use
New Residential
Old Residential
New Commercial
Old Commercial
Chitli Qabar Chowk to Tiraha Bairam Khan
No. % No. % No. % No.
365 100.0
Total Properties Surveyed = 365
Surce: HUDCO Survey
Chitli Qabr to Chowk Tiraha Bairam Khan
The stretch from Chitli Qabar Chowk to Tiraha Bairam Khan also
shows intense commercialization with all ground floor are commercial.
However, it is interesting to note that none of the properties have
commercial use beyond ground floor while the residential use is found on
the upper floors with new residential more than the old residential. Out of 365
properties 212 properties have construction more than first floor.
Government Office
Religious Building
Old but Not in Use
New Residential
Old Residential
Floor Wise Properties
Ground Floor
First Floor
Second Floor
Third Floor
Fourth Floor
New Commercial
Old Commercial
Table4.8 Break up of the total Surveyed Properties
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
993 70.33 415 29.39 1 0.071
0 3 0.212 1 0.071 66
505 35.76 167 11.83 363 25.71 296 20.96 2 0.142 13 0.921
196 13.88 125 8.853 300 21.25 384 27.2 5 0.354
26 1.841 65 4.603 92 6.516 111 7.861
1 0.071 15 1.062 14 0.992 14 0.992
It is observed from above table that the total number of the properties
surveyed at the selected stretches of the walled city is 1412 and among
them only 66 properties (4.6%) are with ground floor construction while 336
properties (23.8%) have G+1 construction while the remaining properties i.e,
1010(71.5%) have more than first floor construction which signifies the
intensification of the building activities in the walled city.
Floor wise Breakup of Surveyed Properties
Ground Floor
First Floor
Second Floor
Third Floor
Fourth Floor
4.7 Identification of Major Problems
4.7.1 Urban Blight
The extreme congestion within the Walled City and incursion of a
myriad variety of activities and trade has deteriorated the living conditions.
Majority of city houses are in advanced stage of decay and several areas
have been overtaken by blight. During rainy season the houses are in
danger of collapse. But in spite of warnings from the Municipal Corporation
the occupants continue to live in the unsafe structures. Even otherwise a
large number of dwellings have undergone radical transformation including
additions and alterations, which paradoxically made them more unlivable.
Such houses rarely have adequate light or ventilation as they have been
built up back to back with each other in a most chaotic manner without any
plan or design.
4.7.2 Environmental Degradation
The environmental conditions, too, have become bad and in the
Walled City the lack of proper sanitation is common. Even where sewers exist
very few connections to toilets have actually been made. Dry latrines still
predominate and in most areas the drains are uncovered and open
defecation is not an uncommon sight. The earlier prevailing pattern of
predominant two storied houses has witnessed construction of additional
floors, which has resulted in tremendous strain on the existing infrastructure
especially water supply and electricity making them extremely erratic.
4.7.3 Unauthorized Constructions
In the garb of ‘repair’ and ‘maintenance’, unauthorized
construction has become a regular feature resulting in further intensification
of undesirable activities within the Walled city. Innumerable uses of the most
incompatible type have penetrated even in better residential mohallas; in
fact many houses have been surreptitiously converted into workshops and
Conversion of Landuse
In the latest metamorphosis the walled city has been in a state of
flux where families are moving out to facilitate the gradual transition of each
and every katra,gali and chowk into a commercial outlet. The ground floors
predominantly have commercial use and first floor housed residences. But
now, since families are opting for moving out and many of them could not
afford to maintain huge havelis. They rented out portions of havelis and
eventually each haveli housed 20 to 50 families. With so many divisions each
haveli has become a katra. Further despite regulations banning alterations
and additions, illegal construction goes on unabated.
Traffic and Transportation
The entire area in and around Walled city resembles clogged
arteries which are getting choked day by day. The unauthorized
constructions are mainly responsible for congestion. Encroachments extend
to several feet on each side of the roads. The situation is no different in the
bylanes. A large number of hawkers jostle with pedestrians for valuable
walking space. Further in the evening’s pavement bazaar comes up making
the situation worse. The fish and motor market around Jama Masjid have
encroached on the roads in a big way making the area an eyesore.
Considering the amount of traffic being generated in the area the Jama
Masjid may begin to deteriorate. The historical monuments are in danger of
losing the identity
4.7.6 Problems with regard to norms of MPD-2001
a) The prescribed FAR does not satisfy the owners as the existing built up
area has a higher FAR and for any reconstruction, they have to lose
some percentage of covered area.
b) It is difficult in most of the cases to produce any document of approval
in support of the concerned area, because, the buildings are too old to
be conforming to any approved Layout Plan. It is difficult to find an
approved Layout for the areas of the Walled City, except for the Wilson
Survey conducted some time in nineteenth century.
c) The concept of minimum road width also comes as a constraint in the
approval of building plans, when the owner has to forego part of his plot
for road widening at the time of sanction of building plans
4.7.2 Rapid Commercialization of residential areas in the Walled city
It is a well-known fact that the walled city, which is predominantly
residential over the years, has been commercialized. This has been a largescale commercialization, which in turn have led to a number of problems.
As the area was designated to be residential, the entire services were
designed in a particular manner. With the commercialization there has
been tremendous pressure on the traffic system, water supply, garbage
commercialization is a misuse as per the lease conditions and the persons
who have changed the land use are liable to be prosecuted under the DD
Act. However, in reality this does not take place since the original lessee
has sold of his property in most of the cases and the residential premises
have been converted in to a number of units sold to different parties and
performing non-residential activities. Since the implementing agencies
have no privity of contract with the new buyers, it can only determine the
lease and let the haphazard of commercial activities without any control.
Clearance of derelict properties to be identified which are in
dangerous position and can’t be repaired and also if they have
violated the bye-laws.
 Shifting of the wholesale trade and hazardous industries with evolving
effective policy framework for their relocation.
 Removal of encroachments and strict enforcement of traffic
regulation with respect to one way traffic and parking so as to reduce
traffic congestion.
 Historical character and reservation of areas around the walled city
should be a priority.
 Appropriate use of land be made which would be made available as
a result of shifting of industries and by clearing of evacuee properties.
 Constitution of a New Redevelopment Authority and a Task Force for
the Walled City with the objective of redevelopment to be an
integrated part of overall plan.
 Conservation of Historical Monuments and Buildings.
 Open Space and playgrounds be retained and further strengthened.
 Upgradation of Physical infrastructure.
 Financing redevelopment of walled city with exploring possibilities of
private sector partnership.
 There is a need for constant research and studies and also solicit
active people’s participation in restoring the character of the Walled
 With a view to addressing the people problems with regard to the
Development norms of MPD-2001, relaxations are required to be
allowed in the form of permitting existing FAR and compensation for
road widening in terms of covered area.
 The existing provisions in the MPD-2001, under the chapter of Control
for Building/Building within the use premises, may be replaced as
under in respect of Special Area:
a) Reconstruction in the Walled city /Special Area, shall be carried out
by the applicants on the basis of permissible Ground Coverage and
FAR as per existing covered area or as per the permissible norms for
the residential plots in MPD-2001, whichever is higher.
b) The existing road width from which the plot is deriving its access shall
be allowed to be maintained .The owners of plots falling on roads
involving road widening shall be required to surrender the land for
road widening and they shall be compensated in terms of additional
FAR either on the same premises or any other property owned by
them in the city elsewhere.
c) Renovation/repairs /reconstruction of heritage buildings will be
permitted retaining outer envelope /facade. However, the other
design considerations regarding conservation of the heritage as
specified in the Zonal Development Plan are also to be followed
d) Clearance from the Fire Department shall be mandatory for sanction
of building plan.
The walled city offers a heterogeneous stretch of buildings of varying
architectural significance, visual values and design. However many
structures have been fragmented and have lost any distinguishable
character of the past. Many buildings in the vicinity are of architectural
value. They are normally from 1850-1950 AD with good structural
A number of building elevations are of not much significance, but in
an ensemble they appear impressive and help in building up an
appreciable image of streetscape. It is essential that important elements
that contribute to its streetscape required to be distinguished.
Chandni Chowk has shrines for all the religions. These significant
landmarks give the area its unique character. Development around their
vicinity should be controlled and guided through strict guidelines based
on detailed studies. The vicinity and areas of their independence should
be marked and specified as cultural and religious zones.
The occupants and owners have undertaken encroachment,
piecemeal development and unauthorized extension in stages here.
Further there are many plots with incompatible building bulk and use.
Development should be permitted within the framework of conservative