Sociology Study Guide Chapter 1: What is the Sociological perspective? Auguste Comte Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism, Marx, Durkheim, Weber Functionalist, Conflict and Interactionist perspectives Chapter 2: Material and nonmaterial culture Components of Culture: technology, Symbols, Language, Values, Norms (folkways, mores, laws) Levels of culture: patterns, complex, traits Cultural universals Cultural variation Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism Subculture Counterculture Chapter 3: Traditional American values Self-fulfillment and narcissism Social control: internalization of norms, sanctions Social Change: ideology and social movements, technology, population, diffusion, the environment, war. Resistance to change: ethnocentrism, cultural lag, vested interests. Chapter 4: Social structure: status, roles expectations, performance and conflict Social institutions determine social structure Types of social interaction: exchange, competition, conflict, cooperation, accommodation Types of Societies: preindustrial: hunting and gathering, pastoral; horticultural, agricultural; Industrial and urbanization, Postindustrial and information and services Division of labor and specialization Groups: divided according to size, time, and formal and informal organization. Types of groups: primary and secondary Reference groups, in and out groups, internet communities, social networks. Group functions and goals Types of leaders Formal organizations: bureaucracy model, relationships and effectiveness Chapter 5: Nature vs. nurture: heredity, birth order, characteristics of parents, the cultural environment. Locke, Cooley, and Meade (tabula rasa, looking glass self, role taking) Agents of socialization: family, peers, school, media Resocialization and total institution Chapter 6: Adolescence as new concept Characteristics: biological, undefined status, increased decision making and pressure and search for self Dating: old and new patterns Challenges: sex, drugs, suicide Chapter 7: Stages of adulthood, differences between the sexes Work and unemployment, types of occupations and how they have changed Job satisfaction Changes in old age, retirement, physical and mental and social problems, new opportunities Chapter 8: Deviance and stigma Social functions of deviance: clarifying, unifying groups, diffusing tension, promoting social change, providing jobs. Explaining deviance: functionalist: strain theory and anomie; conflict theory; interactionism. Crime and types of crime and the criminal and juvenile justice systems Chapter 9: Types of stratification and inequality: caste, exogamy, endogamy, class systems Levels of class: wealth, power, prestige, SES Functionalist, conflict and interactionist theories American class system Social mobility: upward and downward Poverty: by age, sex and race Effects of poverty, patterns of behavior by class Government response to poverty Chapter 10: Def: race and ethnicity Discrimation and prejudice, and their types. Their sources: sociological, psychological, economic Patterns of treating minorities: pluralism, assimilation, legal protection, segregation, subjugation, pop transfer, extermination Minority and white ethnic groups in the USA Chapter 11: Gender roles and identity between cultures, socialization, and inequality Ageism, graying of America, age inequality, Disability and discrimination and prejudice Health care, cost quality, access, inequality, insurance, alternative med. Chapter 12 Cross cultural family systems, marriage and kinship patterns, residential, and descent patterns, authority pattern Family function: regulation of sex, reproduction, socialization, economic and emotional security, homogamy, heterogamy, family disruption: violence, divorce, delayed marriage, and delayed childbearing, childlessness, dual earner marriages, one parent families, remarriage. Chapter 13 Economic institution, factors of production, the 3 sectors, Economic systems: preindustrial, industrial, and postindustrial Econ. Models: capitalism (supply and demand, laissez faire, free enterprise) and socialism, communism, totalitarianism. Corporations, oligopoly, protectionism, free trade, globalization, multinational, ecommerce State political institution, Legitimacy, types of authority, coercion Types of government: democracy, constitutional monarchy, monarchy, absolute monarchy, dictatorship, junta. Political parties, proportional representation, interest groups, power elite, pluralist. Chapter 14 Education: functionalist (knowledge and skills, transmission of culture, social integration, job placement), conflict social control, hidden curriculum, tracking,SES), interactionist. (self-fulfilling prophecy). Ed. Reforms and alternative schools; violence in schools, ESL Religion: sacred vs. profane. Functionalist: social cohesion, control, emotional support Nature of religion: ritual, rites and symbols; belief systems: animism, shamanism, totemism, theism, monotheism, polytheism, ethicalism. Organization: ecclesia, denomination, sect, cult, Religious affiliation vs. belief in God, secular attitude, fundamentalism Chapter 15 Science birth and rebirth, scientific method Norms: universalism, organized skepticism, communalism, disinterestedness, particularism Fraud, competition, Matthew effect, conflicting views of reality, paradigm Mass media, paper and writing, printing press, industrial age, information society. Types of mass media, convergence of types Functionalist and conflict perspectives of mass media Issues in mass media: effect on children, civic and social life. Power of the media: spiral of silence, agenda setting, gatekeepers vs. too many news sources Chapter 16: Demography, Population change: birthrate, death rate, infant mortality rate, life expectancy, migration rate, growth rate, doubling time of population, population pyramid. Malthusian theory: exponential pop growth vs arithmetic; 3 stage demographic transition, zero pop growth, Controlling pop growth and family planning vs. economic improvements as prerequisite to voluntary family planning Cities: preindustrial, industrial, overurbanization, urban ecology effect on human behavior: concentric, sector, multiple nuclei Urban sprawl, anomie, compositional and subculture theory Chapter 17: Types of collective behavior: crowds, mobs, riots, panics, mass hysteria, fashions and fads, rumors, urban legends, Public opinion and propaganda (attempt to shape public opinion) Contagion theory, emergent norm, value added, Social movements: reactionary, revisionary, conservative, revolutionary, Life cycle: agitation, legitimation, bureaucratization, institutionalization Relative deprivation theory, resource mobilization theory Chapter 18: Social change: Cyclical vs. evolutionary theories Spengler, Sorokin vs. Comte, spencer, Lenski Equilibrium theory: Talcott-Parsons Conflict theory: Marx and Dahrendorf Modernization theory: industrialization and dependence Modernized vs. non modernized societies World systems: core, semi periphery, periphery Consequences of modernization Additional: Explain the basic premise of Guns, Germs and Steel. What perspective influenced the theory?