Physiology 5 Name

Macroscopic Anatomy of the Skeletal System
Physiology 1
The word skeleton comes from the Greek work meaning ‘dried up body’ or ‘mummy.’ Despite this unflattering
description, the human skeleton is a very complex structure. It is also a marvel of design, being ideally adapted for its
protective, locomotive and manipulative functions. The present form of the human skeleton has been around for at
least 3 million years, when our hominid ancestors first adopted an upright posture and bipedal locomotion. The
skeleton is composed of bones, cartilage and ligaments, with bones making up the bulk of this skeletal structure.
Altogether the skeleton accounts for approximately 20% of our body’s mass.
An accurate study of this organ system cannot be accomplished without a basic understanding of its anatomy and
the anatomical language that is used to describe it. The 206 bones of the human skeleton are organized into the axial
and appendicular skeletons. The axial skeleton forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull,
vertebral column and rib cage. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the
hip and shoulder girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton. Bones can also be categorized by shape: long,
short, flat, irregular and sesamoid.
In this activity, you will study and learn skeletal anatomy through the use of a disarticulated skeleton and the
skeletal website Grab an ipad and let’s begin assembly.
Focus Questions
• What are the major bones of the axial and appendicular skeleton?
• Is the skeleton you are working with a male or female?
• How do the bones of the human skeleton articulate with one another?
• Where are the various types of joints located?
Part A. General Anatomical Study: Trunk and Limbs
Directions: With your group of four unload the skeleton box and place all the bones of the human body on a table in
the front part of the classroom. You will build your skeleton as you move through the activity. Using an ipad, go to
the Inner body website listed above. Find the bones that make up each of the sections of the human shown in the
tables below. Group the bones together for the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle, the arms, legs, vertebrae, and
rib cage. Identify the names of the bones, the skeletal division, the number of each bone found in the body and the
type of bone. Use the website to help you. Complete the tables below. As you learn each of the bones, build your
1. Identify and learn the bones of the shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle. As you identify the bones, place them on the
table in the location where they are found in the articulated skeleton.
Shoulder Girdle
Name of Bone
Pelvic Girdle
Name of Bone
# in Body
Skeletal Division
Type of Bone
# in Body
Skeletal Division
Type of Bone
Identify if the skeleton you have is a male or female using the knowledge you gained in comparing female and
male skeletons. Justify your answer in the space below.
Our skeleton is:
3. Identify and learn the bones of the arm and leg. Articulate them with the pelvic and shoulder girdles.
Name of Bone
# in Body
Skeletal Division
Type of Bone
Name of Bone
# in Body
Skeletal Division
Type of Bone
4. Identify and learn the bones of the vertebral column. Articulate them with the rib cage, skull and pelvic girdle.
Name of Bone
# in Body
Skeletal Division
Type of Bone
5. Identify and learn the bones of the rib cage.
Rib Cage
Name of Bone
# in Body
Skeletal Division
Type of Bone
6. Check your knowledge by working with a partner to conduct a ‘simulated’ laboratory quiz. Conduct this exercise
with both the articulated skeleton and the loose bones.
Part B. Joints
7. Your group has been given the ___________________________________joint to focus on. Identify three
locations in the body where this joint is found.
a. ___________________________b. ___________________________c. ___________________________
8. Describe the movement provided by this type of joint in the space below.
Using the bones that make up the joint, simulate the movement with the bones.
10. Observe the ends of the bones and describe their structural differences which allow them to work together. With
your group develop a short presentation to share with your class that will help them learn the joint, the movement
provided by the joint and location.
Analysis and Conclusions
Directions: Answer the following questions using complete sentences.
1. How are the axial and appendicular skeletal structures different? (think bone classification and their function)
2. Define the term foramen. Name the largest foramen in the skull. What is its purpose?
3. What characteristics help you to distinguish the different types of vertebrae?
4. Name the first and second cervical vertebrae. What is the purpose of these two vertebrae?
5. Name the only bone that does not articulate with another bone.
6. Describe the purpose of a joint and the anatomical differences between the various types of joints.
7. How many bones are there in the human body? Are you born with more or less bones?
What did you learn about the human skeleton while you were building it? Write a conclusion.
Labeling the Human Skeleton
Directions: Label the major bones of the axial and appendicular skeleton.
Anterior View
Posterior View