EESUnit 3 with LEP

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9 – 12/Unit 6
I.
Grade Level/Unit Number:
II:
Unit Title:
III.
Unit Length: 2-2.5 weeks (on a 90 min per day block schedule)
3-4 weeks (on a traditional schedule)
Major Learning Outcomes:
IV.
Meteorology: Air and Water Connections
The student will gain an understanding of:
 Air masses as regions of the atmosphere that have similar properties
throughout and move over the face of the planet in predictable ways.
 Mapping weather variables (especially air pressure) in order to make
predictions about present weather conditions.
 Surface variables that affect weather patterns
 Storms and precipitation and their association with low pressure regions in the
atmosphere.
 Interactions between the hydrosphere and atmosphere as it relates to global,
regional, and local weather patterns.
o Surface ocean currents
o Surface winds
o Importance of latitude
o Areas of convergence and divergence air and water flow
 How climate data is established
 The consequences of human activities on the atmosphere and air quality
 The role of regulations on air quality
V.
NC E/E (2004) Content Objectives Included (with RBT Tags):
Number
Competency or Objective
RBT Tag
1.03
Evaluate the use of satellite images and imaging
techniques in the Earth/Environmental Sciences (use as
a primary data source)
A4, B4
1.05
Analyze reports of scientific investigations and
environmental issues from an informed, scientifically
literate viewpoint.
D4, D5
1.06
Solutions to EES issues at local, national, and global
level
B5
2.05
Create and interpret topographic, soil, and geologic
maps using scales and legends (flooding, deposition in
delta, wetland buffers)
C3, C4
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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4.03
Analyze the mechanisms that produce the various types
of shorelines and the resultant landforms. (Human
impact, topography, hurricanes)
B2, B3
4.04
Evaluate the relationship between water resources and
air pollution
A4, B4, C4
5.01
Analyze air masses and the life cycle of weather
systems
B4
5.02
Evaluate meteorological observing, analysis, and
prediction
A5, B5, C5
5.03
Analyze global atmospheric changes including changes
in carbon dioxide, methane, and stratospheric ozone.
(global warming—storm incidence and severity
connection, sea level rise)
B2
2.07
Evaluate the relationship between water resources and
soil quality
A4, B4, C4
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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VI.
English Language Development Objectives (ELD) Included:
NC English Language Proficiency (ELP) Standard 4 (2008) for Limited English
Proficiency Students (LEP)- English Language learners communicate information,
ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of science.
Suggestions for modified instruction and scaffolding for LEP students and/or students
who need additional support are embedded in the unit plan and/or are added at the
end of the corresponding section of the lessons. The amount of scaffolding needed will
depend on the level of English proficiency of each LEP student. Therefore, novice
level students will need more support with the language needed to understand and
demonstrate the acquisition of concepts than intermediate or advanced students.
LEP Accommodation Considerations
The following are general suggestions for accommodating English second language:
1. Assess the prior knowledge of your LEP student and make sure that he or she has
adequate background information in order to execute this activity.
2. Provide graphic organizers or roadmaps illustrating the specific procedures and
expectations of each activity.
3. Provide highlighted text which target key vocabulary and concepts. Review this text
prior to activity.
4. Elicit verbal response of understanding from student. For, example, “Explain to (or
show me) me what you need to do next.”
5. Include marginal notes in activity outline to re-emphasize terms and concepts.
6. Provide visual demonstration in conjunction with verbal instructions
7. Provide immediate feedback and or assessment in order to reinforce objectives.
8. Provide for alternate forms of assessment such as concept maps, graphic
organizers, verbal explanations, written explanations, or actual performance rather
than strictly pen and paper tests.
9. Provide LEP students the opportunity to peer tutor, pairing those who are on
different proficiency levels.
10. Provide opportunities to demonstrate effective test- taking strategies, regularly
exposing students to sample questions.
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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VII.
Materials/Equipment Needed:
Activity
Materials
Engage
Flooding of Midwest
Summer 2008
Article or video clip of flooding in June of 2008 Midwest
LCD and Computer
www.cnn.com has many archived articles and photos
Flood of 1993
http://www.teachersdomain.org/resources/ess05/sci/ess/earthsys/fl
ood/index.html
This video segment shows the weather patterns that continued
over a period of time resulting in the flooding.
Explore
Structure of the
Atmosphere
Part 1
Atmospheric Structure
Ionosphere assignment-This requires students to have access to an
am/fm radio. Most cars have this feature. This could be done in class if
necessary
Explore
Air Movement in the
atmosphere
How’s The Air Up There? Author: Charles Burrows found at www.dlese.org
1 computer with internet access per 2 students
Excel on computer
Print out of instructions from link above. Each computer will need the
ability to download data and used in Excel
Explain
Weather Basics
Crunch Time
(2) 2 liter bottles with caps
Source of hot water
Ice for faster cooling but not necessary
Worksheets for weather station model, isobars, isotherms, gradient
problems, and Earth and Environmental Science Reference Tables
Computer if you use the Jetstream link
Explore
Global warming
Computers
Paper for note-taking
Evaluate
Climate Change
Tic Tac Toe
Computers
Art Supplies
Reference material
Evaluate
2 Cities- Worlds
Apart
Data collection sheets
Computer access
Colored pencils
Computer
Reference materials
Excellent final project- the case study is well structured and is a good
guide for students who have not ever done a long term research project.
Elaborate
Weather Case
study
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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VIII.
Detailed Content Description:
Please see the detailed content description for each objective in the Earth/Environmental
Science support document. The link to this downloadable document is in the
Earth/Environmental Standard Course of Study at:
http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum/science/scos/2004/25earth
This unit is divided into the following parts
Part 1: Structure and composition of the Atmosphere
Part 2: Variables of Weather and Weather Prediction
Part 3: Climate Change
Each part has some kind of assessment-either pen and paper or project. In an effort to meet
the 21st Century objectives, the unit includes several project ideas that include writing and
graphically analysis.
IX.
Unit Notes
Overview of Unit Six
Atmospheric structure, weather and climate are threads that can be taught throughout the
course. “Weather” events happen every day and so data collecting, predicting, and patterning
are easily modeled over time. Over the course of a students’ tenure in the North Carolina
education system, weather and weather patterns are addressed several times. At the high
school level, this unit serves to unpack the variables associated with the patterns, the
methods of data collection, the global significance of these patterns and how humans are
having an effect on the patterns and structure of our atmosphere.
It is suggested that the classroom have a “weather center” where current data can be
displayed and discussed on a regular basis. Additionally, there is a long term project with
this unit that requires students to collect and compare weather data for a minimum of 30
days. You may wish to assign the project 2 weeks before beginning the unit or you may wish
to have the due date occur 2 weeks after completing the unit. Either scenario is useful.
In each unit, Goal 1 objectives which relate to the process of scientific investigation are
included. In each of the units, students will be practicing the processes of science:
observing, hypothesizing, collecting data, analyzing, and concluding.
The Unit Guide gives an overview of the activities that are suggested to meet the North
Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals for Unit Six. Detailed activity pages follow the
guide. The guide includes teacher notes on how to weave the activities into the content and
supplementary notes related to other issues such as preparation time and time to complete
the activity. If a teacher follows this unit (s)he will have addressed the goals and objectives of
the NCSCoS. However, teachers may want to substitute other activities that teach the same
concept.
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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Teachers should also refer to the support document for Earth/Environmental Science at
http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum/science/scos/2004/25earth for the detailed content
description for each objective to be sure they are emphasizing the specified concepts for
each objective.
Essential Questions for Meteorology:
The essential questions for this unit are those questions that will help students cultivate
enduring understanding. These questions help students construct a base knowledge that will
last a lifetime. Teachers are encouraged to display these questions and to refer to them often
throughout the unit of instructions.





How is Earth’s atmosphere structured?
What variables are measured as scientists study Earth’s atmosphere and weather?
What is the role of technology in monitoring, predicting, and projecting climate issues?
How does the atmosphere interact with the hydrosphere and lithosphere?
What are some relationships between the atmosphere and the economy, human
impact on the environment and the natural environment?
Key Knowledge and Skills:
Students will know:





The structure and composition of the atmosphere
The major air masses affecting the USA and North Carolina
How weather fronts move across the USA and in the open ocean.
The role of surface ocean currents and global wind patterns in the
formation of weather systems
The specific interactions between human activity and the “health” of the
atmosphere
Students will be able to:

Identify and explain effects the ionosphere on communications

Understand the use of and importance of technology in the study of the
atmosphere

Explain how a variety of weather systems are monitored, measured, and
reported

Predict and generate solutions for problems associated with climate
change

Give examples that show how Earth’s atmosphere interacts with the
hydrosphere, the biosphere, and the lithosphere

Evaluate and propose solutions regarding human impacts on Earth’s
atmosphere
Evidence of Understanding:

Unit Exam – 30 multiple choice questions and 5 extended answer
questions.

Concept map that demonstrates understanding of the variables that
are responsible for weather events, climate and atmospheric
structure
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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

Lab and Class Activities
2 Cities: A World Apart
Prior Knowledge:
Kindergarten
Grade 2
Grade 5
Grade 7
Grade 8
COMPETENCY
GOAL 2:
COMPETENCY
GOAL 2:
COMPETENCY
GOAL 3:
COMPETENCY
GOAL 3:
COMPETENCY
GOAL 3:
The learner will make
observations and
build an
understanding of
weather concepts.
The learner will
conduct investigations
and use appropriate
tools to build an
understanding of the
changes in weather.
The learner will
conduct investigations
and use appropriate
technology to build an
understanding of
weather and climate.
The learner will
conduct investigations
and utilize appropriate
technologies and
information systems
to build an
understanding of the
atmosphere.
The learner will
conduct investigations
and utilize appropriate
technologies and
information systems
to build an
understanding of the
hydrosphere.
Modified Activities for LEP Students:
Those activities marked with  as LEP have a modified version or notes designed to assist
teachers in supporting students who are English language learners. Teachers should also
consult the Department of Public Instruction website for English as a Second Language at:
http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum/esl/ to find additional resources.
Vocabulary:
Weather
Climate
Ozone
Troposphere
Stratosphere
Mesosphere
Ionosphere
Thermosphere
Pressure
Altitude
Temperature Inversion
Primary Pollutants
Secondary Pollutants
Clean Air Act
Radiation
Convection
Conduction
Solar Budget
Albedo
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Greenhouse Effect
Carbon Dioxide
Greenhouse gases
Coriolis Effect
Convection cells
Global Wind Belts
Land Breeze
Sea Breeze
Humidity
Adiabatic processes
Air Mass
Weather Front
Isobars
Isotherms
Pressure gradient
Climate Change
El Nino
Cyclone
Anticyclone
Doppler Radar
La Nina
Proxy data
Background Information For Teachers
1.
Teachers Domain: www.teachersdomain.org (general site home page)
You will need to register to use the site but it is FREE!!! This site is an excellent
resource not only for this unit but for others as well.
2.
GLOBE: Introduction to the Atmosphere This site has information available in multiple
languages and is free. It is recommended that if you can participate in a GLOBE
workshop-do so - very valuable! This link provides you with excellent background
information about Earth’s atmosphere. It is very user friendly and easily accessible.
3.
NOAA’s National Weather Service
http://www.weather.gov
4.
WEB RESOURCES
Lyndon State College – Current Weather Data and Models
http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/index.html
5.
University of Illinois – Online Guides Meteorology
http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/home.rxml
6.
Exploring Weather and Climate Change Through the Powers of Ten
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http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/ctl/index.html
7.
Discovery Channel – Global Warming
http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/globalwarming/globalwarming.html
8.
Teacher Resources – Global Climate Change / Inconvenient Truth
http://oneplanetfundraising.com/teacherresources.aspx
9.
Inconvenient Truth – Global Warming Lessons
http://www.ohea.org/GD/Templates/Pages/OEA/OEADetail.aspx?page=3&TopicRelationID=4&Content=929
10.
http://www.auf.asn.au/meteorology/index.html
This Guide is a reasonably comprehensive examination – directed towards Australian
conditions – of the atmospheric structure, the physical laws and the forces which
together produce the atmospheric phenomena referred to as weather – a good
understanding of which is essential to safe aerial navigation.
11.
UCAR – Layers of the atmosphere
http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/layers.html&edu=high
12.
Jetstream – Online School for Weather http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/
13.
Animated diagram for the atmosphere
http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/atmosphere/index.html
14.
The Layers of the Earth’s Atmosphere
http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/courses/builders/lessons/less/les3/layers.html
INTERNET-BASED LESSON PLANS
15.
Cloud Formation http://www2.gsu.edu/~mstjrh/clouds.html
16.
Cloud in a Bottle with investigation questions
http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:5u7gEdbuCgcJ:k12s.phast.umass.edu/stem/sess/snyder/Adiabatic_Change_and_Cl
oud.doc+cloud+formation+demonstration&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=6&gl=us
17.
Lapse Rates and Adiabatic Processes Practice Problems
http://daphne.palomar.edu/jthorngren/adiabi.htm
18.
Cloud types in several languages
http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/SCOOL/Cloud_ID.html
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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X.
Global Content: Aligned with 21st Skills:
One of the goals of the unit plans is to provide strategies that will enable educators to
develop the 21st Century skills for their students. As much as students need to master the
NCSOS goals and objectives, they need to master the skills that develop problem solving
strategies, as well as the creativity and innovative thinking skills that have become critical in
today’s increasingly interconnected workforce and society. The Partnership for 21st Century
Skills website is provided below for more information about the skills and resources related to
the 21st Century classroom.
http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=27&Itemid=1
20
NC SCS
Earth/Environ.
1.01, 1.02
1.05, 1.06
1.02
1.02
1.02
1.02
1.02
21st Century Skills
Communication Skills
Conveying thought or opinions
effectively
When presenting information,
distinguishing between relevant
and irrelevant information
Explaining a concept to others
Interviewing others or being
interviewed
Computer Knowledge
Using word-processing and
database programs
Developing visual aides for
presentations
1.02
Using a computer for
communication
1.02, 6.05 Learning new software programs
Employability Skills
1.02, 1.04 Assuming responsibility for own
learning
1.02, 2.05 Persisting until job is completed
1.01, 1.02, Working independently
2.03, 2.05
1.02
Developing career interest/goals
1.02
Activity
Climate Change ad campaign
Climate Change ad campaign

Climate Change ad
campaign
 2 Cities
 Climate Change ad
campaign
 2 Cities
Most activities
All activities
All activities
2 Cities
http://www.classzone.com/books
/earth_science/terc/navigation/c
areers.cfm
Careers in the EES
Responding to criticism or
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1.01, 1.05
questions
Information-retrieval
Skills
Searching for information via the
computer
1.01, 1.05, Searching for print information
1.06
1.05
Searching for information using
community members
Language Skills Reading
1.04
Following written directions
2.01, 2.06
Identifying cause and effect
relationships
1.05, 1.06 Summarizing main points after
reading
1.01, 1.02, Locating and choosing
1.05, 1.06
appropriate reference materials
1.01, 1.05 Reading for personal learning
Language Skill - Writing
1.02
Using language accurately
1.02
Organizing and relating ideas
when writing
1.02
Proofing and Editing
1.06
1.01, 1.05, Synthesizing information from
several sources
1.02, 1.05, Documenting sources
2 Cities
Most of the activities can be
presented as opportunities for
students to follow written
directions. The teacher will
have to work with most students
to develop this skill over time.
2 Cities
All activities
All activities
2 Cities
2 Cities
1.06
1.02
1.02
Developing an outline
Writing to persuade or justify a
position
1.02
Creating memos, letters, other
forms of correspondence
Teamwork
1.01, 1.02, Taking initiative
1.04, 1.05, 1.06
Goal 1
Working on a team
Most of the activities are
designed to be done and
discussed in teams.
Thinking/ProblemEarth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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Solving Skills
1.01, 1.02, Identifying key problems or
1.06
questions
1.03, 1.05, Evaluating results
2.06, 2.07, 3.01,
3.02, 4.02, 4.03,
4.04, 4.05, 5.01,
5.02, 5.03, 6.01,
6.02, 6.04, 6.05
1.06
Developing strategies to address
problems
1.02
Developing an action plan or
timeline
2 Cities
ENGAGE
Bring in an article or video clip of the recent flooding in the Midwest. Ask students to think
about all the ways the rain and flood waters have had an impact on the people, land, and
water quality all along the Missouri and Mississippi River. Is there something “special” about
the Midwest that makes it more vulnerable to flooding? Brainstorm the variables that could
have a role to play in the weather patterns of the Midwest. Record all logical answers.
Look the picture-use an LCD- What pattern emerges? Can flooding events be indirect
evidence for weather patterns? Explain your ideas.
Yellow = flood stage
Red, Pinks, and Purple colors indicate nearing flood stage
Time: 15 minutes
Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
1. List ways that rain and flood waters impact people, land, and water quality.
2. Discuss variables that could affect weather patterns of the Midwest.
Modifications for
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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1. Ask studen
Have stud
2. Have stude
3. Provide a s
Flood of 1993
http://www.teachersdomain.org/resources/ess05/sci/ess/earthsys/flood/index.html
This video segment shows the weather patterns that continued over a period of time resulting
in the flooding. The flooding in the summer of 2008 may be worse than the 1993 flooding.
Ask students to think about flood management, the reasons people continue to live in areas
vulnerable to flooding. How might climate change have an impact on the weather patterns of
the Midwest?
Part 1: Structure and Composition of the Atmosphere and Moving Air
Most textbooks have a standard presentation of the atmospheric structure and composition. It
is important to help students understand the composition of air and how that composition is
changing. Students should also work to understand the relationship between temperature,
pressure and altitude. The following site offers excellent background information for both the
teacher and student.
http://www.shodor.org/metweb/session1/composition.html
Activities:
Atmospheric Structure This can be done as a didactic presentation. Have students make a
concept map or drawing that organizes atmospheric structure and composition.
Ionosphere assignment-This requires students to have access to an am/fm radio. Most cars
have this feature. This could be done in class if necessary
Classzone: What can we learn from a weather balloon?
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es1702/es17C02p
age01.cfm Each Classzone web-lesson has questions that students can answer on a sheet
of notebook paper. If you don’t have access to computers for each student, these lessons are
easily done as a whole class using an LCD projector.
Crunch Time This activity explores the relationship between temperature and pressure.
Understanding Gradient
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http://www.shodor.org/metweb/session4/pgf.html This site is designed to be an online
tutorial. It is certainly useful for teacher background as well as an Honors or AP level class.
Understanding gradient is important for calculating pressure gradients and temperature
gradients in large storms. The more severe the pressure gradient, the more intense the
winds and thus more destruction. For additional support and great diagrams, visit
http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/synoptic/wind.htm
Gradient =
Difference in Field Values
Distance between Points
Time: 30-40 minutes to understand and practice
Activities
Classzone: Which way does the wind blow?
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es1806/es1806pag
e01.cfm?chapter_no=investigation
Each Classzone web-lesson has questions that students can answer on a sheet of notebook
paper. If you don’t have access to computers for each student, these lessons are easily done
as a whole class using an LCD projector.
Windows offers tutorials in both English and Spanish. The weather pages are nicely aligned
with the NCSCOS.
http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/layers.html&edu=high
EXPLAIN
How does temperature affect the density of air?
* Most science materials for Earth and Environmental science have a standard lab included in
materials for either oceans and/or atmosphere. Check the book materials adopted in your
school before duplicating this lab. You may have access to something already suitable.
Additionally, a density tank set up is ideal for doing this as a demonstration. If you don’t have
a density tank, you can improvise by using a clear plastic shoe box or 10 gallon aquarium.
The lab that is linked is designed to work with students in groups of 3. You can cut and paste
the questions to have students answer for a demonstration.
Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Read and follow procedure for setting up investigation.
Write a paragraph explaining how temperature affects the density of fluids.
Label cold water currents and warm water currents on a map.
Participate in class discussion during demonstrations.
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Modifications for LEP students:
1. Use tangible objects to explain the concept of density. Examples: the same size
brick and sponge, golf ball and ping pong ball.
2. Explain that the term “fluid” refers to both liquids and gases.
3. Check for students’ understanding of the term “air pressure”. Explain how air has
mass and pushes down on objects.
Vocabulary
Density
Fluid
Temperature
Pressure
How does temperature affect the density of a fluid?
Background:
Density is the measure of mass per unit of volume. The density of fluids such as ocean water
and air are affected by temperature. In this investigation students will form general ideas
about how temperature affects the density of water. In this setup the water will represent the
ocean water or air in the atmosphere. It is important that students understand that this occurs
in both places.
Materials per group (3 or 4 students)
2 graduated 100ml cylinders
Test tubes or small vials (2 per group)
Food coloring (2 colors per group)
Stirrer
Beakers (100 ml) or small clear plastic cups (2 per group)
Ice
Coffee urn for hot water or tap water with hot water option
Colored pencils
Goggles
Aprons
Tongs
Gloves or rags for handling hot test tubes
Procedure:
1. Mix tap water and ice together until the ice is well distributed. Fill the graduated cylinder
(100 ml) with the ice water.
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2. In one of the test tubes, add 2 drops of food coloring and fill ½ way with hot water. Be
careful to handle the test tube with tongs or gloves.
3. Carefully and slowly, pour the contents of the test tube into the graduated cylinder.
4. Record your observations.
5. In the clean beaker, add 2 or 3 drops of food coloring. Add some cold tap water and fill the
rest of the beaker with ice. Stir the contents together and let sit a minute or two.
6. Fill a clean test tube ½ full with the mixture from step 5. Do not allow any ice into the test
tube.
7. Fill the other graduated cylinder (100 ml) with hot water.
8. Slowly and carefully, pour the cold water mixture into the hot water mixture. Record your
observations.
Think about it
1.
Which water mass was most dense?
What evidence did you use to make your decision?
2.
What is the effect of temperature on the volume of a fluid?
What information did you use to make your decision?
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3.
Salinity can affect ocean water densities but not as much as temperature. On the map
provided, shade (use any color) the area where you would expect the ocean water to
be the least dense. Shade (any other color) the area where you would expect the
ocean water to be most dense.
4.
Explain, using words and pictures, how temperature affects the density of fluids.
Bring all together
5.
Strong storms form when there are extreme temperature differences. How do your
observations help you to explain this statement?
Additional Activities:
NCSCOS 5.01
DEMOSTRATIONS
1. TWO STRIPS OF PAPER
Procedure: A very simple activity involving two similar strips of paper. Instruct students to
hold the two strips in front of their mouths so they are an inch apart from each other. Before
instructing students to blow between the papers, ask them to make a prediction. Many
students will predict that the strips of papers will move apart further than they are. In this
discrepant event, the strips actually move together.
Explanation: Blowing in between the strips of paper causes a temporary area of low
pressure to develop, thus the papers come together. This is the same explanation for a
shower curtain moving inward when hot water comes out of the shower.
2. GLASS AND CARDBOARD
Procedure: Fill a glass to the brim with water. Place a note card that fits over the entire
opening of the glass. While holding the card in place, invent the glass. Remove your hand
from the note card. The water remains in the inverted glass.
3. CLOUD IN A BOTTLE
Purpose: Demonstrate the effects of temperature and pressure on cloud formation. This
information can be transferred to weather maps where students can make predictions about
cloud formation and areas of clear skies or fair weather. The concept of condensation nuclei
is introduced in this activity.
Materials: wide-mouth gallon pickle jar, heavy duty clear plastic bag, rubber bands or strong
tape.
Procedure:
1) Place about 20 mL of water into the pickle jar. Close the lid, shake and re-open the jar.
2) Place a lit match into the jar. Hold for a few seconds so some smoke is produced inside
the jar. Drop the match.
3) Quickly place the bag over the lid of the jar and create a firm seal.
4) Push the bag in the jar and pull it back out. Do this several times. Students make
observations.
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Explanation:
This demonstration illustrates how temperature, moisture and air pressure together influence
cloud formation. The water produces high humidity inside the jar. The smoke from the match
produces condensation nuclei upon which the water droplets can condense. The bag moving
in and out changes the pressure and temperature conditions inside the jar. When the bag is
pushed in, the pressure and temperature increases and the air inside the jar clears. When
the bag is pulled out, pressure and temperature decrease and the water droplets condense
on to the nuclei.
Follow-up questions:
 What is the purpose of adding smoke and water to the inside of the jar?
 What is the purpose of pushing and pulling on the bag?
 How would warming or cooling the jar affect cloud formation?
4. CRUSH THE SODA CAN
Purpose: To demonstrate how a pressure imbalance creates a forces on an object
Materials: clean, dry soda can, water, hot plate, shallow pan filled with ice water, heat
resistant gloves, tongs with heat resistant handles, goggles.
Explain to the students what you are about to do and ask them to make predictions.
Procedure:
- Position the hot plate close to the ice water pan
- Put 15 mL of water into an aluminum can
- Place the can on the hot plate and turn up the heat.
- Once the water inside boils and steam comes out of the opening, wait a few more minutes.
- Quickly grab the can with the tongs. Invert and submerge the top of the can in the pan of
cold water. This step should be done quickly in one fluid motion. (practice before doing the
demo!)
- If this is done correctly, the can will instantly crush and water will fill the can.
Explanation:
When the can is first placed on the hot plate, he air pressure inside and outside the can is
balanced. Heating the water creates water vapor within the can, which forces out the dry air.
The pressure exerted inside the can is greater than the pressure exerted on the outside.
Once the can is quickly inverted into the cold water, the water vapor quickly turns back to
water, thus occupying a smaller volume. Since the hole in the can is submerged, air is
unable to rush back into the can. With very little air inside the can the air pressure inside the
can is much less than the air pressure outside of it. The can is crushed by the net inward
forces exerted by this pressure difference.
5. EGG IN THE BOTTLE
Purpose:
To demonstrate the affects of changes in air pressure
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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18
Materials:
Peeled hard boiled egg, glass bottle with a mouth smaller than the width of the egg, small
amount of paper, match or lighter
Procedure:
1. Place a small amount of burning paper inside a glass bottle
2. Place the egg atop the mouth of the bottle with the pointed end down
3. When the flame goes out, the egg is drawn into the bottle!
Explain the procedure to the students and ask for predictions.
Explanation:
The fire heats the air inside the bottle, causing it to expand and rise. As air rushes past the
egg sitting atop the bottle opening, it may bob up and down. Eventually, the fire will go out by
itself and the air temperature inside the bottle will decrease. The contraction of the air lowers
its pressure, thus the pressure on the outside of the bottle is now greater t
Part 2
EXPLORE
*Weather Basics
* This section is the same as the Weather Basics in Katrina: Unpacking a Disaster. If you started the year with
Katrina, you may simply want to review weather maps and move on to air mass development and air mass
characteristics. The time allotted for this whole unit makes the assumption that the review is needed as is the
time. The Katrina unit will certainly prepare students to move quickly through the review material.
At this stage, the teacher will want to explain weather basics so that students will be
competent in mapping and interpreting data about weather. Much of this will be review for
students depending on their prior preparation. Several activities are provided to build
knowledge and skills.
Guiding Question: How do we use topographic maps, weather station maps, ocean surface
temperature maps, and wind and ocean current maps to help inform our perspective of the
threat of natural disasters?
Discuss with students the importance of understanding weather data. How is weather data
collected and delivered to the public?
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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19
Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP Students:
1. Write a paragraph describing a storm you have experienced.
2. Discuss orally the topography of the land where the storm took place.
Suggested LEP Engaging Activity:
 To build background with the students have them write a paragraph describing a
storm they have experienced.
 Discuss with students the importance of understanding weather data.
 Discuss how weather was data delivered before, during, and after Hurricane
Katrina?
LEP Modifications for all weather activities below:
 Prior knowledge of weather terms and weather instruments is necessary for these
activities.
 Review terms and symbols used in the activity based on prior knowledge of the
students.
 Allow LEP students to work in teams to interpret and record data.
Vocabulary to review
Front
Air Mass
Hurricane
Precipitation Air pressure Barometer
Reading a weather station model
Isolines
Isobars
Gradient
Weather station
Air pressure
Temperature gradient
Pressure gradient
Purpose: This activity will help students refresh their memories about weather station
information. This area of study is a part of the 7th grade science curriculum and is review for
most. There are two labs from the www.NewYorkScienceteacher.com
site to choose from. There is a quiz at the end of the standard level lab.
Language (ELP) Objective for LEP Students:
Read information from charts and weather symbols and write weather forecast.
LEP Modifications:
 Station Model Lab (Standard Level) is recommended.
 Pair students with higher English proficiency level with novice and intermediate low
student to complete web based activities.
 Prior knowledge of weather terms and weather instruments is necessary for these
activities.
 Review terms and symbols used in the activity based on prior knowledge of the
students.
 Allow LEP students to work in teams to interpret and record data.
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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20
Station Model Lab (Standard Level) http://www.newyorkscienceteacher.com/sci/files/usersubmitted/StationModelLab.pdf
Weather Station Model (Advanced)
http://www.newyorkscienceteacher.com/sci/files/user-submitted/esrstationmodels.pdf
Time: 1 class period for independent work and processing
Reading Isobars and Isotherms
Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP Students
1. Write a sentence describing the direction of the air flow around a Low pressure
system.
2. Write a sentence describing how wind speed is related to pressure gradient?
3. Write a paragraph explaining how air masses are related to temperature and
location.
LEP Modifications
Reading Isobars Activity can be completed together with teacher assistance by
using an overhead or LCD projector of the map and individual student maps. Review and
demonstrate with the students how to locate places on a map using latitude and longitude
lines. Discuss what isobars represent and relate them to air pressure and wind speed.
Reduce the length of the activity for students at the novice and intermediate low English
proficiency levels.
Reading Isotherms Activity can be complete together as a class in the same way
as the Reading Isobars activity. Discuss with the students what isotherms represent and
relate the term to differing air masses. Review the types of weather associated with air
masses over water and over land.
Before the activities: Students will need some background information about gradient,
isolines, and how to read barometric pressures from weather station models. (This is a part of
Station Model Lab above.)
Begin with this demonstration: What happens when air moves from one place to
another?
Then use the following two labs from New York ScienceTeachers.com. Both labs have
background information provided.
Reading Isobars
http://www.newyorkscienceteacher.com/sci/files/user-submitted/esrisobarlab_1.pdf
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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21
Reading Isotherms
http://www.newyorkscienceteacher.com/sci/files/user-submitted/Isothermlab.pdf
Synoptic Weather Data
Jet Stream-NOAA’s Weather School. This is a link to a ready-made lesson on reading
weather maps. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/synoptic/wxmaps.htm
* If you are feeling ambitious, you can use www.noaa.gov to make your own wind gradient
maps.
Time: 1.5 class periods – may be longer depending on student skill level.
You may wish to have students monitor the local weather and make daily predictions.
Part 3 Climate Change
The topic of Climate change is of particular importance because it requires students to use
their background knowledge about weather to understand how the variables of temperature,
moisture, changes in the composition of air, and human impacts can change the climate over
time.
As with any of the materials found in the unit, use the items you feel will work best for you.
There is a tremendous amount of material available on climate change. Encourage students
to think about the sources of information. Make sure that sources are reliable and valid.
Engage:
Language (ELP) Objective for LEP Students:
Participate in group discussion and list prior knowledge of climate change.
Modification for LEP students:
Pair LEP students with students of different proficiency levels for this activity.
Before:
Cut
paper
and
gather
markers
During the activity: Walk around and prompt with questions. Most students don’t realize how
much they pick up in terms of “background” information.
Divide students into small groups of 3 or 4. Give each group a piece of butcher block paper
and several markers. Have each group generate a list of things they know about climate
change and the how they learned about it.
15 -20 minutes
LEP students can be paired with strong English speaking students to work
Explore
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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22
Focus Goal 5.03
Teacher Background:
http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7y.html
Visit this link to better understand the variables that impact climate change.
Explore
Goal: 5.03
Focus Question: How does the greenhouse effect work?
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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23
Language (ELP Objective for LEP Students:
Participate in a classroom discussion on how human activities are increasing green house
gas concentrations.
Modifications for LEP students:
Start and stop the video/DVD as necessary to discuss with LEP students the information
presented.
The Greenhouse Effect: The Physics Involved
http://www.teachersdomain.org/resources/phy03/sci/phys/matter/greenhouse2/index.html
Earth's relatively stable and hospitable average temperature is the result of a phenomenon
called the greenhouse effect. The presence in the atmosphere of naturally occurring
compounds, known as greenhouse gases, maintains Earth's temperature. This video
segment adapted from NOVA/FRONTLINE describes how human activities are increasing
greenhouse gas concentrations and explains what effect this might have on global
temperatures. Media Available for Purchase: Buy this full program on DVD
Join Teachers Domain for free access to materials. With each short video segment, there is a
background essay suitable for handing out. The discussion questions are excellent guides for
leading classroom discussions.
Alternative Activity:
Global Warming
http://eob.gsfc.nasa.gov/Laboratory/PlanetEarthScience/GlobalWarming/GW.html
This will require computers and head sets. The entire module has an audio delivery making it
an excellent resource for a wide variety of learners.
Explain:
Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP Students:
1. Write answers to questions while completing a webquest.
2. Write notes explaining how carbon cycles and how this cycling effects climate
change
Modifications for LEP students:
Type the notes that will be presented leaving blanks for the LEP students to fill in
key words and concepts.
Goal: 5.03
Focus Question: How do ice cores from glaciers tell us about past climates?
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es2105/es2105page01.cfm
Log on to the link above. The questions are in the web quest. Have students copy and
answer the questions as they move through the module. This module is interactive and
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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24
requires the use of online tools. Make sure that computers have latest Shockwave and Java
plug ins.
Alternative presentation: Carbon Cycling and Climate Change
http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/kling/carbon_cycle/carbo
n_cycle_new.html
Lecture notes and slides from Dr. Kling. This is an excellent and understandable presentation
of the topic.
Air Pollution
The Big Six Criteria Pollutants
http://www.epa.gov/oar/airtrends/sixpoll.html
EPA has set national air quality standards for six common air pollutants (also called the
criteria pollutants):
 carbon monoxide (CO)
 ozone (O3),
 lead (Pb)
 nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
 particulate matter (PM)
 sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Some of these pollutants (CO, SO2, and lead) are emitted directly from a variety of sources.
Although some industrial sources release ozone directly into the environment, most groundlevel ozone forms in the air from chemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile
organic compounds (VOCs), and sunlight. NO2 is formed in the air through the oxidation of
nitric oxide (NO). PM, also known as particle pollution, can be directly emitted, or it can be
formed when emissions of NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx), ammonia, organic compounds, and
other gases react in the atmosphere. Particle pollution is regulated as PM2.5, or “fine
particles” with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers, and PM10, which includes all
particles with diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers.
Each year EPA looks at the levels of these pollutants in the air and the emissions from
various sources to see how both have changed over time and to summarize the current
status of air quality.
Explain
Goal: 5.03
Focus Questions: How is Ozone formed in the atmosphere?
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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25
Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP Students:
1. Read information presented in a website and label a diagram showing tropospheric
ozone formation.
2. Participate in a class discussion on the health effects of ozone formation.
Modifications for LEP students:
1. Review the names and locations of the lower layers of the atmosphere.
2. Explain to the students the difference in the “good ozone” and the “bad ozone”.
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/csd/assessments/2002/qandas2.pdf
The Clean Air Act
http://www.epa.gov/oar/airtrends/sixpoll.html
The Clean Air Act provides the principal framework for national, state, tribal, and local efforts
to protect air quality. Improvements in air quality are the result of effective implementation of
clean air laws and regulations, as well as efficient industrial technologies. Under the Clean Air
Act, EPA has a number of responsibilities, including:
 Conducting periodic reviews of the NAAQS for the six common pollutants that are
considered harmful to public health and the environment.
 Ensuring that these air quality standards are met (in cooperation with the state, tribal,
and local governments) through national standards and strategies to control air
pollutant emissions from vehicles, factories, and other sources.
 Reducing emissions of SO2 and NOx that cause acid rain.
 Reducing air pollutants such as PM, SOx, and NOx, which can reduce visibility across
large regional areas, including many of the nation's most treasured parks and
wilderness areas.
 Ensuring that sources of toxic air pollutants that may cause cancer and other adverse
human health and environmental effects are well controlled and that the risks to public
health and the environment are substantially reduced.
 Limiting the use of chemicals that damage the stratospheric ozone layer in order to
prevent increased levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation.
Readings for class discussion:
Can Climate Change Make Us Sicker?
http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1728139,00.html
The Case of the Missing Carbon
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0402/feature5/online_extra.html
Use the QAR strategy to help students
See QAR strategy in Katrina: Unpacking a disaster.
Climate Change Resources for Educators
http://www.education.noaa.gov/tweather.html
This site has links to lessons, data, and resources for teachers.
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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26
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/ctl/
This link provides an interactive way of exploring the variables that impact climate change.
http://www.ipcc.ch/
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
This site is the “official” global site on climate change. Excellent for teacher background and
resources. All of the panels reports are available for download. You may use any of the
materials to build your own power points or lessons.
5.03 Assessment Project:
Global Climate Change Tic Tac Toe
Students will work with a partner to complete one of the following project ideas. If students
come up with something different, as long as it meets with teacher approval, go for it! In
some schools, videography is an option.
Modifications for LEP students:
1. Reduce the number of choices for project ideas and simplify the project requirements
where needed.
2. Pair LEP students with different proficiency levels for the project.
Student Information:
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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27
Each project should address curriculum goals and objectives.
Topics
Project Ideas
Project Ideas
Project Ideas
Make a newspaper that
organizes evidence both for
and against Global Warming –
remember to cite all resources
and references.
Include both natural sources of
emissions and human made
emissions, include Milankovitch
cycles, timeline of evidence, a
crossword puzzle for your
readers and at least 3
pictures/charts/graphs that are
related to the topic
Make a power point that
organizes information around
the topics of water, agriculture,
human health, and energy
How might Global Climate
Change impact North
Carolina?
http://www.edf.org/documents/
3053_NCClimateReport.pdf
Make a booklet that organizes your
information about how climate
change will affect different parts of
the world. Include maps and model
projections for how vegetation will
change and how economies might
be affected.
Air Pollution
And Climate
Change
Power point presentation on
the main pollutants: their
sources and impacts. Be sure
to include how this pollution is
distributed across around the
globe via weather patterns Be
sure to include how these
pollutants are regulated – if
they are- by the government.
Be sure to specifically address
the relationship between
industry and changes in the
atmospheric chemistry.
Create a pamphlet that
explains the possible
consequences of global
warming.
Include economies,
agriculture, health, biodiversity,
water and soil quality, etc
Build a model will help to educate
others on how greenhouse gases
work to heat the atmosphere.
Managing
Carbon Dioxide
Poster that explains how
carbon sequestration works.
What technologies are
involved? How affordable is
this process?
Investigate and prepare a
business proposal for
Carbon Trading. What is
Carbon trading? How is it
suppose to work? Who will
regulate how shares are
determined and at what cost
they will be sold?
Ad Campaign Develop 5 print ads
to run in the school newspaper or
display on the school website. The
ads will “sell” clean air. How can
people change a behavior to help
reduce greenhouse gases.
Global Climate
Change
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
DRAFT
Search the climate section of
www.noaa.gov You may use other
websites but check the creditability
of the site. It is best to stick to .gov
sites and .edu sites.
28
Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP Students:
1. Read and record weather data in two cities.
2. Write a paragraph explaining the weather patterns in two cities.
3. Write a paragraph explaining how (if) climate changes will affect local weather patterns.
Modifications for LEP students:
1. Review/reteach the information needed to complete the project.
2. Some students may not be proficient and need help using Excel spreadsheets and creating
computer generated graphs.
Unit Assessment Project:
Weather Variables and Relationships
Teacher Background:
The following activities and project serve to activate prior knowledge from earlier grades.
Students will review:
a. How to read a weather map and a weather station model
b. How to construct and interpret weather data over a short period of time
Students will learn:
a. How latitude and longitude contribute to climate conditions
b. How landforms and proximity to water bodies contributes to local weather conditions
c. How to use excel to manipulate a data set
Competency Goal 5: The learner will build an understanding of the dynamics and composition of the
atmosphere and its local and global processes influencing climate and air quality.
Objectives
5.01 Analyze air masses and the life cycle of weather systems:




Planetary wind belts.
Air masses.
Frontal systems.
Cyclonic systems.
5.02 Evaluate meteorological observing, analysis, and prediction:


Worldwide observing systems.
Meteorological data depiction.
5.03 Analyze global atmospheric changes including changes in CO2, CH4, and stratospheric O3 and the
consequences of these changes:




Climate change.
Changes in weather patterns.
Increasing ultraviolet radiation.
Sea level changes.
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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29
Name: __________________
Date: ________
Class: _________________
Procedure:
Select 2 cities, one in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern hemisphere, and collect 30 days worth
of weather data. You are encouraged to choose two places that have some geographical similarities such as
proximity to a body of water, whether or not the city is located on a west coast, east coast, or is land-locked,
common altitude, etc. There are a number of similarities that you could use. Check with your teacher if you are
not sure about your choices.
After 30 days, using Excel create a spreadsheet to organize your data. Once complete, generate the following
graphs on the computer: (You must use both cities for graphs below)
1. a double line graph for each city showing daily high and low temperatures for 4 weeks.(2 graphs)
2. a single line graph for one city showing average daily air pressure for 4 weeks.
(1 graph)
3. a double line graph for each city showing average daily temperature and average pressure for each
day (2 graphs)
* Please color-code your graph and provide a legend.
4. a pie graph for each city showing what % of the 30 days was
a. Sunny
b. rainy
c. cloudy
d. any other conditions you recorded (2 graphs)
5. a double bar graph showing average relative humidity per week
6. a double line graph comparing NH city high temps to SH city high temps
7. a double line graph comparing NH city low temps to SH city low temps
You must generate 2 additional computer graphs of your choice. Each graph must compare NH
data to SH data. Please provide a paragraph rationale for your selection that explains what the graph is
illustrating and possible explanations for what is observed.
Remember, each graph must have labels, units, title, intervals marked, and a data table.
Paragraph Rationales: Paragraphs will need to include appropriate vocabulary properly used in
explanations.
In the first paragraph, you must explain
 the variables that govern the local weather such as geography
 the types of air masses that originate over the area;
 the generalized climate for the area
 the wind belts and ocean currents contributing to the weather
 Analysis of the 30 day weather-is the weather observed typical of the area and how do you know?
 Be sure that you refer to your graphs in your writings
In the 2nd paragraph, you must explain
 Using comparative language, describe how weather changes throughout the year in both cities.
 How is climate projected to change over the next 50 -100 years
 How will climate changes affect the local weather patterns if at all
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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30
Rubric
1. 30 days of data for 2 cities
2. 12 graphs as listed above
3. Graphing technical points
4. 2 paragraph rationales
total
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
DRAFT
50 pts
50 pts
50 pts
100 pts
250 pts
31
Weather Data Log
Name: ______________________
City, Country: ______________, ______________
Date
D
Time
T
Current
Temp
Current
Conditions
High
Temp
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
Northern Hemisphere
Class Period:
Lat:______ Long:______
Low
Temp
Relative
Humidity
DRAFT
Barometric
Pressure
Wind
Speed &
Direction
Wind
Chill
32
Dew
Point
Weather Data Log
Name: ______________________
City, Country: ____________________________
Date
D
Time
T
Current
Temp
Current
Conditions
High
Temp
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
Southern Hemisphere
Class Period: ______
Lat:_____Long:____
Low
Temp
Relative
Humidity
DRAFT
Barometric
Pressure
Wind
Speed &
Direction
Wind
Chill
33
Dew
Point
EXTEND
Flood Case Study
Students will explore the Super Storm of 1993. Students will need computers and data
collecting materials. This is an excellent introduction to a long term project.
EVALUATE:
Sample Assessment Questions
ATMOSPHERE UNIT MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. A weather map of North Carolina shows closely-spaced isobars indicative of a strong
pressure gradient. Which weather condition is most likely occurring? (a)
a)
b)
c)
d)
Strong winds
Cloudy conditions
High humidity
Low humidity
RBT tag: B2
SCOS: 5.02
2. On an August afternoon in North Carolina, the barometric pressure is 29.92 inches and
falling. What weather condition is likely to happen? (c)
a)
b)
c)
d)
clearing skies and cooler temperatures
continued fair weather
an imminent storm
conditions will slowly improve
RBT tag: B2
SCOS: 5.02
3. Around a low pressure system in the Northern Hemisphere, in which direction does surface
winds usually move? (d)
a)
b)
c)
d)
clockwise, toward the center of the low pressure system
counter-clockwise, away from the center of the low pressure system
clockwise, away from the center of the low pressure system
counter-clockwise, toward the center of the low pressure system
RBT tag: A1
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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34
SCOS: 5.02
4. A cold front moves across a North Carolina. Which changes in temperature and barometric
pressure will be observed as the front passes a Raleigh weather station? (b)
a)
b)
c)
d)
temperature and pressure both rise
temperature falls and pressure rises
temperature and pressure both fall
temperature rises and pressure falls
RBT tag: B2
SCOS: 5.01
5. On the North Carolina coast at the warmest time of a July day, breezes blow from the
ocean toward the beach, which of the statements below offers the best explanation? (a)
a)
b)
c)
d)
air pressure over the land is lower than air pressure over the ocean
winds generally blow from water to land
air pressure over the ocean is lower than air pressure over the land
the ocean water is warmer than the land surface
RBT tag: B2
SCOS: 5.02
6. When moist air rises, clouds often form because the air (c)
a) expands and warms
b) contracts and cools
c) expands and cools
d) contracts and warms
RBT tag: B2
SCOS: 7TH GRADE 3.01
7. The table below shows four successive days of air temperature and dew point data
collected near the ground at a given location in North Carolina. All temperatures were
recorded at 2pm.
Day
Air temperature
(° C)
1
2
3
4
21
19
17
21
Dewpoint
temperature
(°C)
14
17
16
11
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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35
Which statement is best supported by the data? (C)
a) The greatest chance of precipitation was on day 4.
b) The relative humidity was highest on day 3.
c) The air was driest on Day 2.
d) The base level for cloud formation was highest on day 1.
RBT tag: 3B
SCOS: 5.02
8. Which weather feature most directly influences a change in dewpoint temperature? (d)
a)
b)
c)
d)
Change in atmospheric pressure
Change in wind direction
Change in solar insolation
Change in water vapor content
RBT tag: B2
SCOS: 5.02
9. A person will feel the effects of evaporation the most on this type of day: (b)
a)
b)
c)
d)
Calm and humid
Windy and dry
Calm and dry
Windy and humid
RBT tag: B2
SCOS: 5.02
10. The uneven heating of the Earth’s surface is the primary reason for: (a)
a)
b)
c)
d)
Surface winds
High and low tides
Precipitation
Ocean currents
RBT tag: B2
SCOS: 5.0
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
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36
Earth and Environmental Science- Unit 6
DRAFT
37
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