作业1

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作业1
 What are the basic goals of marketing? Are these goals relevant to global
marketing?
 What is mean by “global localization”? Is Coca-Cola a global product? Explain.
 Describe some of the global marketing strategies available to companies. Give
examples of companies that use the different strategies.
 How do the global marketing strategies of Harley-Davidson and Toyota differ?
 Describe the difference between ethnocentric, polycontric, regiocentric, and
geocentric management orientations.
 Identify and briefly describe some of the forces that have resulted in increased
global integration and the growing importance of global marketing.
 Define leverage and explain the different types of leverage utilized by companies
with global operations.
作业2
 Explain the difference between market capitalism, centrally planned capitalism,
centrally planned socialism, and market socialism. Give an example of a country
that illustrates each types of system.
 What is a BEM? Identify the BEMs according to their respective stages of
economic development.
 A manufacture of satellite dishes is assessing the world market potential for his
products. He asks you if he should consider developing countries as potential
markets. How would you advise him?
 Turn to the Index of Economic Freedom (Table 2-1) and identify where the
BEMs are ranked. What does the result tell you in terms of the relevance of the
index to global marketers?
作业3
 What are some of the elements that make up culture? How do these find
expression in your native culture?
 What is the difference between a low-context culture and a high-context culture?
Give an example of a country that is an example of each type and provide
evidence for your answer.
 How can Hofstede’s cultural typologies help Western marketers better understand
Asian culture?
 Explain the self-reference criterion. Go to the library and find examples of
product failures that might have been avoided through the application of the SRC.
 Compare and contrast USA and Japan in terms of traditions and organizational
behavior and norms.
作业4
 What is sovereignty? What is it an important consideration in the political
environment of global marketing?
 Describe some of the sources of political risk. Specially, what forms can political
risk take?
 Briefly describe some of the differences between the legal environment of a
country that embraces common law and one that observes civil law.
 Global marketers can avoid legal conflicts by understanding the reasons conflicts
arise in the first place. Identify and describe several legal issues that relate to
global commerce.
 “See you in court” is one way to respond when legal issues arise. What other
approaches are possible?
作业5
 Explain two information technology puts powerful tools in the hands of global
marketers.
 What are the different modes of information acquisition? Which is the most
important for gathering strategic information?
 Outline the basic steps of the market research process.
 What is the difference between existing, latent, and incipient demand? How
might these differences affect the design of a marketing research project?
 Describe some of the analytical techniques used by global marketers. When is it
appropriate to use each technique?
作业6
 differentiate the five basic segmentation strategies. Give an example of a
company that has used each one.
 Explain the difference between segmenting and targeting.
 Compare and contrast standardized, concentrated, and differentiated global
marketing. Illustrate each strategy with an example from a global company.
 What is positioning? Identify the different positioning strategies presented in the
chapter and give examples of companies or products that illustrate each.
 What is global consumer culture positioning? What other strategic positioning
choices do global marketers have?
 What is high-touch product? Explain the difference between high-tech product
positioning and high-touch product positioning. Can some products be positioned
using both strategies? Explain.
作业7
 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using licensing as a market entry
tool? Give examples of companies from different countries that use licensing as a
global marketing strategy.
 What is foreign direct investment? What forms can FDI take?
 Do you agree with Ford’s decision to acquire Jaguar? What was more valuable to
Ford---the physical assets or the name?
 What is meant by the phrase global strategic partnership? In what ways does this
form of market entry strategy differ from more traditional forms such as joint
ventures?
 What are Keiretsu? How does this form of industrial structure affect companies
that compete with Japan or that are trying to enter the Japanese market?
 Which Strategic options for market entry or expansion would a small company be
likely to pursue? A large company?
作业8
 What is the difference between a product and a brand?
 How do local, international, and global products differ? Cite examples
 What are some of the elements that make up a brand? Are these elements tangible
or intangible?
 What criteria should global marketers consider when making product design
decisions?
 How can buyer attitudes about a product’s country of origin affect marketing
strategy?
 Identify several global brands. What are some of the reasons for the global
success of the brands you chose?
 Briefly describe various combinations of product-communication strategies
available to global marketers. When is it appropriate to use each?
作业9
 What are the basic factors that affect price in any market? What considerations
enter into the pricing decision?
 Define the various types of pricing strategies and objectives available to global
marketers.
 Identify some of the environmental constraints on global pricing decisions.
 Why do price differences in world markets often lead to gray marketing?
 What is dumping? Why was dumping such an important issue during the
Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations?
 What is transfer price? Why is it an important issue for companies with foreign
affiliates? Why did transfer pricing in Europe take on increased importance in
1999?
 What is the difference between ethnocentric, polycontric, and geocentric pricing
strategies? Which one would you recommend to a company that has global
market aspirations?
 Compare and contrast the different forms of countertrade.
作业10
 In what ways can channel intermediaries create utility for buyers?
 What factors influence the channel structures and strategies available to global
marketers?
 What is cherry picking? What approaches can be used to deal with this problem?
 Compare and contrast the typical channel structures for consumer products and
industrial products.
 Identify the different forms of retailing and cite an example of each form. Identify
retailers from as many different countries as you can.
 Identify the four retail market expansion strategies discussed in the text. What
factors determine the appropriable mode?
 What special distribution challenges exist in Japan? What is the best way for a
non-Japanese company to deal with these challenges?
作业11
 In what ways can global brands and global advertising campaigns benefit a
company?
 How does the “standardized versus localized” debate apply to advertising?
 What is the difference between an advertising appeal and creative execution?
 When creating advertising for world markets, what are some of the issues that art
directorsand copywriters should take into account?
 How do the media options available to advertisers vary in different parts of the
world? What can advertiser do to cope with media limitations in certain
countries?
 How does public relations differ from advertising? Why is PR especially
important for global companies?
 What are some of the ways public relations practices vary in different parts of the
world?
作业12
 How can a company measure its competitive advantage? How does a firm know
if it is gaining or losing competitive advantage? Cite a global company and its
source of competitive advantage.
 Outline Porter`s five forces model of industry competition. How are the various
barriers to entry relevant to global marketing?
 How does the five partners, or flagship model, developed by Rugman and
D`Aveni differ from Porter`s five forces model?
 Give an example of company that illustrates each of the four generic strategies
that can lead to competitive advantage: overall cost leadership, cost focus,
differentiation, and differentiation focus.
 Briefly describe Hamel and Prahalad`s framework for competitive advantage.
 How can a nation achieve competitive advantage?
 According to current research on competitive advantage, what are some of the
shortcomings of Porter`s models?
 What is the connection, if any, between national competitive advantage and
company competitive advantage? Explain and discuss.
作业13
 Briefly review the key innovations that culminated in the digital revolution. What
is the basic technological process that made the revolution possible?
 What is convergence? How is convergence affecting Sony? Kodak? Nokia?
 What is the innovator’s dilemma? What is the difference between sustaining
technology and disruptive technology? Briefly review Christensen’s five
principles of disruptive innovation.
 What key issues must be addressed by global companies that engage in
e-commerce?
 Briefly outline Web design issues as they pertain to global marketing.
 Review the key products and services that have emerged during the digital
revolution. What are some products and services that are not mentioned in the
chapter?
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