orgadev3 - chaychi

Bea Gatdula
Cynthia Matias
Carla Raymundo
Timmie Xavier
ORGANIZATION: Lady Fatima Print Saver
This part of the paper will discuss the OD Interventions that will solve the goal-setting
problem of Lady Fatima Print Saver. OD interventions will be enumerated, justified and explained.
Our group will use five Organizational Development interventions. These interventions are Career
planning & development, management by objectives (MBO), quality circles, performance
appraisal and reward system.
(Career Anchors, Life goals exercises, Collage and the letters)
This intervention will be used to “help the individual think through and analyze his/her life
and career trajectory”. Career anchors will “guide, constrain, stabilize, and integrate the person’s
career” (French & Bell, 1999, p. 246). Aside from Career anchors, Life goal exercises including
the Collage and Letters will be used to help the person determine where he or she is currently in
their lives and career paths. Also, it can reveal where they see themselves in the future. Most
importantly, this activity will help an individual to determine his or her goals and develop action
steps to achieve it. One important part in the series of activities in Life goals exercises is the
obituary-writing. This will enable the person to realize his or her achievements and unfulfilled
dreams in life. This will motivate the person to pursue and act on those plans.
A test will be given to all the members in the organization. However, the main focus of
this activity is the manager of LFPS. We will do this to determine under which career anchor she
belongs to. This will generate added information that we can use, since it reflects how she
manages the organization. This will also give valuable information regarding individual tasking
when it comes to the employees of LFPS.
In these activities, we plan to include all the members in the organization to encourage
participation for the succeeding activities specifically needed in the MBO and appraisal
MBO is a series of “systematic and periodic management-subordinate meetings designed
to accomplish organizational goals by mutual planning of the work, periodic reviewing of
accomplishment and mutual solving of problems that arise in the course of getting the job done”
(Worley & Cummings, 1993, p. 375). Management by objectives will be used as an intervention
because the “target setting procedure allows real (rather than simulated) subordinate participation
in goal setting with open, problem-centered discussions among team members, supervisors and
subordinates” (Worley & Cummings, 1993, p.375). LFPS needs this intervention because they
currently do not have any means by which they could talk about their problems, goals,
achievements and the like. As what Mrs. Matias (manager) said, “Dati, isang beses sa isang taon
lang kami nakakapag meet para mapag-usapan yung takbo ng imprenta…simula nung
nagkasakit ako noong 1999, hindi na ito nangyayari…ako na pati husbad ko ang gumagawa ng
desisyon..yung mga bagay na gusto namin mangyari sa business.” This statement shows that
employees are not given a chance to participate in goal setting due to the abolishment of their
annual meetings. MBO will then enable them to meet frequently, establish goals and plan action
steps to accomplish their work. Furthermore Worley & Cummings (1993) pointed out that MBO is
“an attempt to align personal goals with business strategy by increasing communications and
shared perceptions between the managers and subordinates either individually or as a group and
by reconciling conflict where it exists” (p.374). The group believes that MBO, which involves
collaborative goal setting, will result to increase employee involvement and motivation therefore
improving organizational performance.
In connection to this, the manager admits that meetings are important for the
management and employees to talk about the current situation of LFPS. It is evident that the
organization needs the MBO intervention.
The group intentionally designed the MBO to proceed after the life and career planning.
According to Worley & Cummings (1993) the "MBO process gives attention to individuals'
personal and career goals and tries to make these organizational goals more complementary" (p.
375).This means that individuals must have clear personal and career goals before the
organization can create a fit between those personal goals and organizational goals.
MBO will be used by the organization. Several meetings will be allotted for the
formulation of goals by management together with their subordinates. With the help of a
facilitator, LFPS will be able to align personal goals with work strategy, plan work, review
accomplishments and solve problems in achieving goals. The steps that we will use in
implementing the MBO is based on Worley & Cumming’s book entitled Organizational
development and change. The six basic steps are the following: (1) work group involvement, (2)
joint manager-subordinate goal setting, (3) establishment of action plans for goals, (4)
establishment of criteria or yardsticks of success, (5) review and recycle and (6) maintenance of
records (1993).
One of the goals of LFPS is to provide quality products and services to their customers.
To prove this, one employee (Freddie Templanza, letterpress operator) during the interview said,
“Ang number one na sinisigurado namin ay matapos yung trabaho ng maayos at on time… yung
trabaho ba walang bulilyaso.” To ensure that this goal is carried out and maintained, we will be
using the quality circles together with other interventions. Quality circle concept “is a form of
group problem solving and goal-setting with a primary focus on maintaining and enhancing
product quality” (French & Bell, 1999, p. 225).
This will be applied together with the MBO. French & Bell (1999) pointed out that, quality
Circles usually consists of 7-10 voluntary employees from a unit or across units. Given the size of
LFPS and the number of employees, the group will form quality circles that consist of only three
employees from different functional areas; specifically coming from management and production
unit. The group will meet to “analyze and make proposals about product quality and other
problems” (French & Bell, 1999, p.225) Furthermore, the authors recommended that meetings be
held once a week for one company hour.
The next two interventions will be used to help the MBO program to be effective and
successful. These are performance appraisal and reward systems (Certo, 2000).
Performance appraisal is complementary to the MBO program. Appraisal is a “feedback
system that involves the direct evaluation of individual or work group performance by a
supervisor, manager or peers” (Worley & Cummings, 1993, p. 378). Feedback is essential since it
reminds employees about their standing in the organization and how their performance affects
the organization (Hunsaker & Cook, 2001). This will help LFPS in implementing the MBO
program due to open and consistent feedback from managers to workers and vice versa. It will
also provide a link between goal setting and reward system (Worley & Cummings, 1993, p. 150).
Performance appraisal will be put into effect simultaneously with the MBO program.
This intervention will require support from management. With this, management can set
examples by which employees will follow and be encouraged to participate in the implementation
of the performance appraisal intervention. This act will foster openness, trust, support and
development in the organization (French & Bell, 1999).
The reward system is an intervention made to improve employee satisfaction and
performance (Worley & Cummings, 1993). The authors added that the intervention includes
innovative approaches to pay, promotions and benefits. The reward system is based on the value
expectancy mode, which holds the belief that “employees will expend effort to achieve
performance goals that they believe will lead to outcomes that they value“ (Worley & Cummings,
1993, p. 384). The ability of rewards to motivate desired behavior is based on six factors. These
are (1) availability, (2) timeliness, (3) performance contingency, (4) durability, (5) equity, (6)
visibility (Worley & Cummings, 1993, p. 384). The author explained further that, “reward system
interventions are used to solicit and maintain desired level of performance” (p. 385). This means
that rewards based on the six factors can “support and reinforce organizational goals, work
designs and employee involvement” (Worley & Cummings, 1993, p. 385). Some ways through
which rewards may be given to employees are “pay, promotions, incentives, bonuses and
benefits” (Worley & Cummings, 1993, p. 382), The reward system will “contribute to both
employee fulfillment and organizational effectiveness” (p. 382).
The reward system will be used to help the interventions especially the MBO program to
be successful. (Worley & Cummings, 1993) emphasized that
Management must follow through on employee performance evaluations by rewarding
employees accordingly. If employees are to continue striving to reach their MBO program
objectives, managers must reward those who do reach, or surpass, their objectives more
than those whose performance falls short of their objectives. (p. 118)
The reward system may also serve as a motivating factor for improving employee and
work group satisfaction and performance (Worley & Cummings, 1993).
The management will give rewards to the deserving employees based on performance
level. Different kinds of rewards may be used like skill based pay plans, promotions and benefits.
This will be given in appropriate situations.
Certo, S. (2000). Modern management: Diversity, quality, ethics and the global environment.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
French, W. & Bell, C. Jr. (1999). Organizational development: Behavioral science interventions
for organization improvement (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hunsaker, P. & Cook, C. (2001). Management and organizational theory (3rd ed.). New York:
McGraw Hill.
Worley, C & Cummings, T. (1993). Organizational development and change (6th ed.). Cincinnati,
OH: South-Western College Publishing.