Human A&P: Cellular Metabolism Study Guide (Standard: SB1d) Item # _____ 1. Macromolecules are considered to be organic molecules because they contain the element ________________. 2. ________________________ are the primary source of energy for living things and are formed from ________________________ monomers. a. __________________ is known as blood sugar. b. The animal storage polysaccharide is ___________________, while plants store excess sugar in the polysaccharide ___________________. 3. _________________ are important in forming biological membranes and are formed from _________ ______ monomers. 4. ______________ ___________ store and transmit genetic information and are formed from ___________________monomers. 5. ___________________ are structural molecules composed of ____________ ___________ monomers. a. __________________ are specialized proteins that act as biological catalysts to lower the activation energy of chemical reactions. The act on specific substances called __________________. 6. ____________________ is all the chemical processes that occur in the cell. a. Constructive metabolic processes are called _____________________ and include the building of polymers from monomers during the process of __________________ ________________. b. Destructive metabolic processes are called _____________________ and include the breakdown of macromolecules during the process of __________________. 7. _______________ ___________________ is the process of breaking down glucose to get energy. a. ____________________ is an anaerobic process occurring in the cytoplasm that produces two ____________________ molecules and ____ ATP. b. The ___________ Cycle is an aerobic process that breaks down _____________ _______ in the mitochondria producing _____ ATP. c. The __________________ ______________ ___________ breaks the bonds in the molecules ____________ and ____________ to release ___________ ATP. d. Total ATP production equals ___________ ATP. 8. ___________ carries the genetic code for developing proteins and is shaped like a ___________ __________, a. Original DNA template: TACGAACTGATT b. Complimentary DNA: 9. (created during replication) Protein Synthesis a. Original DNA template: TACGAACTGATT (triplets) b. Transcription – mRNA: (codons) c. Translation – tRNA: (anticodon) i. Each anticodon brings one amino acid to add to the growing polypeptide (protein) chain on the _______________________.