Midterm Review Questions

Discovering Psychology
Midterm Review Questions
If you know the answers to the following questions you are likely to do well in
the midterm.
1. What is the definition of psychology?
2. What are the steps in the scientific method?
3. Why is psychology considered a science?
4. What is the case study method of research?
5. What is the naturalistic observation method of research?
6. What is the survey method of research?
7. What is the experimental method of research?
8. What does a clinical psychologist do?
9. What does an educational psychologist do?
10. What does a developmental psychologist do?
11. What does a counseling psychologist do?
12. What does a physiological psychologist do?
13. What happened to Phineas Gage?
14. What are the parts of the neuron and what does each do?
15. What is a neurotransmitter?
16. What are the major neurotransmitters and what do they do?
17. What are the functions of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes of
the brain?
18. How is “consciousness” defined?
19. What is an altered state of consciousness?
20. What are circadian rhythms? How do they work?
21. What are the various stages of sleep? What happens in each stage?
22. How do patterns of sleep change as we age?
23. What are the effects of sleep deprivation?
24. How is learning defined?
25. What did Pavlov show with his experiments in regard to learning?
26. What is the difference between a conditioned and an unconditioned
27. What is the difference between a conditioned and an unconditioned
28. What do we mean by “generalization”?
29. What did John Watson and Mary Cover Jones show with their studies of
Albert and Peter?
30. What is the premise behind operant conditioning?
31. Why is reinforcement the key to operant conditioning?
32. What is shaping and how does it occur?
33. What is extinction?
34. What are the four schedules of reinforcement? How are they different?
35. How is punishment used in operant conditioning?
36. What are the three basic temperamental types in children?
37. How is “attachment” defined?
38. What did the Harlow studies show?
39. What is the difference between stranger anxiety and separation anxiety?
40. What is the “strange situation” experiment?
41. What behaviors are associated with the securely attached child?
42. What behaviors are associated with the avoidantly attached child?
43. What behaviors are associated with the resistant child?
44. What behaviors are associated with the disorganized child?
45. What happens in Piaget’s sensorimotor stage?
46. What does Piaget mean by “conservation?”
47. What is the most advanced cognitive level a person can reach, according to
48. What is Vygotsky’s sociocultural view of cognitive development?
49. What do we mean by socialization?
50. What are Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development?
51. What are the major parenting styles and how do they differ from each other?
52. What are the general behaviors of children based on specific parenting styles?
Discovering Psychology
Final Review Questions
If you know the answers to the following questions you will do well in the final.
The final is on Units 13 thru 26.
1. Define consciousness.
2. What are circadian rhythms?
3. What are the stages of sleep? How do they differ?
4. What purpose does each stage of sleep serve?
5. Why do we dream?
6. What are the three main processes of memory?
7. What mechanisms allow information to be stored in memory?
8. How long is information held in each memory system?
9. What did Ebbinghaus discover about forgetting?
10. What causes memory failure?
11. How reliable is eyewitness testimony?
12. What did Elizabeth Loftus’s research on the remembering of traumatic
experiences show?
13. Define intelligence according to the APA.
14. What is the “g” factor of intelligence?
15. What are Howard Gardner’s seven intellectual abilities?
16. What is Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?
17. What does the Wechsler scale measure?
18. What is the heredity-environment controversy?
19. What do the twin studies show in terms of inherited intelligence?
20. What is the Flynn effect?
21. Are there gender differences in intelligence?
22. What does Goleman mean by “emotional intelligence?”
23. What are the components of emotional intelligence?
24. What are Baumrind’s three parenting styles? What are the outcomes of each?
25. When does puberty begin for boys and girls?
26. What are the outcomes of early or late maturing for boys and girls?
27. What physical changes become evident in middle adulthood? When does
this begin?
28. What are the results of the Seattle Longitudinal Study?
29. What is arousal theory?
30. What is instinct theory?
31. What is drive-reduction theory?
32. What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation?
33. What are the stages of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
34. What are the characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia?
35. What are the four phases of the human sexual response cycle?
36. What are the differences between male and female sexual response?
37. What are the underlying causes of homosexuality?
38. What is the definition of personality?
39. Describe the levels of awareness according to Freudian theory: conscious,
preconscious, and unconsciousness.
40. What is the libido?
41. What are the id, ego and superego?
42. What is the purpose of defense mechanisms?
43. What are the major defense mechanisms?
44. How is abnormality defined?
45. What is the psychodynamic perspective of abnormal behavior?
46. What is the biological perspective of abnormal behavior?
47. What is the cognitive perspective of abnormal behavior?
48. What is the learning perspective of abnormal behavior?
49. What is the humanist perspective of abnormal behavior?
50. What is the DSM -IV?
51. What is an anxiety disorder? What are the symptoms of the major panic
52. What are the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder?
53. What are the symptoms of depression?
54. What is the difference between a delusion and an hallucination?
55. What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?
56. What is dysthymia?
57. What do twin studies tell us about depression?
58. What effects does serotonin and dopamine play in mental illness?
59. What is attribution theory?
60. What is the false consensus effect?
61. What is self-serving bias?
62. What is fundamental attribution error?
63. What is reciprocal liking?
64. What most attracts one person to another?
65. What was the Asch experiment on line judgments? What did it prove?
66. What is the Milgram experiment with electric shock and learning? What did
it prove?
67. What is the Zimbardo experiment on prison life? What did it prove?
68. What was Sherif experiment at a boy’s camp? What did it prove?