GeologicHistoryAssessments

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Name: ________________________________
Date: _________________________________
Class period: ___________________________
Quiz 1: Divisions of Geologic Time
Please the label the appropriate eons and eras of the geologic time scale. (14 pts.)
Eons
Eras
Name: ________________________________
Date: _________________________________
Class period: ___________________________
Quiz 2: Fossil Evidence
Please answer the following questions (2 pt. each):
1. What is the name of the group of fossil species contained in a distinct layer of
sedimentary rock?
2. What is the principle of fossil succession?
3. How do geologists use fossils to date material?
4. What was the Cambrian explosion?
5. What are the conditions that are necessary for preservation? (Name 2)
6. What is one explanation about how the development of hard parts aided in the
evolution of marine organisms?
Name: ________________________________
Date: _________________________________
Class period: ___________________________
Quiz 3: Relative Dating
Matching: Match each term with a definition. (1 pt. each)
_____1. Angular Unconformity
_____2. Uniformitarianism
_____3. Relative age dating
_____4. Principle of Fossil succession
_____5. Law of Cross-Cutting relationships
_____6. Law of lateral continuity
_____7. Law of Original Horizontality
_____8. Law of inclusions
_____9. Law of superposition
_____10. Law of Unconformities
a. any rock layer containing a group of fossils can
be identified and dated in relation to other layers on
the basis of its fossils.
b. sedimentary layers and lava flows were
originally deposited as relatively horizontal sheets,
like a layer of cake.
c. lava flows and strata extend laterally in all
directions until they thin to nothing (pinch out) or
reach the edge of their basin of deposition
d. in an undisturbed sequence of strata or lava
flows, the oldest layer is at the bottom of the
sequence and the youngest is at the top.
e. any piece of rock that has become included in
another rock or body of sediemtn must be older
than the rock or sediemtn into which it has been
incorporated.
f. Any feature that cuts across a rock or body of
sediment must be younger than the rock or
sediment that it cuts across.
g. Surfaces called unconformities represent gaps in
the geologic record that formed wherever layers
were not deposited for a time or else layers were
removed by erosion.
h. the process of determining when soething formed
or happened in relation to other things.
i. a gap in time in the rock record in which the
strata below were tilted or folded before the gap
developed.
j. the present is the key to the past
Short Answer: (3 pts.)
The Grand Canyon is comprised of flat-lying strata 2000m thick over tilted and deformed
lower strata. In terms of Stratigraphic superposition and the law of original horizontality,
describe what we know about the layers of the Grand Canyon.
Name:__________________
Date:___________________
Class period: ____________
Earth History Unit Exam
Matching: Match each term with a definition.
_____1. planet
a. Solid objects that fall from space and
land on earth.
_____2. meteorites
b. Patchy clouds of gas separated from one
_____3. nebulae
another by the vacuum of space.
_____4. half-life
c. The remains or traces of an organism
preserved from the geologic past
_____5. daughter isotope
d. Age in terms of years
_____6. absolute dating
_____7. isotope
_____8. relative dating
_____9. unconformity
_____10. cast
_____11. range zone
_____12. fossil
e. The time it takes for half of a parent
atom to decay to daughter atom
f. Organisms whose range zones have been
used to represent named divisions of the
geologic time scale.
g. Atoms that have the same number of
protons and electrons, but different number
of neutrons
h. A sizable solid object orbiting a star
i. A gap in the geologic record
_____13. index fossils
j. Any rock layer containing a group of
fossils.
k. The process of determining when
something formed or happened in relation
to other things
l. Decay product
m. The sequence of strata in which fossils
of a particular organism are found
n. A fossil formed when an organism
decays and minerals gradually enter into
the cavity
Multiple Choice: Pick the best answer.
1. How old is the earth?
a. 4.6 billion years
b. 4.6 million years
c. 6.4 billion years
d. 6.4 million years
2. What is the stream of atoms emitted from a star?
a. supernova
b. second generation sun
c. stellar wind
d. nebulae
3. According to this theory, all matter and energy was initially packed into an
infinitesimally small point.
a. accretion disk theory
b. protoplanet theory
c. protostar theory
d. big bang theory
4. What kind of planets consist of a shell of rock surrounding a core of iron alloy?
a. jovian planets
b. planetesimals
c. giant gas planets
d. terrestrial planets
5. Uniformitarianism states that
a. the past is key to the present
b. the present is key to the past
c. the key is the present and the past
d. the key is the past, not the present
6. Choose the correct order of the organisms from their appearance of earth to the
present.
a. humans, birds, angiosperms, dinosaurs, fish
b. humans, dinosaurs, angiosperms, birds, fish
c. fish, dinosaurs, birds, angiosperms, humans
d. fish, angiosperms, birds, dinosaurs, humans
7. Between which periods did the dinosaurs become extinct?
a. Cretaceous and Tertiary
b. Ordovician and Silurian
c. Permian and Triassic
d. Precambrian and Cambrian
8. During which period did humans develop?
a. Cretaceous
b. Jurassic
c. Quaternary
d. Tertiary
9. The “Age of Reptiles” occurred during which period?
a. Devonian
b. Permian
c. Tertiary
d. Triassic
10. During which Era did the first land plants appear?
a. Cenozoic
b. Mesozoic
c. Paleozoic
d. Precambrian
11. During which era did Trilobites dominate?
a. Cenozoic
b. Mesozoic
c. Paleozoic
d. Precambrian
12. Coprolite” is another word for fossilized…
a. feces
b. footprints
c. plants
d. insects
13. An index fossil is a fossilized organism that lived in a ________ area for a
____________ time.
a. narrow, long
b. narrow, short
c. wide, long
d. wide, short
14. Isotopes of elements are characterized by having
a. different number of protons
b. different number of electrons
c. different number of neutrons
d. same number of neutrons and protons
15. Radometric dating is also known as
a. geochronology
b. relative aging
c. strata correlation
d. exponential dating
16. Potassium-Argon radiometric dating is done in what kind of minerals?
a. Zircon, uraninite
b. mica, feldspar, hornblende
c. quartz, calcite
d. cinnabar, sulfur
17. Carbon-14 dating defines the numerical age of
a. sedimentary rock
b. organic material
c. igneous minerals
d. metamorphic minerals
18. What does Rubidium-87 decay to?
a. strontium-86
b. rubidium-86
c. strontium-87
d. rubidium-88
19. Uncertainties for radiometric dates may be on the order of
a. 5% or less
b. 90% or more
c. .5% or less
d. 1% or less
20. What is the half-life of parent-daughter Uranium-238 and Lead-206?
a. 106 billion
b. 48.8 billion
c. 4.5 billion
d. 1.3 billion
Short Answer:
1. How do scientists analyze the parent-daughter ratio of absolute dating?
2. Draw a graph showing the number of daughter and parent isotopes as time passes.
3. Describe three types of fossil evidence and provide examples of each.
4. In the space provided below, draw a geologic time scale. Please label the eons, eras,
and periods. Also please include the dates of the eons and eras.
Essays:
1. What are the different kinds of dating techniques that are used to age geologic
material? What circumstances would cause scientists to use a certain technique over
another?
2. Provide a summary of the formation of the solar system, according to the nebula
hypothesis. Please include the following terms: planetismals, nebula, proto-sun, and
differentiation.
Name:__________________________________
Project Due Date:_____________
Earth History Unit: Geologic Time Project





The total project is worth 40 points.
The project will be graded on a set rubric.
Students will have 2 checkpoints throughout the period of the project.
Students will have at least 3 opportunities (at least 30 minutes each) to work on
projects in class. Most of the project should be completed outside of class.
Be creative and have fun!
Project Description:
Students will create their own visual representation of a geologic time scale. You may do
a calendar, a traditional time scale, or something else of your own choosing. It is required
that the time scale be to scale mathematically. All dates, supereons, eons, period, and
epochs should be labeled. You should also include at least one characteristic in each eon
(fossils, environments, etc.) by either visual representation or words.
Checkpoint I:
Written proposal (~1 paragraph) and list of materials. This checkpoint is to make sure
you’ve thought about your project. It will be graded for completion, not content, though
comments will be made.
Checkpoint II:
Measurements for scale. Students should turn work that contains the measurements for all
components of your visual. Please show your work on your calculations so that I can tell
where you’ve gone wrong. This checkpoint is a chance for me to check your
measurements. It will be graded for completion, not for content, though comments will be
made.
Final Project:
Students will turn in their visual and give a brief presentation. Each presentation should
take the class from the beginning of the geologic time to the recent.
Standard
Checkpoint I
1
Checkpoint I
is not turned
in on time.
2
Checkpoint I
does not
contain both
proposal and
list of
materials.
Checkpoint II Checkpoint II Checkpoint II
is not turned
does not
in on time.
contain
measurements
for all of the
supereons,
eons, epochs,
and periods.
Accuracy of
Labels are not At least 5 of
Scale
made to scale. the labels are
made to scale.
Labels
Labels of
Labels of
supereons,
dates,
eons, periods, supereons,
and epochs
eons, periods,
are not
and epochs are
included.
labeled
incorrectly.
Characteristics No
Correct
characteristics characteristics
of eons are
of 1 eon are
included.
included.
Mechanics
Visual
Visual
contains 4 or contains 1-3
more spelling spelling
errors.
errors.
Presentation
Presentation
Presentation is
is not given.
given.
3
Checkpoint I
contains
proposal and
list of
materials.
Total
3
Checkpoint II
contains
measurements
for all of the
supereons,
eons, epochs,
and periods.
3
All of the
labels are
made to scale.
Labels of
dates,
supereons,
eons, periods,
and epochs are
labeled
accurately.
Correct
characteristics
of 2 eons are
included.
Visual
contains no
spelling
errors.
3
3
3
3
2
KEY:
Quiz 1: Divisions of Geologic Time
Please the label the appropriate eons and eras of the geologic time scale. (14 pts.)
Eons
Eras
Phanerozoic
Cenozoic
Mesozoic
Paleozoic
Proterozoic
Archaen
Hadean
Quiz 2: Fossil Evidence
Please answer the following questions (2 pt. each):
1. What is the name of the group of fossil species contained in a distinct layer of
sedimentary rock?
-fossil assemblage
2. What is the principle of fossil succession?
-a group of fossil species found in a specific sequence of sedimentary rock.
3. How do geologists use fossils to date material?
-they use fossil correlation- they determine the stratigraphic relation between two
sedimentary rock units, reached by studying the incorporated fossils.
4. What was the Cambrian explosion?
-the remarkable diversification of life, indicated by the fossil record, that occurred
at the beginning of the Cambrian Period.
5. What are the conditions that are necessary for preservation? (Name 2)
-rapid burial, anoxic conditions, fine sediment, hard parts present
6. What is one explanation about how the development of hard parts aided in the
evolution of marine organisms?
-Hard parts protected marine organisms which allowed them to move towards the
rough shore OR external hard parts protected the organism which allowed body
organs to function in a more controlled environment = greater success.
Quiz 3: Relative Dating
Matching: Match each term with a definition. (1 pt. each)
i_____1. Angular Unconformity
j_____2. Uniformitarianism
h_____3. Relative age dating
a_____4. Principle of Fossil succession
f_____5. Law of Cross-Cutting relationships
c_____6. Law of lateral continuity
b_____7. Law of Original Horizontality
e_____8. Law of inclusions
d_____9. Law of superposition
g_____10. Law of Unconformities
Short Answer: (3 pts.)
The Grand Canyon is comprised of flat-lying strata 2000m thick over tilted and deformed
lower strata. In terms of Stratigraphic superposition and the law of original horizontality,
describe what we know about the layers of the Grand Canyon.
-Sedimentary strata is deposited horizontally or nearly horizontally based on the
law of horizontality. This means that originally, the lower layers of the Grand
Canyon were horizontal but due to tectonic or other means, the lower layers have
become tilted. After this tilting has occurred, newer horizontal layers have been
deposited on top of the older material. This has resulted in the new material being
deposited last, due to the principle of superposition, over older tilted material.
Earth History Unit Exam
Matching: Match each term with a definition. (1 pt. each)
h_____1. planet
a_____2. meteorites
b_____3. nebulae
e_____4. half-life
l_____5. daughter isotope
d_____6. absolute dating
g_____7. isotope
k_____8. relative dating
i_____9. unconformity
n_____10. cast
m_____11. range zone
c_____12. fossil
f_____13. index fossils
Multiple Choice: Pick the best answer. (1 pt. each)
1. How old is the earth?
a. 4.6 billion years
b. 4.6 million years
c. 6.4 billion years
d. 6.4 million years
2. What is the stream of atoms emitted from a star?
a. supernova
b. second generation sun
c. stellar wind
d. nebulae
3. According to this theory, all matter and energy was initially packed into an
infinitesimally small point.
a. accretion disk theory
b. protoplanet theory
c. protostar theory
d. big bang theory
4. What kind of planets consist of a shell of rock surrounding a core of iron alloy?
a. jovian planets
b. planetesimals
c. giant gas planets
d. terrestrial planets
5. Uniformitarianism states that
a. the past is key to the present
b. the present is key to the past
c. the key is the present and the past
d. the key is the past, not the present
6. Choose the correct order of the organisms from their appearance of earth to the
present.
a. humans, birds, dinosaurs, fish
b. humans, dinosaurs, birds, fish
c. fish, dinosaurs, birds, humans
d. fish, birds, dinosaurs, humans
7. Between which periods did the dinosaurs become extinct?
a. Cretaceous and Tertiary
b. Ordovician and Silurian
c. Permian and Triassic
d. Precambrian and Cambrian
8. During which period did humans develop?
a. Cretaceous
b. Jurassic
c. Quaternary
d. Tertiary
9. The “Age of Reptiles” occurred during which period?
a. Devonian
b. Permian
c. Tertiary
d. Triassic
10. During which Era did the first land plants appear?
a. Cenozoic
b. Mesozoic
c. Paleozoic
d. Precambrian
11. During which era did Trilobites dominate?
a. Cenozoic
b. Mesozoic
c. Paleozoic
d. Precambrian
12. Coprolite” is another word for fossilized…
a. feces
b. footprints
c. plants
d. insects
13. An index fossil is a fossilized organism that lived in a ________ area for a
____________ time.
a. narrow, long
b. narrow, short
c. wide, long
d. wide, short
14. Isotopes of elements are characterized by having
a. different number of protons
b. different number of electrons
c. different number of neutrons
d. same number of neutrons and protons
15. Radometric dating is also known as
a. geochronology
b. relative aging
c. strata correlation
d. exponential dating
16. Potassium-Argon radiometric dating is done in what kind of minerals?
a. Zircon, uraninite
b. mica, feldspar, hornblende
c. quartz, calcite
d. cinnabar, sulfur
17. Carbon-14 dating defines the numerical age of
a. sedimentary rock
b. organic material
c. igneous minerals
d. metamorphic minerals
18. What does Rubidium-87 decay to?
a. strontium-86
b. rubidium-86
c. strontium-87
d. rubidium-88
19. Uncertainties for radiometric dates may be on the order of
a. 5% or less
b. 90% or more
c. .5% or less
d. 1% or less
20. What is the half-life of parent-daughter Uranium-238 and Lead-206?
a. 106 billion
b. 48.8 billion
c. 4.5 billion
d. 1.3 billion
Short Answer: (5 pt. each)
1. How do scientists analyze the parent-daughter ratio of absolute dating?
-Geologists pass the dissolved or evaporated atoms through a mass spectrometer,
a complex instrument that uses a magnet to separate isotopes from one another
according to their respective weight, and then measure the ratio of parent to
daughter isotopes.
Credit- Mentions atoms passing through spectrometer (2 points). Mentions
ratio of parent to daughter isotopes (2 points). Mentions separation of
isotopes (1 point).
2. Draw a graph showing the number of daughter and parent isotopes as time passes.
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Credit- Correctly labels axis (1 point). Correctly drawn and labeled parent
isotope (2 points). Correctly drawn and labeled daughter isotope (2 points).
3. Describe three types of fossil evidence and provide examples of each.
-Unaltered remains, altered remains, and trace fossils.
-Examples:
Unaltered- teeth, bones, shells, frozen remains, amber
Altered- petrified remains, molds, casts, carbonization
Trace fossils- tracks, burrows, coprolites, gastroliths
Credit- Three types of fossils are listed (1 point each). Examples of types are
given (.67 points each).
4. In the space provided below, draw a geologic time scale. Please label the eons, eras,
and periods. Also please include the dates of the eons and eras.
No Partial Credit.
Essay: (15 pt. each)
1. What are the different kinds of dating techniques that are used to age geologic
material? What circumstances would cause scientists to use a certain technique over
another?
The two kinds of dating are relative and absolute. Relative dating is using the age of one
geologic feature with respect to another. Absolute dating is the use of radioactive decay
and half-lives to determine a numerical date for geologic material. Relative dating would
be used in instances where fossils and/or very distinct geologic layers and features were
present and in material that could be related to another. Absolute dating is used when
material isn’t in defined stratigraphic layers or when the material is younger. Some
techniques require half-lives of millions or even billions of years, requiring older
material.
Credit- States two kinds of dating (.5 points each). Defines absolute and relative
dating (3 points each). Provides correct examples of instances when they’re both
used (4 points each).
2. Provide a summary of the formation of the solar system, according to the nebula
hypothesis. Please include the following terms: planetismals, nebula, proto-sun, and
differentiation.
A nebula formed from hydrogen and helium leftover from the big bang. Gravity pulls gas
and dust inward to form an accretion disk. Eventually a glowing ball- the proto-sunforms at the center of this disk. Dust concentrates in the inner rings while ice concentrates
in the outer rings. Eventually the dense ball of gas at the center of the disk becomes hot
enough for fusion reactions to begin. When it ignites, it becomes the sun. Dust and ice
particles collide and stick together, forming planetismals. Planetismals grow by
continuous collisions. Gradually, an irregularly shaped proto-Earth develops. The interior
heats up and becomes soft. Gravity reshapes the proto-Earth into a sphere. The interior of
the Earth differentiates into a core and a mantle.
Credit- All events included in correct order (10 points). Correct use of vocabulary (5
points).
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