Unit: Historical Geology Key Learning: Rocks and fossils contain clues to Earth’s past. This information is used to understand Earth’s processes, how life evolves, and determines the age of the Earth. Instructional Tools: Unit Essential Question: How do rocks and fossils aid scientists in understanding Earth’s biological and geological past? Concept: Relative Age Earth Science Standard: 3.5.10.A, 3.5.10.B Biology Keystone Anchor: Bio.B.3.1, BIO.B.3.3 Lesson EQ: How does Uniformitarianism help explain Earth’s history? Concept: Fossil Formation Earth Science Standard: 3.5.10.A, 3.5.10.B Biology Keystone Anchor: BIO.3.2, BIO3.3 Lesson EQ: What does the fossil record show about how life has changed over time? Concept: Absolute Age Earth Science Standard: 3.5.10.A., 3.5.10.B, Biology Keystone Anchor: BIO.3.2 Lesson EQ: What is radioactivity and how can it be used to find absolute age of rocks? What are the key principles of relative dating and how do they allow geologists to interpret Earth’s history? Vocabulary: Catastrophism, Uniformitarianism Law of Superposition, Principle, Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic, Relative dating, Principle of original horizontality, Principle of cross cutting, Principle of inclusions, Unconformity, fault Vocabulary: Fossil, fossil succession, index Fossil, correlation, trace fossil, Petrified remains, cast, mold, Amber Vocabulary: Radioactivity, half-life, radioMetric dating, carbon dating, Absolute dating, parent material, Daughter product Concept: Geologic Timeline Earth Science Standard: 3.4.10.A, 3.5.20.B, 3.1.10 D Biology Keystone Anchor: BIO.3.1 Lesson EQ: What are the major divisions of the geologic time scale and how was it constructed? Concept Earth as a System Earth Science Standards: 3.3.10.A, 3.3.104 Biology Keystone Anchors:BIO.3.1 Lesson EQ: How does Earth’s system drive an evolving & dynamic Earth? Vocabulary: Geologic time scale, eon, Era, Period, epoch, Evolution, stromatolites, Extinction Geosphere, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere System Curriculum Area: __________________ Know Facts, formulas, vocabulary Catastrophism, Uniformitarianism Law of Superposition, Principle, Igneous, Sedimentary, MetaMorphic, Relative dating, Principle of original horizontality, principle of cross cutting relationships, principle of inclusions, Fossil, fossil succession, index Fossil, correlation, trace fossil, Petrified remains, cast, mold, Radioactivity, half-life, radioMetric dating, carbon dating, Absolute dating, parent material, Geologic time scale, eon, era, Period, epoch, extinction, Evolution, stromatolites, Geosphere, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere, System Unit Name: ________________________________ Grade Level: ____________________ Understand Do Concepts, principles, generalizations Skills such as literacy, numeracy, thinking Explain how rocks allow geologists to interpret Earth’s history. Rocks record geologic and changing life of the past We have learned that Earth is much older than anyone had previously imagined and that its surface and interior have been changed by the same geologic process that continue today. Uniformitarianism means that the forces and processes that we observe today have been at work for a very long time. Relative dating can’t tell us how long ago something took place. It can only tell us the sequence in which they occurred. Recognize how uniformitarianism helps explain Earth’s features. Analyze the key principles of relative dating and describe how geologist use relative dating in their work. Describe the importance of unconformities in unraveling Earth’s history: geologically and biologically. Define fossils and explain how fossils are made. The law of superposition states that in an undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks, each bed is older than the one above it and younger than the one below it. Interpret data from fossil records relevant to the theory of evolution. The principle of original horizontality means that layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal position. State and Interpret the principle of fossil succession. An unconformity represents a long period of duration which deposition stopped, erosion removed previously formed rocks and then depiction resumed. Utilize the laws /principles of relative age dating to analyze geologic cross-section. Define radioactivity and half-life Fossils are remains or traces of prehistoric life. The type of fossil that formed is determined by the conditions under which an organism died and how it was buried. The principle of fossil succession combines the laws of supposition and the study of the fossils the rock layers contain. Analyze a half-life graph to interpret the age of a rock. Describe how carbon-14 is used in radiometric dating. Create the geologic time scale. Explain how the geologic time scale is organized A half-life is the amount of time necessary for one half of the nuclei in a sample to decay to its stable isotope. Identify some complications in dating rocks. An accurate radiometric date can be obtained only if the mineral remained a closed system during the entire period since formation. Explain how the evolution of Earth has been driven by interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. When an organism dies, the amount of carbon 14 gradually decreases as it decays. By comparing the ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 in a sample, radiocarbon dates can be determined. Explain how the Earth’s systems and its various cycles are driven by energy. Geologist have divided Earth’s 4.56 billion year history into specific time units. Eons represent the greatest expanses of time; Eons are divided into Eras. Each Era is subdivided into periods, based on geological and biological events. Finally periods are divided into still smaller units called epochs. Earth System Science aims to study Earth as a system made up of numerous interacting parts, or subsystems. A system can be a group of interacting parts that forma complex whole. The sun drives the external processes that occur in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and at Earth’s surface. Earth’s interior energy is driven mainly from radioactive decay & heat left over from when Earth formed. Our action produce changes in all other parts of the Earth System.