Francisco Alar PhD thesis: PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT OF THE POLICE IN THE CONTEXT OF PUBLIC SECTOR REFORM IN MOZAMBIQUE Abstract The thesis investigates police performance management in Maputo, which is the capital city of Mozambique. To conduct the analysis, it applies a multi-angle and multi-factor framework that enables examination of core values and indicators of governance while taking into account the influencing factors within and around the Police of the Republic of Mozambique (PRM). The thesis sets the stage for the investigation with an historical analysis of changes in socioeconomic and political factors over time, as well as an institutional analysis of the public sector context in which the police have been operating and a stakeholder analysis encompassing the courts, donors and urban communities. It evaluates organisational systems and dimensions in terms of patterns of human and material resources, management styles, and organisational cultures that have characterised the PRM from the one-party socialist regime adopted after independence in 1975 to multiparty democracy and open market system introduced through the Constitution in 1990. The analytical framework of the thesis combines capacity building, strategic management concepts and governance perspectives. In addition, literature on informality is used to interpret the reality observed in the field. The study’s relevance and importance lie in its unique approach. Instead of analysing police performance in the usual way through crime statistics and public opinion, it provides insights into the organisation and surrounding factors that shape the PRM performance management style. It goes beyond performance measurement and tries to understand whether and how the police manage their performance, by assessing the availability and usage of the systems, including vital databases, that are necessary for internal and external performance management and monitoring. In terms of background and context, also referred to in the thesis as action environment, three interconnected aspects are considered: economic, political and social factors. One important area of investigation is the PRM’s history and evolution. The first wave of economic reforms under the structural adjustment programme in Mozambique was initiated in 1987. However, it was the 1990 Constitution that ushered in more political and economic changes, with total abandonment of central planning and oneparty rule, which were replaced by a market economy and multiparty political system. In that new context, institutions such as the police were supposed to radically change their managerial and operational style. However, the basic police organisational culture, particularly the military style and selectivity in complying with the rule of law, has not changed. The history of Mozambique is marked by violent conflict, a 10-year liberation struggle being followed by another 16 years of civil war, fostered and sustained by Rhodesia and South Africa, after independence. The country has not yet recovered from the operational culture generated by that threat to its independence, which shaped the way the police are organised and managed. Moreover, the work and management of the police have also been affected by Mozambique’s low literacy rate, which remains below 50 per cent, and high unemployment rate ranging from18.7 per cent (country) and 40 per cent (city of Maputo). This situation limits the availability of skilled human resources and increases the incidence of crime, thus challenging police capacity. Maputo, as the capital of the country, poses specific policing challenges. It is where main industries and business centres are concentrated. Its economic and geographic linkage to South Africa makes it prone to organised and trans-border crime. While the country as a whole has one of the highest Human Poverty Index levels in the world (ranging from 55.9 per cent to 48.9 per cent between 1997 and 2003), Maputo is an outlier as its poverty index level ranged from 17 per cent to 18 per cent between 1997 and 2003 (UNDP 2006). Because wealth is concentrated in Maputo, the city appears to require more policing to protect property than any other city in the country. Despite the strengths of rational choice policy-making, which postulates the use of strategic management approaches (Dutta and Manzoni 1999; Halachmi 2004) and to which many governments claim to be committed, the findings of this research indicate that governance in Mozambique is characterised by a mixed system. There are positive as well as negative features. Formal and established institutions with norms, regulations and experience do exist now. Economic and social recovery from the destruction caused by the long war is evident. Mozambique is a good example of success in consolidating peace after war. Training institutions are increasing at all levels. However, it cannot be denied that there is potential for improvement in the PRM. The capacity to ensure public security exists, as is conspicuously manifest during special events such as Christmas festivities and during the electoral period, when a zero tolerance policy is applied to ensure safety and tranquillity. There are also some good examples of committed officers who resist corruption. These are bases on which further change can be achieved. With regard to the structure of the police force in Mozambique and its adjustment to the socioeconomic and political changes since independence, only the form has changed. At independence in 1975, the country adopted a socialist and central-planning system in which only one party was allowed to rule. The defence and security sector acted under military command, with the police almost subordinated to the army. There were no clear boundaries between civil responsibilities (such as law and order and public security maintenance) and war efforts. The army and the police, backed by popular and informal vigilance and security organisations, were actors in both, the war and the fight against crime in urban areas. The general police organisational culture of the socialist era was typically military. The main negative aspect currently is that not only the police, but the entire public sector, is generally dominated by a culture of organisational informality. Informality in Mozambique consists of non-enforcement of formal procedures and even encouragement to violate norms; differences between proposed procedures, strategies and policies and the actual practice; personalisation and politicisation of management, so that a change in managers results in policy discontinuity and sometimes in backsliding. Nevertheless, by comparing two main periods – the socialist one from 1975 to approval of the 1990 Constitution, and the multiparty system and market-oriented economy consolidated by the first multiparty elections in 1994 – the most significant findings are that the socialist era had a more rigorous and systematic organisational and personnel performance management system. It entailed popular and multi-system oversight and monitoring mechanisms as well as rewards for good performance not found in the postsocialist era. The thesis concludes that performance management is not part of the public administration system in Mozambique. Governance in Mozambique is characterised by a dichotomy between, on the one hand, formal plans and strategies such as the donorsupported public sector reforms, of which the police strategic plan is one component, and on the other hand, the actual governance reality characterised by informal, personalised and arbitrary practices. Mozambique is presently implementing reforms that require all public institutions to enhance efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability, by, among other measures, enabling public participation in decision-making while internally adopting performance-oriented human resource management. While these requirements are replicated in the police strategic plan, available evidence indicates that the initiatives exist only on paper.