El mundo hispanohablante

advertisement
El mundo hispanohablante
S
panish is the language of more than 350 million
people around the world. Spanish had its origin in
Spain. It is sometimes fondly called the “language of
Cervantes,” the author of the world’s most famous
novel and character, Don Quijote. The Spanish
conquistadores and exploradores brought their
language to the Americas in the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries. Spanish is the official language
of almost all the countries of Central and South
America. It is the official language of Mexico
and several of the larger islands in the
Caribbean. Spanish is also the
heritage language of forty
million people in the
United States.
España
México
Perú
Chile
El mundo
OCÉANO ÁRTICO
G
Mar de
Beaufort
Mar de
Bering
Bahía de
Baffin
Bahía
de Hudson
Golfo de
Alaska
CANADÁ
Mar del
Labrador
AMÉRICA
DEL NORTE
ESTADOS UNIDOS
MÉXICO
OCÉANO
ATLÁNTICO
Golfo de
México
MAR CARIBE
OCÉANO PACÍFICO
VENEZUELA
COLOMBIA
GUYANA
SURINAM
GUAYANA
FRANCESA
ECUADOR
AMÉRICA
DEL SUR
PERÚ
POLINESIA
FRANCESA
SAMOA
BRASIL
BOLIVIA
TONGA
PARAGUAY
URUGUAY
B
GOLFO DE
MÉXICO
AH
AM
CHILE ARGENTINA
AS
TURCAS Y
CAICOS (R.U.)
CUBA
MÉXICO
HAITÍ
BELICE
SAN CRISTÓBAL-NEVIS
JAMAICA
GUATEMALA
HONDURAS
MAR CARIBE
EL SALVADOR
OCÉANO
ATLÁNTICO
PUERTO
RICO ISLAS VÍRGENES
(EE.UU.) (EE.UU. y R.U.)
REPÚBLICA
ANTIGUA Y
DOMINICANA
BARBUDA
ARUBA
NICARAGUA
DOMINICA
MARTINICA
(FR.)
SAN VICENTE
Y GRENADINES
TRINIDAD Y
TOBAGO
GUADALUPE
(FR.)
SANTA
LUCÍA
BARBADOS
GRANADA
COSTA
RICA
PANAMÁ
VENEZUELA
OCÉANO
PACÍFICO
xxii
GUYANA
COLOMBIA
SURINAM
OCÉANO ÁRTICO
GROENLANDIA
Mar de
Groenlandia
Mar de Láptiev
Mar de Kara
Mar de
Barents
Mar de
Noruega
ISLANDIA
RUSIA
ASIA
Mar
del Norte
EUROPA
KAZAJSTÁN
Mar Negro
UZBEKISTÁN
GEORGIA
ARMENIA
MELILLA
CEUTA
TÚNEZ
ME D I
IRÁN
NEPAL
EGIPTO
QATAR
EMIRATOS
ÁRABES
UNIDOS
ARABIA
SAUDITA
CABO
VERDE
MAURITANIA
SENEGAL
GAMBIA
GUINEA- GUINEA
BISSAU
MALÍ
NÍGER
CHAD
BURKINA
FASO
NIGERIA
PAKISTÁN
BAHREIN
KUWAIT
LIBIA
ERITREA
ÁFRICA
BANGLADESH MYANMAR
LAOS
Golfo
de Bengala TAILANDIA
YÉMEN
Mar
de la China
meridional
ETIOPÍA
SRI
LANKA
REPÚBLICA
CENTROAFRICANA
CAMERÚN
COSTA DE MARFIL LIBERIA TOGO
SOMALIA
UGANDA
SAN TOMÉ E PRÍNCIPE
KENYA
MICRONESIA
CAMBOYA
PALAU
BRUNEI
MALAYSIA
MALDIVAS
KIRIBATI
GABÓN
RUANDA
REP. DEL
CONGO REP. DEM.
SINGAPUR
DEL CONGO BURUNDI
SEYCHELLES
I N D O N E S I A
OCÉANO
ÍNDICO
TANZANIA
ANGOLA
ISLAS COMORES
MALAWI
ZAMBIA MOZAMBIQUE
MADAGASCAR
ZIMBABWE
OCÉANO
ATLÁNTICO
MARSHALL
FILIPINAS
VIETNAM
SIERRA LEONA
GUINEA ECUATORIAL
OCÉANO
PACÍFICO
TAIWÁN
DJIBOUTI
GHANA BENIN
JAPÓN
Mar de la
China
oriental
BHUTÁN
INDIA
OMÁN
SUDÁN
Japón
COREA
DEL SUR
AFGANISTÁN
JORDANIA
ARGELIA
COREA
Mar
DEL NORTE del
CHINA
TAYIKISTÁN
AZERBAIJÁN
IRAK
ISRAEL
MARRUECOS
SAHARA
OCCIDENTAL
SIRIA
LÍBANO
TE R R Á N E O
MONGOLIA
KIRGUIZITÁN
TURKMENISTÁN
TURQUÍA
M AR
Mar de
Ojotsk
NAMIBIA
NAURÚ
PAPÚANUEVA
GUINEA
Mar del
Coral
MAURICIO
REUNIÓN
BOTSWANA
NUEVA
CALEDONIA
AUSTRALIA
SUDÁFRICA
SALOMÓN
TUVALU
WALLIS Y
FUTUNA
VANUATU
ISLAS
FIJI
SWAZILANDIA
LESOTHO
Mar de
Tasmania
NUEVA
ZELANDIA
FINLANDIA
NORUEGA
SUECIA
ESTONIA
REINO
IRLANDA
DINAMARCA
UNIDO
RUSIA
LETONIA
LITUANIA
RUSIA
PAÍSES
BAJOS
BÉLGICA
ANTÁRTIDA
BELARÚS
ALEMANIA
POLONIA
LUXEMBURGO
OCÉANO
ATLÁNTICO
FRANCIA
REPÚBLICA
CHECA
ESLOVAQUIA
SUIZA
AUSTRIA
UCRANIA
MOLDOVA
HUNGRÍA
ESLOVENIA
OACIA
RUMANIA
CR
BOSNIAHERZOGOVINA
YUGOSLAVIA
(Fed. Rep.)
ANDORRA
PORTUGAL
ESPAÑA
MÓNACO
ITALIA
Mar Negro
GEORGIA
BULGARIA
ALBANIA MACEDONIA
MELILLA
CEUTA
Mar
Med
iter
rá
GRECIA
TURQUÍA
n
e
o
ÁFRICA
MALTA
SIRIA
CHIPRE
LÍBANO
xxiii
El mundo hispanohablante
México
España
Madrid
CAPITAL
CAPITAL
Ciudad de México
Madrid
POPULATION
POPULATION
99,600,000
39,800,000
FUN FACT
FUN FACT
lden fields
of Galicia, the go
The verdant hills
of
es
lag
vil
white
of Castilla, and the
industrial areas of
the
as
ll
we
as
Andalucía
all a
Basque Country are
Cataluña and the
home to
ce
On
.
ain
Sp
ul
part of beautif
ts, and
inians, Romans, Cel
Iberians, Carthag
Spanish—
of
e
lac
thp
bir
Moors, Spain is the
red on
ny nations scatte
the language of ma globe. Madrid, in the
the
five continents of
ered a
country, is consid
exact center of the of Europe.
ter
major cultural cen
Beautiful Mexico
shares a border wi
th the
United States. Th
is magnificent na
tion of
Aztec, Mayan, an
d Spanish heritag
e is a
country of contra
sts: cosmopolitan
cities
such as Mexico Cit
y; industrial center
s suc
as Monterrey; quain
t towns such as Tax h
and San Miguel de
co
Allende; world-fa
mous
beaches like Acap
ulco and Cancún;
as well as
magnificent vestig
es of pre-Columbia
n
civilization in Ch
ichén Itzā and Tu
lum.
Estados Unidos
CAPITAL
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
POPULATION
284,500,000
FUN FACT
The influence of Spanish and Mexican
heritage has been evident in Texas and in
the Southwest of the United States for
generations. More recent is the proliferation
of Hispanic or Latin cultures in all areas of
the United States. New arrivals from the
Caribbean, Central America, and South
America bring their language, customs,
music, and foods, adding to the rich cultural
diversity of this “melting pot” country.
Today Spanish is heard in New York, Chicago,
Minneapolis, Denver, and Miami as well as El
Paso, Phoenix, and Los Angeles.
xxiv
Ciudad de
México
Guatemala
El Salvador
Guatemala
15 SEP
T
BR
IEM E
1821
DE
CAPITAL
Guatemala
POPULATION
13,000,000
San
Salvador
CAPITAL
San Salvador
FUN FACT
a large
dant country with the
Guatemala is a ver
scendants of
de
—
ion
lat
pu
po
indigenous
rgrown
e ruined cities ove
Mayans. Incredibl
that lasted for
on
ati
iliz
civ
a
of
by jungle tell
ne has
rs and whose decli
two thousand yea
Guatemala
d.
ne
lai
exp
y
vel
most
never been definiti
ny to be one of the
is considered by ma the world, with its
in
nic
beautiful countries
ns, jungles, and sce
volcanoes, mountai
Antigua,
as
h
suc
es,
lag
vil
cities and
ichicastenango.
Panajachel, and Ch
POPULATION
6,400,000
FUN FACT
El Salvador is the
smallest and most
densely
populated of the
Central American
repub
It is also the only
one that has no Atl lics.
seaboard. The cou
antic
ntry is traversed
by two
mountain ranges
with many impre
ssive
volcanic peaks.
Honduras
Tegucigalpa
Nicaragua
CAPITAL
Tegucigalpa
POPULATION
Managua
6,700,000
FUN FACT
Traditionally Honduras
has been an
agricultural country. One
-third of the
country is made up of rich
farmlands. Its
people are friendly and
tranquil, with a
pleasant smile for foreign
ers. The major
cities are Tegucigalpa and
San Pedro Sula.
Like its neighbor Guatem
ala, Honduras has
incredible ruins of the
pre-Columbian
civilizations such as tho
se in Copán.
CAPITAL
Managua
POPULATION
5,200,000
FUN FACT
re than
ntry that has mo
Nicaragua is a cou
ve erupted in
ha
ich
wh
of
ny
40 volcanoes, ma
is on the
capital, Managua,
recent years. The
and
inl
ly
on
the
a,
gu
na
shores of Lake Ma
of
st
we
rth
No
.
rks
sha
León
lake inhabited by
university city of
ely
lov
the
is
a
thManagu
en
hte
eig
d
an
churches
with its colonial
century cathedral.
xxv
El mundo hispanohablante
Panamá
Costa Rica
Panamá
San José
CAPITAL
Panamá
CAPITAL
POPULATION
San José
2,900,000
POPULATION
FUN FACT
3,700,000
Panama is a country of variety—a
variety of
races, customs, natural wonders, and
attractions. It is a country of tropi
cal
forests, mountains, beautiful beac
hes,
excellent fishing, picturesque lakes
, rivers,
two oceans, and—the most incredible
engineering feat—the Panama Cana
l.
Panama is also the largest financial
center
of Latin America. All this in a mere
77,432
square kilometers!
FUN FACT
al
Many consider Costa Rica a very speci
e,
place. Its residents, Ticos, are polit
Rica
peaceful, and extremely friendly. Costa
g
has no army and prides itself on havin
Costa
more teachers than police officers.
beaches on
Rica is a country of sun-drenched
the
the Pacific, tropical jungles along
such as
cities
tan
opoli
cosm
,
coast
bean
Carib
central
the
in
tains
moun
high
and
San José,
as
dise
para
st’s
touri
a
is
Rica
valley. Costa
well as home to many expatriates.
Cuba
La Habana
CAPITAL
La Habana
POPULATION
11,300,000
FUN FACT
Cuba, is known for its
Havana, the capital of
ture. This lush
itec
arch
l
nia
colo
us
gorgeo
, is one of the
ida
Flor
from
far
island, not
sugar cane.
of
ers
duc
pro
st
world’s greate
Castro since
l
Fide
by
d
rule
Cuba has been
dictator
the
ew
rthr
1959 when he ove
Fulgencio Batista.
La República Domin
icana
Puerto Rico
Santo
Domingo
CAPITAL
Santo Domingo
POPULATION
8,600,000
FUN FACT
The Dominican Re
public shares with
Haiti
the island of Hispa
nio
Antilles. The oldest la in the greater
university in our
hemisphere, la Un
iversidad de Santo
Domingo, was fou
nded in Santo Do
mingo.
The Dominicans are
ardent fans or
aficionados of ba
seball, and this rat
her
small island natio
n has produced som
e of
the finest major
league players.
xxvi
San Juan
CAPITAL
San Juan
POPULATION
3,900,000
FUN FACT
for
an endearing term
Puerto Ricans have la isla del encanto—
d—
an
their beloved isl
lth of
ent. A commonwea
island of enchantm erto Rico is a lush,
, Pu
the United States
its
th beaches along
s
tropical island wi
shores and gorgeou
an
be
rib
Ca
d
an
Atlantic
its
in
ws
vie
ine-like
mountains with Alp
the
o is the home of
interior. Puerto Ric
t lives only
tha
g
fro
tle
lit
a
beloved coquí—
see him.
d who lets no one
in Puerto Rico an
Venezuela
Colombia
Caracas
CAPITAL
Santafé de
Bogotá
CAPITAL
Caracas
Bogotá
POPULATION
POPULATION
24,600,000
43,100,000
FUN FACT
this
Venezuela was the name given to
,
country by Spanish explorers in 1499
villages
when they came across indigenous
where
where people lived on the water and
ut
all commerce was conducted by dugo
of
canoes. The waterways reminded them
Venice, Italy. Caracas is a teeming
unded
cosmopolitan city of high-rises surro
w nineby mountains and tucked in a narro
mile valley. Angel Falls in southern
in the
Venezuela is the highest waterfall
feet
world, reaching a height of 3,212
with an unbroken fall of 2,648 feet.
FUN FACT
Ecuador
Quito
Colombia covers over 440,000 squa
re miles
of tropical and mountainous terra
in. Bogotá
is situated in the center of the coun
try in an
Andean valley 8,640 feet above sea
level.
The Caribbean coast in the North
boasts
many beautiful beaches; the South
is
covered by jungle, and the southern
port of
Leticia is on the Amazon River.
CAPITAL
Quito
POPULATION
12,900,000
FUN FACT
Ecuador takes its name from the equator,
which cuts right across the country. Ecuador
is the meeting place of the high Andean
sierra in the center, the tropical coastal
plain to the west, and the Amazon Basin
jungle to the east. Snowcapped volcanoes
stretch some 400 miles from north to south.
The beautiful colonial section of the capital,
Quito, is sometimes called “the Florence of
the Americas.”
Bolivia
Perú
La Paz
CAPITAL
Lima
Lima
POPULATION
26,100,000
FUN FACT
Peru, like Ecuador,
is
geographical areas— divided into three
a narrow coastal
of desert along the
strip
Pacific, the Ande
an
highlands where
nearly half the po
pulation
lives, and the Am
azon jungle to the
east.
Lima is on the coa
st, and for almost
nine
months out of the
year it is enshrou
ded
fog called la garúa
. Peru is famous for in a
Incan heritage. No
its
thi
for the awe-inspirin ng can prepare visitors
g view of the Inc
an city
of Machu Picchu,
an imposing archit
ectural
complex high in the
Andes.
CAPITAL
La Paz
POPULATION
8,500,000
FUN FACT
ntries in
two landlocked cou
Bolivia is one of
the
te
na
mi
do
untains
South America. Mo
Paz is the highest
La
e.
ap
dsc
lan
Bolivian
12,500
at an altitude of
city in the world
rld’s highest
wo
the
s
ha
o
als
feet. Bolivia
is
ke Titicaca, which
navigable lake, La
lages of the
vil
ue
esq
tur
pic
surrounded by the
Aymara Indians.
xxvii
El mundo hispanohablante
Chile
Santiago
Argentina
CAPITAL
Santiago
Buenos
Aires
POPULATION
15,400,000
FUN FACT
more
an” country never
Chile, a “string be
hes 2,666 miles
etc
str
de,
wi
les
mi
than 111
ic Coast.
th along the Pacif
from north to sou
from Bolivia
it
e
lat
iso
s
de
An
The imposing
the
e northern part of
and Argentina. Th
super-arid
the
by
d
ize
ter
country is charac
the South by the
rds of
Atacama desert,
ept glaciers and fjo
-sw
nd
wi
ar
cul
cta
y’s
spe
ntr
cou
the
of
d
e-thir
Patagonia. Over on
Santiago area.
the
in
es
liv
ion
populat
CAPITAL
Buenos Aires
POPULATION
37,500,000
FUN FACT
Argentina is often
considered the mo
st
European country
of South America.
Bu
Aires is a beautif
ul city of parks, bo enos
utiques,
restaurants, and
wide boulevards.
Argentina
is famous for its
beef from the cat
tle tha
graze on the huge
estancias of the gra t
Pampas. Farther
ssy
south on the Chile
an border
is the gorgeous lak
e area with Swiss
-like
villages around Ba
rilo
Patagonia with its che. To the south is
rocky countryside
where
the Welsh still gra
ze sheep.
Paraguay
CAPITAL
Asunción
Uruguay
Asunción
POPULATION
5,
700,000
FUN FACT
Paraguay, lik
e
Asunción, si Bolivia, is landlocked.
tuat
the east bank ed on seven small hills
on
home to one- of the río Paraguay, is
fi
population. fth of the country’s tota
Lo
l
America, th cated in the center of So
is somewhat
uth
qu
equidistant
aint city is
from the At
lantic and th nearly
The area to
e An
the
called the Ch west of the río Paragu des.
ay
ac
area of gras o—a very dry, hot, win is
slands and
scrubby fore dy
sts.
xxviii
Montevideo
CAPITAL
Montevideo
POPULATION
3,400,000
FUN FACT
South
allest country in
Uruguay is the sm
n is
rai
ter
y’s
ntr
cou
the
America. Most of
and cattle.
ep
she
for
d
lan
g
grazin
de la
ted where the río
Montevideo, situa
antic, is a rather
Atl
the
o
int
es
like
Plata empti
suburbs look more
peaceful city whose beaches of Uruguay’s
e
Th
s.
beautiful resort
del
, particularly Punta
Atlantic coastline
zil and
Bra
m
fro
le
op
pe
Este, attract many
Argentina.
Melilla
Ceuta and
Ceuta
Melilla
N
POPULA0TIO
72,20
e north
th
FUN FAaCnTd Melilla, locatedaonnautonomous
Ceuta
odern
mprise
Africa, co . Both of these m ful
coast of
in
a
u
Sp
ea
a b ti
y of
communit ee ports and offer ian, Moslem,
fr
st
ri
re
h
a
cities
ures: C
many cult
blend of d Hindu.
n
a
Hebrew,
Guinea Ecuatorial
Malabo
CAPITAL
Malabo
POPULATION
500,000
FUN FACT
Las Islas F
ilipinas
The Republic of Equatorial Guinea, on the
West Coast of Africa between Gabon and
Cameroon, was formerly called Spanish
Guinea. The country is made up of some
10,000 square miles on the mainland and
several small islands. Its capital, Malabo, is
on the island of Bioko. Today two languages
are spoken in Equatorial Guinea—Spanish
and French.
Manila
CAPITAL
Manila
POPULATIO
N
77,2
00,000
FUN FACT
The Repu
bli
nation in c of the Philippin
es is an is
th
language e South Pacific.
land
The offic
of the Ph
ial
ilip
people als
o speak Fi pines is Tagalog
has borro
. Many
lipino—a
w
Spanish in ed many words fr language that
om Span
fluence w
ish.
during th
as extrem
e
el
centuries eighteenth and n y strong
. Many Fi
ineteenth
lipinos h
names, a
ave Span
nd many
ish
can still
speak Sp
anish.
xxix
España
OCÉANO ATLÁNTICO
FRANCIA
Golfo
de Vizcaya
San
Sebastián
MAR CANTÁBRICO
La Coruña
Santiago de
Compostela
Galicia
CO
Santander
Oviedo
Asturias
RD
ILL
Cantabria
CANTÁ
ERA
León
L O
S
Pamplona
Navarra
Rioja
Burgos
Rí
Castilla y León
Río Du ero
Valladolid
Salamanca
G
DE
Cataluña
bro
Barcelona
Zaragoza
MA
Río
A
RR
D AMadrid
A
U
jo
Ta
SIE
PORTUGAL
A
RR
oE
P I R
I N E O
S
Aragón
Segovia
Ávila
Menorca
Madrid
Comunidad
Valenciana
E S PA Ñ A
b
Valencia
l
a
a
s
le
a
s
r e
Palma
Mallorca
Is
Castilla-la Mancha
diana
Río Gua
Lisboa
ANDORRA
Roncesvalles
Bilbao
País
Vasco
BRICA
Ibiza
Extremadura
Formentera
Alicante
G
Río
ua
r
uivi
dalq
Murcia
Murcia
Córdoba
Sevilla
Andalucía
Jerez de la
Frontera Málaga
Granada
SIE
RR
A N
A
EV
DA
Cartagena
MAR
MEDITERRÁNEO
COSTA D EL SOL
Cádiz
Marbella
Estepona
Gibraltar (R.U.)
Estrecho de Gibraltar
Tánger
Ceuta (Esp.)
Melilla (Esp.)
OCÉANO
ATLÁNTICO
ARGELIA
Islas Canarias
La Palma
Santa Cruz
de Tenerife
Las Palmas
Gomera
Tenerife
Hierro
Lanzarote
Fuerteventura
MARRUECOS
Gran
Canaria
OCÉANO ATLÁNTICO
ÁFRICA
SAHARA
OCCIDENTAL
MARRUECOS
La América del Sur
MAR CARIBE
Barranquilla
Caracas
Lago de
Maracaibo
Or i
Río
Medellín
n oc o
M agd
alena
VENEZUELA
Santafé de
Bogotá
GUYANA
SURINAM
GUAYANA
FRANCESA
COLOMBIA
Otavalo
Quito
Ecuador
Islas Galápagos
(Ecuador)
Rí o
Cali
OCÉANO
ATLÁNTICO
Maracaibo
Cartagena
ECUADOR
zonas
Río Ama
Guayaquil
Cuenca
PERÚ
El Callao
C
O
Lima
BRASIL
R
D
Cuzco
Lago
Titicaca
I
BOLIVIA
L
L
La Paz
Brasília
E
Cochabamba
R
A
Santa Cruz
D E
Sucre
L O S
Trópico de Capricornio
PARAGUAY
Asunción
Córdoba
Rosario
Valparaíso
Santiago
ARGENTINA
Puerto Montt
URUGUAY
Buenos Aires
Río de la Plata
Mar del Plata
OCÉANO
ATLÁNTICO
Estrecho de
Magallanes
Punta Arenas
Montevideo
La Plata
P A T A
G O
N I
A
OCÉANO
PACÍFICO
Río P
aran
á
Vicuña
A N D
E S
CHILE
Islas Malvinas
(R.U.)
Tierra del
Fuego
Cabo de Hornos
xxxi
México, la América Central y el Caribe
Los Ángeles
San Diego
Tijuana Mexicali
Phoenix
Tucson
Nogales
Go
C
de
lfo
nia
for
ali
Dallas
San Antonio
Golfo de
México
Washington, D.C.
Tampa
JAMAICA
OCÉANO
ATLÁNTICO
VENEZUELA
Santo
Domingo
MAR CARIBE
Barranquilla
Puerto
Cartagena
Limón
Colón
Panamá
PANAMÁ
Medellín
Caracas
Matanzas
PUERTO
Cienfuegos
REPÚBLICA
RICO
Camagüey
DOMINICANA (EE.UU.)
CUBA
Guantánamo
Arecibo San Juan
Santiago de Cuba
HAITÍ
Ponce
Miami
La Habana
BELICE
Campeche
Mérida
San Cristóbal
de las Casas
Veracruz
Nueva Orleáns
ESTADOS UNIDOS
Santa Fe
El Paso
Ciudad
Juárez
Chihuahua
Nuevo Laredo
MÉXICO
San Luis Potosí
Puebla
Oaxaca
Guanajuato
San Miguel de Allende
Guadalajara
México
Acapulco
GUATEMALA HONDURAS
Tegucigalpa
Guatemala
Antigua
San Salvador
NICARAGUA
EL SALVADOR
Managua
Puntarenas
S
MA
HA
BA
La Paz
Puerto Vallarta
OCÉANO
PACÍFICO
San José
COSTA
RICA
COLOMBIA
Golfo de
Alaska
Juneau
Montana
Helena
Bismarck Minnesota
Dakota
del Norte
CANADÁ
p
L. Su
e r ior
L.
ron
Hu
Vermont
New
Hampshire
Maine
Augusta
OCÉANO
PACÍFICO
MÉXICO
Golfo de
México
Montpelier Concord
Massachusetts
Albany
o
i
r
Boston
ta
Oregón
Idaho
. On
Nueva
Saint
L
Providence
Wisconsin
Pierre
York
Paul
Rhode Island
Hartford
Michigan
Boise
Madison
Dakota del Sur
ir e
Connecticut
E
Wyoming
Lansing
Pensilvania
.
L
Trenton
Iowa
Harrisburg
Nueva Jersey
Des Moines
Dover
Ohio Washington, DC
Nebraska
Cheyenne
Delaware
Indianápolis
Carson City
Annapolis
Sacramento
Salt Lake
Illinois
Columbus
Virginia
Lincoln
Maryland
City
Denver
Nevada
Occidental
Springfield Indiana
Richmond
Utah
Topeka
Misuri
Charleston
Virginia
Colorado
Frankfort
California
Jefferson
Kansas
Raleigh
Kentucky
City
Carolina
OCÉANO
del Norte
ESTADOS UNIDOS
Nashville
Tennessee
PACÍFICO
Oklahoma
Columbia
Santa Fe
Arkansas
Arizona
Carolina
Oklahoma City
Nuevo
Little
Atlanta del Sur
OCÉANO
Alabama
México
Rock
Georgia
Phoenix
Misisipí
ATLÁNTICO
Montgomery
Jackson
Luisiana
Texas
Tallahassee
Baton
Austin
Rouge
Hawai
Florida
Honolulú
Salem
Olympia
Washington
CANADÁ
OCÉANO PACÍFICO
Mar de
Bering
Alaska
L . M i c h i g an
RUSIA
Estados Unidos
xxxiii
Culture Knowing Spanish will open doors to
you around the world. As you study the
language, you will come to understand and
appreciate the way of life, customs, values,
and cultures of people from many different
areas of the world. Look at the map on pages
xxii–xxiii to see where Spanish is spoken,
either as a first or second language.
Learning Spanish can be fun and will bring
you a sense of accomplishment. You’ll be
really pleased when you are able to carry on a
conversation in Spanish. You will be able to
read the literature of Spain and Latin
America, keep up with current events in
magazines and newspapers from Spain and
Latin America, and understand Spanish
language films without relying on subtitles.
The Spanish language will be a source of
enrichment for the rest of your life—and you
don’t have to leave home to enjoy it. In all
areas of the United States there are Hispanic
radio and television stations, Latin musicians,
Spanish-language magazines and newspapers,
and a great diversity of restaurants serving
foods from all areas of the Spanish-speaking
world. The Latin or Hispanic population of
the United States today totals forty million
people and is the fastest growing segment of
the population.
xxxiv
Business Your knowledge of Spanish will also be
an asset to you in a wide variety of careers. Many
companies from Spain and Latin America are
multinational and have branches around the
world, including the United States. Many U.S.
corporations have great exposure in the Spanishspeaking countries. With the growth of the
Hispanic population in the U.S., bilingualism is
becoming an important asset in many fields
including retail, fashion, cosmetics,
pharmaceutical, agriculture, automotive, tourism,
airlines, technology, finance, and accounting.
You can use your Spanish in all these fields, not
only abroad but also in the United States. On the
national scene there are innumerable possibilities
in medical and hospital services, banking and
finance, law, social work, and law enforcement.
The opportunities are limitless.
Another benefit to learning Spanish is that it
will improve your English. Once you know
another language, you can make comparisons
between the two and gain a greater
understanding of how languages function.
You’ll also come across a number of Spanish
words that are used in English. Just a few
examples are: adobe, corral, meseta, rodeo,
poncho, canyon, llama, alpaca. Spanish will
also be helpful if you decide to learn yet
another language. Once you learn a second
language, the learning process for acquiring
other languages becomes much easier.
Spanish is a beautiful, rich language spoken
on many continents. Whatever your
motivation is for choosing to study it, Spanish
will expand your horizons and increase your
job opportunities. ¡Viva el español! Y ¡buen
viaje!
Why Learn Spanish?
xxxv
a
avión
b
bebé
c
cesta
d
dedo
e
elefante
f
foto
g
gemelos
xxxvi
El alfabeto español
h
hamaca
i
iglesia
j
jabón
k
kilo
l
lago
m
mono
n
nariz
ñ
ñame
o
oso
p
pelo
q
queso
r
rana
s
sala
v
vaca
w
Washington, D.C.
x
examen
y
yeso
z
zapato
ch
chicle
ll
t
té
u
uva
lluvia
rr
guitarra
Ch, ll, and rr are not letters of the
Spanish alphabet. However, it is
important for you to learn the sounds
they represent.
El alfabeto español
xxxvii