Cranial Bones
Supra orbital foramina (notches): allow the
supraorbital arteries and nerves to pass
Glabella: The smooth portion between the orbits
Supraorbital margin: Thickened superior margins
of the orbits under the eyebrow that provide
protection to the eyes.
Coronal suture: where the frontal bone articulates
with the parietal bones.
Frontal (1) view
Forms forehead; superior part
of orbits and anterior cranial
fossa; contains sinuses
Parietal (2)view
Forms the most superior and
lateral aspects of the skull.
Occipital (1)view
Foramen magnum: Allows the brain stem to leave
the cranium
Occipital condyles: Articulates with the atlas (first
Forms the posterior aspect and
External occipital protuberance and nuchal
most of the base of the skull.
lines: sites of muscle attachments like the
Lambdoid suture: where the occipital bone
articulates with the parietal bones.
Temporal (2)view
Zygomatic process: helps to form the zygomatic
External auditory (acoustic) meatus: Canal
Forms the inferolateral aspects leading from the external ear to the eardrum.
of the skull and were named
Styloid process: Attachment site for the hyoid
after the latin word temporum, bone and several neck muscles
meaning time. Grey hairs, a
Mastoid process: Attachment site for muscles such
sign of times passing, usually as the sternoclcleidomastoid, longissimus and
develop first in the temple area. splenius.
Mandibular fossa: Articular point of the
mandibular condyles.
Squamous suture: where the temporal bone
Left and right bones are separated by the sagittal
articulates with the parietal bone.
Sphenoid (1)view
Lesser wing: Forms part of the floor of the anterior
cranial fossa
Greater wing: Seen on both the inside and outside
Butterfly-shaped and often
of the skull, and forming part of the middle cranial
called keystone of the cranium
because it articulates with all
Optic foramen (canal): allows passage of the optic
other cranial bones. Forms part
nerves to the eyes.
of the orbit
Sella Turcica: Named because it looks like a
"Turk's saddle" Forming a snug seat for the
pituitary gland.
Ethmoid (1)view
Cribriform plate: helps form the anterior cranial
fossa. The plate is punctured with tiny holes that
A very delicate bone that helps
allow passage to nerve filaments of the olfactory
to form the anterior cranial
nerve (cranial nerve #1)
fossa; forms part of the nasal
Crista galli: Latin meaning "rooster's comb".
septum and the lateral walls and
Attachment site of the dura mater which helps
roof of the nasal cavity;
secure the brain in the cranial cavity.
contributes to the medial wall
Perpendicular plate: forms the superior part of the
of the orbit
nasal septum, which divides the nasal cavity into
right and left halves.
Malleus (hammer)
Incus (anvil)(2)
Stapes (stirrup)(2)
The three smallest bones in the
body; known as the ear
ossicals; found in the tympanic
cavity; involved in sound
Sutures view
"Seams" occurring only
between bones of the skull
Facial Bones
Mandible (1)
Coronal suture: where the parietal bones meet the
frontal bone anteriorly
Sagittal suture: where the right and left parietal
bones meet superiorly at the cranial midline
Squamous (or squamosal) suture: where the
parietal and temporal bone meet on the lateral
aspect of the skull
Lambdoidial suture: Where the parietal and the
occipital bone meet posteriorly
Mandibular condyle: Articulates with the
temporal bones (mandibular fossa) in freely
The largest and strongest bone of movable joints of the jaw
the face that makes up the lower Coronoid processes: insertion points for the
temporalis muscle
Mandibular notch: between the mandibular
condyles and coronoid processes.
Mental foramen: allows for nerves and blood
vessels to pass to the skin of the chin and lower
lip (located on the body of the mandible)
Mental protuberance (or mandibular
symphysis): is the line of fusion of the two
mandibular bones during infancy
Mandibular foramen: permits the nerves that are
responsible for sensation of the teeth in the lower
jaw; Dentists inject this area to numb the teeth.
Located on the ramus of the mandible.
Maxilla (2)
Keystone bones of the face; form
the upper jaw and parts of the
hard palate, orbits, and nasal
cavity walls
Infraorbital foramen: allows passage of the
infraorbital nerve to skin of face
Palatine processes: form the anterior part of the
bony roof of the mouth (hard palate)
Zygomatic (2)
commonly called the "cheek
Temporal process: helps form the zygomatic
bone"; form the cheek and part of arch by connecting with the zygomatic process of
the orbit
the temporal bone
Nasal (2)
Thin, rectangular bones that are
fused together to form the bridge
of the nose
Lacrimal (2)
Form part of the medial orbit
Lacrimal foramen (or fossa): houses the
wall; allows tears to drain from lacrimal sac, which helps to drain tears into the
the eye surface to the nasal cavity nasal cavity
Palatine (2)
Forms the posterior part of the
bony roof of the mouth (hard
palate) and a small part of the
nasal cavity and orbit walls
Vomer (1)
Slender and plow-shaped; forms
part of the nasal septum; best
viewed on the inferior aspect of
the skull
Hyoid (1)
Though not really part of the
skull, the hyoid lies just inferior
to the mandible in the anterior
neck. The hyoid bone is the only
bone of the body that does not
articulate directly with any other
bone. The hyoid bone acts as a
base for the tongue and has neck
muscle attachments that raise and
lower the larynx during
swallowing and speech.
Cervical (7)
Thoracic (12)
Lumbar (5)
Sacrum (1)
Transverse process: lateral projection on each
Transverse foramen: opening for blood vessels
The body is small; spinous
and nerves
process is short, bifid and projects Spinous process: project posteriorly, C2-6 have
directly posteriorly; Transverse
bifid (notched) spinous processes
processes contain foramina; has
Vertebral foramen: opening for spinal cord.
the greatest range of movement of Body: thick disk-shaped anterior portion
all regions of spine. C-1 and C-2 Lamina: portion between the spinous process
are known as Atlas and Axis.
and the and transverse process
The axis has a unique feature
Pedicle: portion between body and transverse
called the Dens or Odontoid
Superior articular process: articulates with the
vertebrae above it
Inferior articular process: articulates with the
vertebrae below it
All articulate with the ribs
Transverse process: bear facets for ribs (except
T11 and T12)
Spinous process: sharper, slopes downward
Vertebral foramen:
Body: bear demifacets (half facets)for ribs
Pedicle: same as for cervical
Superior articular process:
Inferior articular process:
Largest of the vertebrae; thicker
bodies; blunted spinous process
Transverse process:
Spinous process: thicker, blunted
Vertebral foramen:
Superior articular process:
Inferior articular process:
five fused vertebrae; shapes the
posterior wall of the pelvis
Base: superior part, from ala to ala, has body
Ala: similar to the transverse process of the
vertebrae, upper sides
Superior articular process: articulates with the
L5 of the vertebral column
Auricular (or articulating) surface: on the
sides, articulates with the ilium (sacroiliac joint)
Sacral canal: opening for spinal cord
Sacral foramina: allows passage of nerves and
blood vessels
Medial sacral crest: fused spinous processes of
the sacral vertebrae (posterior side)
Transverse lines: site of vertebral fusion
Coccyx (3-5 fused)
Often known as the tail bone,
slight support given for organs of
the pelvis
Sternum (1)
Commonly called the
"breastbone" ; Results from the
fusion of three bones: the
manubrium, the body, and the
xiphoid process
Jugular (or sternal) notch: top, on manubrium
Clavicular notches: on manubrium
Costal notches: on the body
Sternal angle: the sternal angle is a handy
reference point for finding the second rib
Ribs (12 pairs)
Sternal end: flat end, attaches to costal cartilage
Body (or shaft): main part of the rib
1-7 are called true ribs because
Intercostal groove: inner surface of body,
they attach directly to the
sternum. 8-10 are called false
Angle: where body curves
ribs because they indirectly attach
Tubercle: Knob like projection where the neck
to the sternum. 11and 12 ribs are
joins the body
called floating ribs because they
Neck: just lateral to the head
have no anterior attachment
Head: posterior, attaches to vertebrae
Articular facets: two on head , one on tubercle
Shoulder Girdle
Clavicle (2)view
Clavicles ("little keys") more
commonly called the collarbones
act as braces to hold the
scapulae and arms out laterally.
The curves of the clavicle
increase the chances that if
fractured, the clavicle will
collapse anteriorly, away from
the subclavian artery.
Sternal end: Cone shaped end that attaches to the
manubrium (sternum)
Acromial end: Flattened lateral end that attaches
to the scapula
Conoid tubercle: small "lump" on inferior side,
Costal tuberosity: roughened "lump" on sternal
Scapula (2)view
Medial Border: closest to the vertabrae also
called the vertebral border
Scapula derives from a word
Lateral Border: closest to the arm pit also called
meaning spade or shovel since in
the axillary border
ancient times the scapula of an
Superior Border: On top
animal was used for digging.
Angles: superior and inferior
Commonly known as the
Subscapular fossa: on the anterior side of the
shoulder blades
scapula. Attachment site for the subscapularis
Supraspinous fossa: Superior to the spine of the
scapula. Attachment site for the supraspinatus
Infraspinous fossa: inferior to the spine of the
scapula. Attachment site for the infraspinatus
Glenoid fossa (cavity): Articulated with the head
of the humerus
Scapular spine: Posterior side of the scapula
Acromion process: Meaning "point of the
shoulder" attaches to the acromial end of the
Coracoid process: insertion for the pectoralis
minor,and origin for the coracobrachialis and short
head of the biceps brachii.
Supra glenoid tubercle: attachment site for the
long head of the biceps brachii
Infra glenoid tubercle: Attachment site for the
long head of the triceps brachii
Suprascapular notch: area for nerve passage
Humerus (2)view
The largest and longest bone of
the upper limb that articulates
with the scapula, radius and
Head: proximal hemispherical end that fits into
the glenoid cavity of the scapula
Anatomical neck: immediately inferior to the
Greater tubercle: Large bump inferior and lateral
to the anatomical neck
Lesser tubercle: Smaller bump medial to the
greater tubercle
Intertubercular (bicipital) groove: Space
between the two tubercles where the tendon of the
long head of the biceps brachii passes
Surgical neck: distal to the tubercles. Most
frequently fractured part of the humerus
Deltoid tuberosity: midway down the shaft on the
lateral side. This V-shaped area is the attachment
site for the deltoid muscle
Medial and lateral supracondylar ridges:
Flattened ridges on the distal end
Medial and Lateral Epicondyles: most medial
and lateral projections at the distal end
Trochlea: the medial condyle of the humerus,
articulates with the ulna
Capitulum: the lateral condyle of the humerus,
articulates with the radius
Coronoid fossa: on the anterior surface superior
to the trochlea
Olecranon fossa: on the posterior surface that
allows the olecranon process of ulna to move
Radial fossa: Smallest fossa on the anterior
humerus superior to the capitulum
Bones of the upper
Radius (2)
Head: thin round proximal(superior) end
Neck: narrow area below head
Radial tuberosity: roughened projection inferior
to the head. Insertion point for the biceps muscle
Ulnar notch: distal end where the radius
articulates with the ulna
Styloid process: pointy projection on the distal
end (can be felt at your wrist)
Ulna (2)
ul'nah: "elbow" on the proximal
end looks like the end of a
monkey wrench
Olecranon process: Large proximal end that
makes the pointy bump on the posterior part of
your elbow
Coronoid process: projection distal to the
trochlear notch
Trochlear notch: concave area between the two
Radial notch: small depression on the proximal
lateral side where the radius articulates
Head: Smaller distal knoblike end of shaft
Styloid process: pointy projection on the distal
Carpals:(2 each)
navicular, lunate,
triquetral, pisiform,
trapezium, trapezoid,
capitate, hamate
Navicuular bone is also called the
Scaphoid bone. There are eight
carpal bones, four in each row.
Hook of Hamate: anterior hooked end of the
An easy way to remember these is hamate
the saying "Sarah Left The Party
To Take Chuck Home"
Metacarpals: (10)
These small long bones form the
palm of the hand and are not
named, but instead are numbered
1 to 5 from the thumb to little
Bones of the Pelvic
Base: Proximal end
Shaft: middle
Head: (knuckles) Distal end
Each hand contains 14 miniature
long bones called Phalanges.
Each finger has three phalanges,
distal middle and proximal. The
thumb has no middle phalanx
Ilium (2)view
Iliac crest: When you rest your hands on your hips
you are resting them on the iliac crests
Anterior superior iliac spine: Attachment site for
the sartorius and tensor fascia latae muscles
The ilium is part of the os
Anterior inferior iliac spine: Attachment site for
coxae (hip bone). The female the rectus femoris muscle
pelvis tends to be wider,
Posterior superior iliac spine:
shallower, lighter, and rounder Posterior inferior iliac spine:
to accommodate child bearing Greater sciatic notch: This allows passage for the
sciatic nerve
Auricular surface: This means ear-shaped. This
is were the ilium articulates with the sacrum
Iliac fossa: Anterior internal surface of the iliac
Ischium (2)view
Ischial tuberosity: Attachment site for the
hamstring muscles.
Ischial spine: Projects medially into the pelvic
Posterior inferior portion of
the os coxae. This is the bone
Obturator foramen: Opening where nerves and
that you sit on, or "seat" bone
blood vessels pass through
Ramus of ischium: Connects with the inferior
ramus of the pubis
Pubis (2)view
Superior ramus: upper portion or bridge
Inferior ramus: lower, joins with ramus of ishium
Pubic crest and tubercle: Attachment site for
muscles of the abdomen
Anterior inferior portion of the Symphysis pubis: Not really a bony landmark, in
os coxae
fact it is a fibrocartilage disk between the two
pubic bones
Pubic arch: When the two pubic bones a put
together the inferior portion forms an inverted Vshaped arch
Not really a bone; in fact it is a
landmark of the hip socket
where the ilium, ischium and
pubis fuse together. Tea cup.
Bones of the Lower
Femur: (2)view
Head: Ball-like end
Fovea capitis: Small pit on the head where a
ligament secures the femur to the acetabulum
The largest, longest, strongest
Neck: Just below the head of the femur, weakest
bone in the body
part of the femur
Greater Trochanter: Attachment site for the
vastus lateralis and gluteus minimus
Lesser trochanter: attachment site for muscles
Intertrochanteric line: Anterior line that connects
the greater and lesser trochanters
Intertrochanteric crest: Posterior crest that
connects the greater and lesser trochanters
Linea aspera: Line that runs up the posterior shaft
of the femur, attachment site for muscles
Medial and lateral condyles: Articulates with the
Medial and lateral epicondyles: Site for muscle
and ligament attachments
Intercondylar fossa (notch): Attachment site for
the cruciate ligaments
Patellar surface: Anterior smooth portion
Popliteal surface: Posterior, distal aspect of the
Patella: (2)view
This is a sesamoid bone
contained in the quadriceps
tendon that improves the
leverage of the thigh muscles
Tibia: (2)view view
Fibula: (2)view view
Tarsals: (2 each) talus,
calcaneus, navicular,
first cuneiform, second
These are the bones in your
cuneiform, third
cuneiform, and cuboid
Anterior surface: Rounded convex portion
Articular surface: Posterior side that has two
concave indentations for the femoral condyles
Medial and lateral condyles: Conacave part of
the tibia that articulates with the femoral condyles
Intercondylar eminence: Projection that separates
the tibial condyles
Tibial tuberosity: Attachment site for the
quadriceps muscles
Anterior crest: "Shin"
Medial malleolus: Prominent bump at the ankle
Fibular facet: proximal end just below the lateal
tibial condyle. This is were the fibular head
Fibular notch: Part of the distal tibiofemoral joint
Head: Proximal end
Lateral malleolus: Prominent bump at the ankle
on the outside
Malleolar fossa: This landmark will help identify
left or right fibula since it is on the distal end and
always faces posterior in anatomical position
The talus articulates with the tibia and fibula and
is known as the "ankle bone." The calcaneus is
just inferior to the talus and is commonly known as
the "heel bone"
Metatarsals: (10)view
Phalanges: (28)view
These small long bones form
the mid foot and are not
named, but instead are
numbered 1 to 5 from the
medial side to the lateral
Each foot contains 14
miniature long bones called
Phalanges. These are the
bones in your toes.
Base: Proximal end
Shaft: middle
Head: Distal end
Each toe has three phalanges: distal, middle, and
proximal. The big toe has no middle phalanx