Psychology 461/561 Exam 1 :: Study Guide Foundations of Learning

Psychology 461/561
Exam 1 :: Study Guide
Foundations of Learning & Memory
Module I. The Nature of Learning & Memory
• Genotype/Phenotype
• Ratman (Bugelski & Alampay, 1961)
• Duck-Rabbit (Jastrow, 1899)
• Plato’s aviary metaphor
• Aristotle [memory vs. reminiscence]
o Episodic-like memory in non-humans (Crystal, 2010)?
• Maine de Biran
o Habits vs. [Representative, Mechanical, & Sensitive] Memory
• William James
o Reflex arcs & Habit
o Memory, links, strengthening, & primary vs. secondary memory
• Hermann Ebinghaus
o Empirical rigor, data analysis, savings in relearning
• Ivan Pavlov: Psychic secretion, Classical Conditioning
• E.L. Thorndike: Instrumental Learning, Law of Effect
• John Watson: S-R, Behaviorism, maze running w/o senses
• Edward Tolman: “cognitive maps in rats and men”
• Place vs. Response Learning
o Behaviorist vs. Cognitive predictions
o Variables (time and brain anatomy) affecting type of learning/behavior
• Experimental vs. Correlational research
• Neuroscience approach
• Animal research
• Case studies (e.g., H.M., Clive Wearing, and Jimmie G.)
Module II. Neural Bases of Learning & Memory
• Cells, neurons, circuits, systems, & assemblies
• Reticular theory of brain circuitry
• Santiago Ramón y Cajal
o Black reaction, neuron doctrine, cross-species comparisons
o Types of neurons: primary, motor, sensory, interneuron
• Synaptic vs. Action Potentials
• Synapse, Synaptic Cleft, and Neurotransmitters
• Molecular Basis Neural Communication
o Resting potential, ion exchange, pumps, vesicles, recycling
o Inhibitory vs. Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials
• Otto Lowei’s frogs
• Illicit drugs and synapses
• Charles Sherrington: reflex arcs, reciprocal innervation
• Karl Lashley: S-R, mass action, equipotentiality
Donald O. Hebb: cell assemblies, LTP
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
o Defining characteristics and molecular basis of (e.g., the role of Ca++)
o Hippocampus, NMDA agonists and antagonists
Gall: localization of function, organology, phrenology
S.I. Franz: new phrenology
Organization of the CNS [major divisions and functions]
o Hindbrain: cerebellum, pons, medulla, etc.
o Midbrain: tectum tegmentum, substantia nigra, etc.
o Forebrain: thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, cerebral cortex
o Contralateral specialization
o Distinctions among functions
o Different organizational systems (e.g., topographic)
Functional Systems of the Brain
o Sensory, Motor, Emotional, and Cognitive
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