Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Summary Chart

advertisement
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Summary Chart
1 of 2
http://psychology.about.com/library/bl_psychosocial_summary.htm?p=1
Psychology
By Kendra Cherry, About.com Guide
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Summary Chart
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Erik Erikson1 described development that occurs throughout the lifespan. Learn more in this chart summarizing Erikson's stages of psychosocial
development2.
Stage
Basic Conflict
Important
Outcome
Events
Infancy (birth to
Trust vs. Mistrust Feeding
18 months)
Early Childhood (2 Autonomy vs.
to 3 years)
Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and affection. A
lack of this will lead to mistrust.
Toilet Training
Shame and Doubt
Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of
independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and
doubt.
Preschool (3 to 5
Initiative vs. Guilt Exploration
years)
Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this
stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience
disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
School Age (6 to
Industry vs.
11 years)
Inferiority
School
Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of
competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
Adolescence (12 to Identity vs. Role
Social
18 years)
Confusion
Relationships
Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to
stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Yound Adulthood
Intimacy vs.
Relationships
Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to
(19 to 40 years)
Isolation
Middle Adulthood
Generativity vs.
Work and
Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or
(40 to 65 years)
Stagnation
Parenthood
creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness
Maturity(65 to
Ego Integrity vs.
Reflection on
Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage
death)
Despair
Life
leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
More Resources:
Learn more about psychosocial theories and Erik Erikson in the following articles:
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development3
Learn more about Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development. According to Erikson,
each stage plays a major role in the development of personality and psychological skills.
Biography of Erik Erikson4
Erik Erikson's stage theory of psychosocial development contributed to our understanding
of personality development throughout the lifespan. Learn more about his life, career, and
how early experiences led to his interest in identity
Learn more about other theories of personality in the following articles:
Psychosexual Development5
Freud's stages of psychosexual development is on of the best known personality theories,
but also one of the most controversial. Learn more about the psychosexual stages of
development.
11/6/2011 3:25 PM
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Summary Chart
2 of 2
http://psychology.about.com/library/bl_psychosocial_summary.htm?p=1
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs6
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs emphasizes the importance of self-actualization and
is often pictured as a pyramid. Learn more about the five levels in Maslow's hierarchy of
needs.
Personality Psychology Study Guide7
Personality psychology seeks to understand and describe the development of personality.
This study guide offers an overview, timeline, theories, important figures, and study
questions about personality.
Did you enjoy this article? Sign up for the free Psychology Newsletter8 to get the latest psychology updates and to learn more about diverse topics
including social behavior, personality, development, memory, creativity and much more. Subscribe today9!
This About.com page has been optimized for print. To view this page in its original form, please visit: http://psychology.about.com/library/bl_psychosocial_summary.htm
©2011 About.com, Inc., a part of The New York Times Company. All rights reserved.
Links in this article:
1. http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_erikson.htm
2. http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/psychosocial.htm
3. http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/psychosocial.htm
4. http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_erikson.htm
5. http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/ss/psychosexualdev.htm
6. http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm
7. http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/personalitysg.htm
8. http://psychology.about.com/gi/pages/stay.htm
9. http://psychology.about.com/gi/pages/stay.htm
11/6/2011 3:25 PM
Download