# Special Angles and the CAST RULE

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Special Angles and the CAST RULE
Many real&shy;world applications of trigonometry deal with angle measurements of 30, 45, and 60 degrees in a right triangle. ie) Construction.
Because we see these angles so much it is worth memorizing their EXACT trigonometric
values!
Special Triangles:
To help learn these values, try memorizing the following special triangles!
60
45
2
1
1
45
30
1
Example: Using the special triangles provide EXACT answers for the following.
θ
0
30
45
60
90
sinθ
cosθ
tanθ
Related Angles:
y
Terminal Arm
Rotational Angle θ
Related/Reference Angle
x
Rotational Angle θ &shy; The angle formed between the positive x&shy;axis, counterclockwise to the terminal arm.
Related/Reference Angle &shy; the acute angle between the teminal arm and the x&shy;axis.
Example: Sketch the following angles in standard position, and state
the corresponding RELATED angle.
o
a) 240
c) 330
o
b) 135
o
o
d) 210
CAST rule:
The CAST rule is used to determine the &quot;sign&quot; of a trigonometric ratio,
depending on the location of the terminal arm. Each letter determines
the POSITIVE ratio.
y
S
A
(sine) (all) x
C
T
Evaluating Trig Ratios using RELATED angles and the CAST rule:
Since Trigonometric Functions are PERIODIC, the same trig ratios, repeat at regular intervals!!!
Because of this we can use RELATED angles to evaluate trigonometric ratios
larger than 90 degrees.
Steps:
Example:
Find the exact value of sin210o
1.) Rewrite the trig ratio using the RELATED angle.
2.) Using the special triangles,
state the EXACT value.
1.) sin210o = sin30o
2.) sin 30o = 1 2
3.) Since 210o is in Quadrant III, 3.) Use the CAST rule to determine the sign.
(sine is Negative)
o
∴ sin210 = &shy; 1 2
Example: Find the EXACT Value of each trigonometric function.
a) cos300o
b) tan120o
c) sin330o
d) tan225o
Homework: Worksheet
and p. 2 &shy; 3 # 4 &shy; 6, 8 &shy; 12
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