Scientific Method Uses observations and experiementation to explain theories of the universe Natural Laws Laws that govern human behavior Enlightened Despot A monarch who retains absolute power and used his power to enact reform based on Enlightenment ideas Scientific Revolution A period of history in which scientists questioned traditional beliefs about the workings of the universe. Enlightenment A movement in the late 18th century that stressed the importance of reason and science in philosophy and the study of human society. Nicolaus Copernicus Believed in Solar System with sun at center. Showed proof by using math to explain orbits of the planets around the sun. Galileo Galilei Improved telescope and used it to support Heliocentric Theory. Condemed by church - forced recantation Isaac Newton Proved existence of force that kept planets on orbit Named the force gravity Rene' Descartes Formed scientific method Believed that reason instead of tradition be used to discover truths Emphasized the power of human reason John Locke Believed all people posses natural rights Rights include life, liberty and property (Judicial Rights as well) People form governments to protect their rights Baron de Montesquieu Voltaire Governments have responsibility to protect its citizens Power should be shared between branches….Checks and Balances Believed in free speech Criticized the French government and Catholic Church Jean-Jacques Rousseau Believed that people are naturally good, but corrupted by evil's of society In perfect society people both make and obey laws Thomas Hobbes Believed that without strong government people would be at war all of the time. Believed that what a person grows up to be is predetermined when they are born Maria Theresa Improved tax system to ease burden on poor Made primary education available to children in her kingdom Jopseph II Chose officials based on talents instead of their status Practiced religious tolerance Abolished serfdom Ended censorship Catherine the Great Took advice from townspeople on running government Built schools and hospitals Promoted education for women Extended religious tolerance Divine Right Belief that God gives a person the right to rule the people in that country, going against the King or Queen would be going against God Salon A place where philosophers would gather to discuss ideas and teach people about new ideas and theories Deism Belief in an all powerful God that created the universe the same way a watchmaker creates a watch. Philosophers believed it was their job to discover the truths about the universe Geocentric Theory Earth at the center of the universe Heliocentric Theory Theory of the universe that states the sun is the center and the earth revolves around it.