A Path to Good Corrections - Northern Territory Government

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A Review of the Northern Territory Correctional Services –
adult custodial operations
“A Path to Good Corrections”
March 2004
11 Marielle Court, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2P 8P3 Telephone: (613) 820-8763 Fax: (613) 820-0091 E-Mail: caya@travel-net.com
Review
of
Adult Custodial Services in the Northern Territory
A Path to Good Corrections
Executive Summary
The Northern Territory Correctional Service faces a remarkable opportunity.
Its mission is to contribute to the overall government approach of building safer
communities through providing safe, secure, humane custody, while reducing crime
through effective programs and reintegrating offenders into the community on their
release.
Stakeholders at all levels recognise that change is needed to meet this mandate. This
Review was put in place to provide advice on how to best make the transition.
The Review Team met with over 300 people representing all stakeholders, including
Department of Justice, corrections management, the Senior Prison Officers’ Association,
the Prison Officers’ Association, staff, inmates, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Commission, community members, churches, other government departments, and nongovernment agencies.
A clear and consistent pattern has emerged.
First, the mission and strategic plan of the Department of Justice and the Correctional
Service are appropriate, are consistent with best practice internationally, and are
supported by a wide range of stakeholders, within corrections, across the public service,
and in community organisations. A strong coalition is building for change in corrections,
in concert with the whole-of-government approach to crime reduction and healthier, safer
communities.
Second, our work was greatly facilitated by the well-thought-out terms of reference, and
the extraordinary support we received from all the stakeholders -- the open, full
participation of the Correctional Service, the Prison Officers’ Association, the Senior
Prison Officers’ Association, the Department of Justice, and numerous partners and
stakeholders, including the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission. All are
enthusiastic about contributing to an improved Service. There is clearly the will to move
forward.
Third, there was a high level of agreement across stakeholders on the issues the
organisation faces and many of the actions needed – something that is unusual to find so
early in the process.
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Fourth, having lead, participated in, and observed several similar projects internationally,
we are optimistic about the potential of the organisation to move rapidly toward its
mission and become a model of professional corrections -- indeed, to be an international
example of effective programming for indigenous offenders. We are encouraged by the
strong commitment of correctional officers and their unions to professional corrections.
We are impressed by the support being offered to corrections from across the public
service and community organisations. We are enthused by the support from community
groups and individuals.
There are dangers. The transition from good policy to good practice is never simple.
And change is not easy, even if it is to a better state. It will require the suspension of the
traditional cynicism that this Review will be “just another report that is going to gather
dust on a shelf.” It will require the ongoing support of all the stakeholders. The transition
will be complex, challenging and difficult, but is very do-able.
Action is required on several fronts, in a phased approach over the next five years. To
build a firm foundation, in the first year, it is necessary to strengthen the management
team, align the organisation with its mission, enhance offender programs, build networks
and partnerships, begin renovations and design/acquire new facilities. Funding levels
have dipped below what is necessary to maintain core functions, such as staff training. It
will be necessary to restore base funding which has eroded over the past seven years, and
add resources to support improvements. And it will require an infusion of additional
temporary resources, over the next two years, to support the change management effort.
The second year will require capital funding to implement the renovations and build/lease
new minimum security facilities. The focus will be on additional programming and
implementing the new aligned organisation.
The third year will require adjustment, as the temporary additional resources are
withdrawn, programs are evaluated and adjusted in response to their results, and new
facilities come on stream.
The fourth year will build on the foundation, and the fifth year should see the major
changes absorbed and the organisation moving steadily forward, with clear evidence of
the positive impacts of the change efforts.
This report details the improvements that can be achieved in the areas of:
• People
• Organisational alignment
• Programs
• Partnerships
• Security
• Facilities and support
• Costs
• Change management
and presents a vision of what the Service might look like in five years.
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Corrections is fundamentally about people, and to build their capacity to perform well, it
will be necessary to:
• Strengthen the management team
• Recruit key leadership positions
• Enhance the overall training function
• Restore staffing levels, and add staff needed to make the transition
• Increase the participation of indigenous people
The organisation and its systems were designed for an earlier era, and have not been
substantially adjusted to support the emerging strategy. Although most staff have
embraced the new mission, they are hampered by systems designed to fulfil another
mandate. The organisation needs to review its policy and procedures, and move to a new
model that sees programs and security integrated, with others, into a multi-disciplinary
team, with staff assigned to specific housing units and groups of inmates, rather than
rotating through all posts in the institution.
Several good programs have been implemented in the past few years. But many have
been dropped due to lack of funding. There is a tremendous need for programs that both
prepare inmates for a productive life and move them toward law-abiding behaviour. The
sentenced population in the Territory is very high need. For offenders to reintegrate
effectively, rather than return on the merry-go-round yet again, there must be a
corresponding improvement in the resources in the community. Many other agencies in
government and the community are willing to partner with Corrections to achieve this
blend.
Improvements to security operations, focused on increasing consistency and
professionalism are suggested. For corrections to be effective, both security and
programs must be well run.
To provide improved programs and security, certain renovations to the two prisons, and
the addition of minimum security capacity, is required. The cost will be significantly less
than the capital costs that were being considered for a new Remand Centre, a new Mental
Health facility, and/or a new prison. But some expenditure is inevitable.
Attention needs to be paid to increasing the amount of work available for and done by
inmates, so that they can both learn skills and contribute to reducing costs. Offenders are
sentenced to serve time, not to waste time. Offenders should be making a contribution to
the community during and after their sentences.
Finally, the organisation needs to build its skills in change management, in order to
achieve the substantial progress that is possible.
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Index
Executive Summary…p. 1
1. Process…p. 5
2. Mission…p. 6
3. People…p. 7
4. Aligning the Organisation…p. 20
5. Programs…p. 27
6. Security…p. 34
7. Partnerships…p. 35
8. Facilities and Resources…p. 38
9. Costs…p. 42
10. Change Management…p. 44
11. Vision/Conclusion…p. 46
Appendix A: Terms of Reference….p. 48
Appendix B: Leadership Development Course…p. 53
Appendix C: Living Unit Model…p. 56
Appendix D: Institutional Organisation Chart…p. 58
Appendix E: Managing Change…p. 59
Appendix F: Footnotes…p. 79
Appendix G: Recommendations…p. 80
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1. Process
The Minister of Justice, the Honourable Peter Toyne, requested a Review of the adult
custodial services in the Northern Territory. Support and encouragement for this Review,
essentially a top to bottom analysis of the Service, came from labour, management, and
the political level.
The Review was to cover, but not be limited to:
• A review of the organisation, administration, and operation of custodial services,
including opportunities for improvement, with regard to: current policy,
management, and work practices; human resource requirements; operational
culture; prisoner management, employment, education and rehabilitation, and
reparation; security approaches; legislation.
• The capacity of programs to meet Government policy and commitments.
• The allocation and sufficiency of resources.
With specific reference to:
• Staff numbers and mix, and rosters
• Organisational structure necessary to deliver on Government initiatives and
Departmental priorities
• Recruitment and retention, building a skilled, committed workforce
• Best practices
• Factors affecting corrections in the Territory, including population and geography
• Community involvement and support, particularly with regard to Aboriginal
prisoners
• Encouraging law-abiding behaviour while maintaining security and control
• Maximizing reparation
• Developing an integrated approach that provides as normal a living environment
as possible while progressing through a rehabilitation process
• The skills needed by staff, and their training, safety, development, promotion, and
remuneration
There was also a comprehensive list of issues raised by the unions and the Ministry.
The Terms of Reference are included as Appendix A.
To ensure an independent review and to benefit from international as well as national
best practice, the Ministry retained Caya International Management Consulting. Ole
Ingstrup and Paul Crookall conducted the review. Ole Ingstrup is the founding President
of the International Corrections and Prisons Association. His experience includes:
Commissioner of the Correctional Service of Canada; Chairman of the National Parole
Board, Danish representative to the Council of Europe, and Assistant Professor of Law at
Aarhus University. Dr. Ingstrup is a specialist in Indigenous issues in criminal justice,
and has been elected as honorary Chief Spotted Eagle by the Sampson Cree nation. His
doctorate is in law.
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Paul Crookall received the Governor General’s Exemplary Service Award for his
contribution to the Correctional Service of Canada. He has a doctorate in business
administration, is editor-in-chief of Canadian Government Executive magazine, has been
a forensic psychiatric hospital chief executive officer and prison superintendent. He
consults widely on strategic management. Together, Dr Ingstrup and Dr Crookall
authored a best-selling book, The Three Pillars of Public Management.
The Caya team: met with all stakeholders, over 300 people representing dozens of
organisations or interests; visited both correctional institutions; visited both urban and
remote communities; reviewed extensive documentation; and received written
submissions during December 2003 and January 2004. The team was very ably assisted
by Justine Mickle of the Department of Justice, who served as liaison officer and
researcher.
This report A Path to Good Corrections, presents a model that is consistent with the
Northern Territory Correctional Service’s mission. It is based on stakeholder suggestions
on how to better achieve that mission, supplemented by experience from international
best practice.
The model is grouped by area: mission, people; organisational alignment; programs;
security; partnerships; facilities; costs; and change management. The conclusion
describes how the project could be implemented by phases, and discusses the associated
costs and benefits.
2. Mission
The mission of the Northern Territory Department of Justice, with reference to
Correctional Services, is:
In partnership with the community, to deliver coordinated justice services that
provide a safe, secure and humane correctional system.
To provide for the safe care and custody of prisoners and detainees and support
strategies that contribute to a reduction in their likelihood of re-offending on
release…to ensure that a range of rehabilitation and reparation programs are
available to prisoners…which encourage them becoming socially responsible
members in the community.
The mission is fully consistent with, and contributes to, the Government’s objective to
build a better Territory, in part through building safer communities. It is also consistent
with the mission statements of leading international jurisdictions, which have achieved
safer communities through pursuit of similar missions – ones that stress reintegrating
offenders as law-abiding citizens, while ensuring safe, secure, humane custody.
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The mission and strategy respects the need for both security and programs. Without a
secure environment, the public is not protected, and programs cannot be run effectively.
Effective programs contribute to good security within the prison, and safer communities
when offenders are released. Without effective programs, even the best security does not
protect the public once the offender is released, as 95% or more are.
Both programs and security are best achieved in an environment that is professional and
respectful.
This is a change from the traditional focus on deterrence and punishment, which research
and experience has shown to be less effective. There was a consistent view among the
managers, officers, and outside agencies we spoke with that about 70% of Northern
Territory Correctional Services staff supported the mission, while 30% supported the old
model. The inmates we spoke with saw the same split, between those who treated them
humanely, and those who treated them with less respect and dignity than would be
appropriate under the mission.
That ratio is very favourable to moving forward to more effective implementation of the
mission, and the majority of our comments are directed towards that movement. The
principle impediment to moving towards the mission is that organisational systems and
behaviours have not been adjusted from the old model to the new. As well, the 30% tend
to be more outspoken than the majority, so appear to be greater in number.
1. We recommend that the Northern Territory Correctional Service (NTCS)
maintain its Mission and Strategic Direction.
The bulk of our report therefore focuses on aligning the organisation with its mission, to
create the conditions under which the 70% can move from their current frustration, to
thriving in a new environment.
2. We recommend that the NTCS align its organisation with the Mission, providing
the necessary support to achieve it.
3. People
Corrections is, at heart, more about people than about fences.
In our review we met many good people, committed to doing a good job, eager to get
better.
The Department of Justice, the Northern Territory Correctional Services, the Senior
Prison Officers’ Association, the Prison Officers’ Association, the Australian Liquor,
Hospitality and Miscellaneous Workers Union, and other stakeholders recognise that
change in the Northern Territory Correctional Services is now required to meet the future
needs of the service.
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To prepare the staff and management to better implement these changes, attention to
training, development, and personnel – the people factor -- is a pre-requisite. It will be
necessary to: strengthen the management team; build the training and development
capacity; recruit and retain staff; achieve and maintain full staffing levels; and manage
overtime and attendance – in sum, to invest in the future by investing in people.
3.1 Strengthen the Management Team
Several actions can be taken to strengthen the management team. These include
recruiting a new Director, shortening the chain of command, adding a management focus
on indigenous issues, benefiting from international experience and communities of
practice, enhancing the role of the Superintendents, building team and change
management skills, and providing executive coaching to the top management team.
3.1.1 DIRECTOR (COMMISSIONER)
At this time, the department needs a strong, experienced leader, accomplished in change
management. The recent move of the Service from an independent agency to a member
of the Department of Justice is beneficial, in terms of better integrating the Service with
the whole of government. This means the head of the Service will be reclassified from a
Commissioner level to a Director level. Leading the Service through the transition,
however, requires a skill and experience level more likely to be found at the higher
classification level. To make the transition, a four year contract would be appropriate, at
the Executive Contract Officer Level 4, reporting to the CEO of Justice.
The type of person needed to lead the transition is different from the type of person
needed to lead the organisation in the long term. It is expected the new Director would
not seek renewal of the contract, and the position would then be reclassified to its new
permanent level. One of the duties of the Director over the next four years would be to
develop the management team to the point where two or more internal candidates would
be ready for succession at the end of the four year term. The executive search for the
Commissioner should be international, and filling this position promptly should be a
priority.
3. We recommend the Department recruit a new Director, with leadership and
change management skills and experience, as soon as possible to fill the current
vacancy.
The previous Commissioner had all other functions reporting through two Deputy
Commissioners. The new Director should have as direct reports the Superintendents of
the two prisons and the heads of community and juvenile corrections. There is no need in
a system this size for an extra layer of bureaucracy between the field and the
Commissioner. This will free the Deputy Directors (formerly Deputy Commissioners), as
functional specialists, to develop programs and support service delivery.
The
Superintendents and Deputy Directors will work as peers, as a team.
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4. We recommend the Superintendents report directly to the Director. (The Service
might also want to consider making the heads of community corrections and juvenile
corrections direct reports as well).
3.1.2 DEPUTY DIRECTOR, INDIGENOUS AFFAIRS AND PROGRAMS
Many of the key issues the Service faces deal with indigenous people:
• recruiting and retaining indigenous staff (80% of inmates are indigenous, 10% of
staff are indigenous)
• managing indigenous programs requires extensive liaison with other
organisations, including the Commonwealth Government, Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander Commission, Batchelor College, …
• programs for indigenous people need to be developed, funded, supported, and
evaluated
Because these issues are so pervasive, there should be a position responsible for focusing
on these issues. This position should also be responsible for the rest of the program
envelope.
This position would best be filled by an indigenous person, preferably a Territorian, with
a strong background in one or more of the components of the job – education, health care,
psychology, programs, and community development.
5. We recommend the Service create a new position of Deputy Director Indigenous
Affairs and Programs, to be responsible for inmate programming, Indigenous staff
recruitment and retention, Indigenous programming, and liaison with Indigenous
organisations and other government departments responsible for Indigenous issues.
6. We recommend the position of Deputy Director Indigenous Affairs and Programs
position be staffed with an Indigenous Territorian experienced in one or more of the
components of the portfolio – corrections, education, reintegrative programs,
Indigenous affairs, psychology, or community development.
3.1.3 DEPUTY DIRECTOR OPERATIONS
This position would be responsible for security and operational issues, and would work
closely with the Deputy Director Indigenous Affairs and Programs. Given that: many of
the functions have been centralized within the Department of Justice, including Human
Resources and Information Technology; and that the reporting relationships will be
realigned, making these functional rather than line positions, the two current Deputy
Commissioner positions should be reviewed and new statements of qualifications
prepared.
7. We recommend the two current Deputy Commissioner positions be reviewed and
new statements of qualifications and duties be prepared that integrate the two
Deputy Commissioner roles into the two Deputy Director roles.
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3.1.4 SUPERINTENDENTS
The two Superintendents are not now responsible nor accountable for the programs
section in their institutions, which report directly to head office.
8. We recommend that program staff report to the Superintendents and that the
Superintendents be held accountable for program delivery and its impact.
3.1.5 STAFF EXCHANGES/COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE
The Northern Territory Correctional Services is geographically isolated and has not
benefited to the full extent possible from developments across Australia and
internationally.
The network with other professional corrections systems and
organisations is not fully developed. Ways to enhance this would be:
• Explore staff exchanges, at both the staff and management levels, with leading
corrections departments in other jurisdictions – loaning NTCS staff to them,
hosting others in return. These exchanges could be from a period of weeks to a
year or more. One member of the senior management team, and some staff, have
already expressed an interest. The Territory would, we expect, be seen as an
attractive place for a year or two assignments, and be able to draw national and
international expertise.
• Participate more fully in national and international correctional organisations, and
communities of practice.
• Invite visiting managers, academics, and program specialists to share their
expertise on visits and through staff training.
9. We recommend expanded interaction with other correctional services,
organisations, and experts, including staff exchanges.
3.1.6 EXECUTIVE COACHING/ DEVELOPMENT PLANS
Each member of the senior management team should have a personal professional
development plan, prepared in consultation with the Director of Corrections, the head of
personnel for the Department, and the Office of the Commissioner of Public
Employment. That plan would include training needed, developmental assignments, and
use of an executive coach. The senior management team is the Director, the two Deputy
Directors, the two Superintendents, and the four Deputy Superintendents (six in the
proposed model).
3.1.7 EXECUTIVE TRAINING
Corrections is often seen as a special organisation with unique needs. The NTCS has
traditionally sent its managers to a course in Applied Management (Graduate Certificate,
New South Wales Police). But corrections managers are also a part of the public service,
and need to know how government works, and be able to relate to Treasury, the public,
other departments. They need the full skill set of any senior public servant plus the skills
of a corrections manager.
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10. We recommend that each member of the senior management team have an
individual development plan that includes participation in the Territory course for
executives.
3.1.7 TEAM AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT SKILLS
For the management team to effectively work together to implement the direction
established by their mission and by Cabinet, change management and teamwork skills
need to be developed. Traditionally, correctional agencies are very conservative, and
slow to change. We were told repeatedly, and agree, that more rapid change is needed in
the NTCS at present. To prepare for this the whole management needs to be involved in
a three week course, based on Territory OCPE training, adjusted to their circumstances.
This would include the senior management team, all Chief and Senior Prison Officers,
prison officer union representatives, programs managers, and head office managers – a
total of about 60 people.
In addition to building teamwork, enhancing skills, and getting groups together to
develop solutions to problems, the 60 or so people trained will become the “change
communicators”, each responsible for communicating on the change project with 8 to 10
other staff – sharing developments, listening and feeding their groups comments back up
the line.
11. We recommend a teamwork and change management course be designed and
delivered (see Appendix B for details).
3.2 Training
Training of one week per year, at a minimum, is needed for officers performing standard
security functions, and more for those with Integrated Offender Management System
duties, or in professional or managerial roles. Because of staff shortages, this standard
has not been met, and the majority of staff are no longer certified in key functions such as
Cardiac-Pulmonary Resuscitation, weapons, use of breathing apparatus, and have not had
refresher or practice in use of force, crisis response, and other key tasks.
The legal liabilities associated with not keeping up to date are significant, should
something go wrong and staff not be qualified to properly respond. It is a concern to
staff, and affects both their ability to do the job and their enjoyment of it. It is a reflection
of professionalism to have staff well trained and prepared.
Restoring staffing to previously established levels will provide the numbers needed for
ongoing training, but a special blitz is needed to correct the deficit that has developed.
We suggest that each institution be given an additional ten staff on a temporary basis.
These staff would not be assigned to posts, but would step in, for a week at a time, to
relieve an officer, and that officer would report to the day shift, Monday to Friday, to
complete and update their training and certifications.
The one week a year covers basic security functions. There is need for training in case
management (Integrated Offender Management), interpersonal skills, conflict resolution,
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understanding effective correctional programming. Once the basic security training
deficit is corrected, the relief squad would be available to cover staff in the same manner,
as they take case management training that will enhance their overall effectiveness in
contributing to offenders reintegrating successfully to their communities, moving to
Living Unit Management, and strengthening Integrated Offender Management. These
temporary resources could be withdrawn in 18 to 24 months, once the training push is
completed.
12. We recommend that correctional officers be given a minimum of five days per
year training.
13. We recommend that ten additional correctional staff be assigned to each of
Darwin CC and Alice Springs CC for up to two years to support training.
3.3 Supervision
Prison Officers and Prison Officers First Class do not have a supervisor, do not have
performance objectives set, do not receive performance appraisals, and receive little
feedback (positive or negative) from Senior Prison Officers and Chief Prison Officers.
They want, and need, to know what has happened to incident reports they submit, they
want and need to know how effectively they are contributing to the organisation’s
mission.
Senior Prison Officers and Chief Prison Officers do not have performance appraisals.
Their objectives are set verbally by the Superintendent or Deputy Superintendent.
Effective immediately, even prior to conversion to the new organisational model, each
Prison Officer and Prison Officer First Class needs to be assigned a specific Senior or
Chief Prison Officer who will be responsible to provide direction, provide feedback,
determine training and development needs. The training needs will be reported to staff
training, who will cumulatively role them up and develop a training plan. Officers can
then be taken out of the rotation for a week to receive the training specific to them
scheduled for that week. At present, rosters are not coordinated with training delivery.
The Department of Justice Human Resources Branch had planned to introduce an
appraisal process this calendar year. It should be fast-tracked to be implemented as soon
as possible.
14. We recommend each prison officer, prison officer first class, senior prison
officer, and chief prison officer be assigned a specific supervisor who will: meet
regularly with the individual, determine and record training and development needs
and pass that information on to staff training, set mutually agreed specific
measurable objectives (tied to the NTCS mission and the institution’s objectives) in
writing for the next year, meet periodically to discuss achievement of the objectives,
and complete a performance appraisal at the end of the year.
15. We recommend that all non-security staff similarly have appraisals and
performance reviews.
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3.4 Rotation
The concept of rotating staff was developed when correctional tasks were less complex,
and the learning curve was a matter of hours, not days or weeks. It was also set up to
address the issue of staff becoming too familiar with offenders. In the days when officers
and inmates often came from the same communities, the rotation kept the potential for
favouritism and influence to a minimum. Now, however, good corrections involves staff
getting to know inmates well, which requires ongoing contact between the same officers
and inmates. As well, many of the jobs have developed as specialties (for example
reception, training, industries) that take considerable time to learn.
Many officers were concerned that they did not have the time to get to know the inmates
well. Many senior officers were concerned that just as they got to the peak of the
learning curve in their position, they would be transferred to another role. In addition to
the reduced performance and reduced job satisfaction, this rotation reduces the
commitment to long term planning.
The organisational model we propose (and which has been endorsed by all stakeholders
we consulted on it) replaces that rotation with assignment to specific units and roles. To
help prepare for this transition, and to support the supervision needs listed above, rotation
should be stopped for Senior Prison Officers and Chief Prison Officers, and they should
be assigned to positions negotiated as a team.
This does not mean that a person stays in the same job for his/her whole career, by any
means. When rotation is needed to improve the job-person fit, or for developmental
reasons, or because of changing interests and needs, then new position assignments are
appropriate. What needs to be stopped is rotation for rotation’s sake.
16. We recommend that the rotation of Chief and Senior Prison Officers and the
regular reassignment of these positions stop immediately. Specific reassignments
can continue to be made as needed.
17. We recommend the rotation of prison officers be reduced as much as possible,
pending development of a new roster in support of the Living Unit/Unit
Management program.
3.5 Orientation Training
Orientation training for correctional officers is five weeks in class and six weeks on the
job. More extensive training used to be given. Both unions and staff training agreed the
training should be restored. It is incredibly difficult to learn the complex field of
corrections in five weeks of classwork. Insufficient initial training often leads to
diminished job performance and early departure.
18. We recommend that correctional officer training be expanded.
19. We recommend that non-security staff should receive at least a week of
orientation training to the prison environment and their security responsibilities
(and basic self defence, should they choose it).
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3.6 Recruiting Correctional Officers
All new correctional officers should be recruited with the following in mind: their
commitment to the mission, their ability and interest in Integrated Offender Management
Systems and Living Units, their commitment and ability to good security.
Recruiting now takes place after vacancies occur, resulting in empty positions in the
roster which are associated with overtime, reduced programs, increased lock-downs, and
poor morale. The turnover rate is known, and vacancies can be expected and predicted.
Staff training already has a plan to pre-recruit, and to reduce the length of time between
job advertisement and date of hire -- they simply need the resources and approval to do
so. Over the past several years the choice has been made to leave some correctional
officer positions vacant, and use the salary dollars saved for operating expenses. This
strategy has negative long-term consequences.
Applicants have been assessed for psychological suitability for several years now by a
test developed by a Territory psychologist. This test should be validated – that is, look at
applicants who scored high and the test, and see if they became good officers. Look at
low scorers – and look at those rejected, to see if they went on to successful careers in
law enforcement or the helping professions. If the test is validated, the users will have
more confidence in it. If it is not validated, it should be adjusted or replaced with a
validated test.
Screening occurs as a paper exercise at head office, local prison management is involved
only at the interview stage.
Alice Springs has special recruitment needs, with the limited labour pool and highly
transient population. Special measures are needed to attract and retain staff. At the same
time, it must be recognized that a higher level of turnover than usual is inevitable, and
measures put in place to cope with it.
Several suggestions were made by the people we interviewed. We did not evaluate these
proposals, and recognize that whatever is done may have implications for collective
agreements and other government departments. Rather than recommending specific
actions, we suggest the Department establish a group to prepare proposals. That group
would include HR specialists and Alice Springs management and staff.
20. We recommend that the current psychological testing for recruits be assessed for
its validity, reliability, and cost effectiveness.
21. We recommend that there be a steady intake of correctional recruits, that
qualified candidates be placed on a waiting list, and that trained be provided and
appointments made in anticipation of vacancies, rather than in response to them.
We recommend rosters be kept at full strength.
22. We recommend that correctional centre managers be involved in screening as
well as selecting recruits.
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3.7 Exit Interviews
Although turnover rates are a concern, there appears to be no formal method of
determining why people leave.
Several former staff of the Correctional Service asked to be interviewed by this Review.
They made useful contributions. Some of them indicated they would be interested in
returning, to help contribute to implementing the decisions of Cabinet on the Service.
23. We recommend that exit interviews be conducted with staff who have left in the
past year, and those who leave in the future, to determine causes for separation, and
suggest solutions for retention of good staff.
3.8 Indigenous Recruitment
Indigenous recruitment is especially important in corrections, because 80% of the inmates
are indigenous. Approximately ten per cent of Service staff are indigenous, and this
seems to be fairly constant across occupational groups – security, programs, and
administration. This will be a key area of focus for the new Deputy Director, Indigenous
Affairs.
Indigenous recruitment is also a concern for government and society in general.
Corrections could be taking advantage of government-wide initiatives. In November
2002, the Office for the Commissioner of Public Employment launched the Indigenous
Employment and Career Development Strategy 2002-2006. Agencies are expected to
make long term action plans to advance Indigenous employment outcomes. The action
plan details what could be addressed within the Correctional Services including:
•
Establish and maintain a comprehensive range of entry level programs targeted
specifically at Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people including:
Apprenticeship programs.
STEP programs.
Cadetships.
Scholarships.
• Market the Northern Territory Public Sector as an employer of choice for
Indigenous youth.
• Create a pool of potential Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander applicants for
vacancies in the Northern Territory Public Sector
• Improve coordination and communication in the Northern Territory Public Sector
in relation to Indigenous employment opportunities.
• Increase the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people progressing
through middle and senior levels within the Northern Territory Public Sector
through professional development.
• Establish relevant career pathways that facilitate the advancement of Indigenous
employees into policy development and decision making roles.
• Increase retention rates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander employees
through fostering appropriate peer support mechanisms.
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•
•
•
Establish effective mechanisms to monitor and evaluate the success of the strategy
in improving employment and career development outcomes for Indigenous
people.
Incorporate Indigenous employment outcomes in Equal Opportunity Management
Plans (EOMP).
Promote understanding by Indigenous employees of procedures and processes
within a bureaucracy framework.
In addition, we would suggest:
• given that many traditional indigenous people have a criminal conviction that
currently is considered a bar against hiring, that the Director or Deputy Director
be given authority to screen in applicants with a criminal record, if that record is
not a threat to security, for example if it is for minor offences, and pro-social law
abiding behaviour has been established for a period of time.
• that hiring and placement into institutions be in groups, rather than one at a time,
and support be given over the first few years to help the employees adjust to
institutional life
• seek out applicants, and offer “bridging” programs and training/apprenticeships to
bring them up to the levels necessary to compete for the jobs and complete
induction training
• create a more supportive environment, “our role is to be their mentors, not their
tormentors” a senior politician told us.
The strategy should include how these employees will progress to management positions
in the Northern Territory Correctional Services and how they will seed the rest of the
public service.
24. We recommend that the action plan to advance Indigenous employment be made
a management priority and the special measures outlined above be taken in support.
3.9 Overtime and sick leave
The high levels of sick leave being taken by correctional officers, and the high levels of
overtime are a major preoccupation of management. The general management view is
that sick leave is a voluntary choice, which employees control. In fact, absenteeism is a
much more complex phenomenon.
The Australasian Faculty of Occupational Medicine has reviewed the literature and
considered absenteeism in the Australian context. Their report states:
“…The common responses to absenteeism are to tighten up certification requirements,
restrict access to sick leave, discipline offenders or censure doctors issuing the
certificates. These approaches neglect to focus on the opportunity to explore structural
and policy factors, which contribute to absenteeism. Ignoring the situation, whereby it
may be the culture of the organisation that is a strong determinant of absence behaviour,
may reduce the opportunity for effective intervention based upon effective policies and
communication, development of supervisory skills and procedures. Many absenteeism
strategies ignore the impact of illness and disease on the workplace …To be effective
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strategies will need to focus on areas of common concern to workers, management and
unions, and will require the cooperation of these parties.”
Individual, societal and organisational/workplace factors are relevant. Of the latter, the
nature of the work, job person fit, work organisation, organisational climate, job
satisfaction, work stress, size and type of workplace, absence culture, work hours and the
organisations policy all affect absenteeism. Increased working hours, inflexible hours and
overtime correlates to increased absenteeism. Shift work has an inconsistent relationship
with absenteeism, but is associated with adverse effects on health. Absenteeism is
strongly linked with an intention to leave.
“It is recommended that the work force be involved in addressing the factors causing the
absence problem. Based on research, the following elements are found to be key to acting
on absenteeism:
• Work place attendance policy
• Sick leave system that promotes attendance
• Absence monitoring system
• Employee health and well-being enhancement
• Supervisory and management training in Absence management
• Adoption of workplace management practices that promote attendance.”
(The Australasian Faculty of Occupational Medicine, Workplace Attendance and
Absenteeism, December 1999. http://www.racp.edu.au/afom/absenteeism.pdf).
To place the sick leave usage of Northern Territory Correctional Services staff in context,
we researched sick leave usage in other jurisdictions. Generally speaking, sick leave use
is high among correctional officers. It is 15 days per year at Darwin and 12 days per year
at Alice Springs. In other correctional systems through Australia and internationally, the
range is 8 to 14 days per year. Within the Territory, the average public servant takes 4.2
days, while Police, Fire and Emergency Services take 10 days.
In addition to the generic factors described above, the specific factors contributing to high
overtime in the Northern Territory Correctional Services appear to be: there are not
enough spares in the roster to look after the levels of absence for leave; the number of
escorts is increasing without a corresponding increase in staff; the conditions of
employment; and the use of sick leave.
The previously recommended action of restoring the staffing levels to those that have
already been approved, and, rather than waiting until there are ten to twenty vacancies,
having a pool available to draw on, will help in this area as well.
It is standard industrial practice to provide a bonus to staff who work weekend shifts,
evenings, or midnights. Several years ago, in the Northern Territory Correctional
Services, this was rolled into a 34% bonus paid to all officers. However, some work very
little shift work, some are even straight Monday to Friday days, yet they still receive the
34%. This creates a sense of inequity, for those who still work shifts but don’t get paid
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any more in comparison. The DET (collective agreement) calls for shift workers to get
one Sunday off a fortnight, which is generally interpreted as two weekends a month. At
Darwin, many officers are working three weekends a month, and it interferes with their
family life.
25. We recommend the organisation review the appropriateness of the flat award,
and consider restoring shift and weekend bonuses (sometimes referred to as penalty
pay). They should also review the roster for improvements to allow more weekends
off.
And they should negotiate with their partners in the criminal justice system, including the
courts, the judges/magistrates, and the police, to understand, predict, and control the
impact of decisions made elsewhere in the criminal justice system on the correctional
workload. This is discussed at more length in the section on partnerships.
Management has tried to reduce overtime in three main ways:
(1) Restricting inmate movement. It is normal correctional practice to have inmates able
to be out of their cells, and participating in recreation, social, or learning activities, for
up to 16 hours a day. And it is a stated objective of Northern Territory Correctional
Services to increase the out-of-cell time. However, when more than a specific
number of overtime shifts have been authorized, rather than calling in further
overtime, it is often the response to lock all the inmates in their cells or dorms -- a
process that requires less officers than normal routine. While this saves on overtime,
there is a cost. First, it reduces access to programs, and thereby increases the
potential for recidivism. Second, it is frustrating to inmates, raises the levels of anger
and makes positive staff-inmate interactions less likely. Third, it has a negative effect
on staff morale. Staff see inmates as deserving of more time out of lockup, and staff
find more job satisfaction in interacting with inmates than in seeing them locked up
17 hours a day. Fourth, it is not consistent with the Standard Guidelines for
corrections in Australia.
(2) Exhorting staff to use less sick leave, advising them of the negative impact on the
inmates and their colleagues. This does not appear to have an effect.
(3) Granting overtime, above and beyond that allotted. This results in budget over-runs.
Sick leave is a complex phenomenon. One of Australia’s leading authorities on the
matter, Dr Peter Sharman, states that absenteeism and attendance levels are an important
measure of the overall health of an organization. He emphasises the identification and
management of causal factors, rather than helping employees to alter their reactions.1
Previous research shows that sick leave can be reduced by addressing the many factors
that contribute to it. Such as creating a work environment that is more worker-friendly,
deals with issues of concern to employees, and provides greater job satisfaction.
The problem needs to be addressed with a multi-phased approach.
First, the temporary infusion of extra resources under Recommendation 13 will reduce
overtime and give staff a break from working high levels of overtime. Correctional
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Officer is a difficult and stressful job. With rosters running short, taking a sick leave
does not mean an officer works less time, as they often end up working an overtime shift
later, to replace a colleague who is sick.
Second, to understand the causes of the high levels of sick leave, a joint managementHR-union task force should be established to examine the causes and solutions. Third, a
plan to reduce those causes should be developed and implemented.
26. We recommend that rosters be adjusted to ensure they meet the requirements of
the collective agreement.
27. We recommend that a joint union-management task force be established to
examine the causes and solutions for high sick leave usage.
3.10 Correctional Officer Staffing Levels
Previous studies have determined resource levels, which, although Treasury approved,
have not been maintained. For example, Darwin was approved for 170 officers but had
only 148 available at the time of the Review. Alice Springs had 150 approved, but only
133 available. Those not available included vacant positions and long-term sick or
disability leave.
•
•
Correctional officer staffing should be kept at the determined level. This will
require pre-staffing, having people ready to move in as a position becomes vacant.
Currently they wait until there about ten vacancies, a group of ten is hired and
trained to fill the vacancies, but by the time the process is complete, there are
more vacancies, so the roster is never filled.
On average four or five officers are on long-term disability or sick leave or light
duties, and not available for the roster. They should be taken off the roster and
replaced, until they are ready to resume their duties. Human Resources should
consider ways to redeploy or absorb the costs, so that the institution does not have
to cover these positions through overtime, or reduced training.
28. We recommend rosters be maintained at their authorized levels, of 150 at Alice
Springs CC and 170 at Darwin CC.
29. We recommend that officers not available for correctional officer duties, on a
long-term basis, be replaced on the roster.
3.11 Human Resources
The above initiatives will require additional attention from Human Resources, which
have been centralised to the Department of Justice Diverting current Human Resources
staff from other duties would have a negative impact on the rest of the department, yet the
Correctional Service has significant short-term needs to manage the HR aspects of the
transition.
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30. We recommend the Department of Justice to assign a senior HR specialist to this
project for the next two years.
3.12 Investing for the Future
Taken together, these actions will provide a foundation for future growth and
development of staff to their potential – investing in the future by investing in people.
4. Aligning the Organisation with the Mission and Strategy
The Northern Territory Correctional Service has an organisational structure and work
routines inherited from a previous era – before there was evidence of the effectiveness of
correctional programs, and when the sole task was to maintain prisoners in a secure
environment. The structure was also designed prior to advances in management thought
and skills.
Efforts have been made to improve the organisation. But the improvements that have
been made have been “grafted” on to the organisation. For example, the programs branch
has been set up at head office, but is not integrated into the management structure in the
institutions, where the service is delivered. What is needed, rather than “grafting” the
proposals of this Review on to the organisation, is to go back to the roots, to design an
organisation that is aligned with and supportive of what is known to be best practice in
corrections, and benefits from best practice in government as well.
The key features of that alignment are:
1. a top to bottom internal review of policy and procedures, to ensure consistency
with the Australian Guidelines and to ensure they are consistent with and support
the mission and strategy
2. organising head office, including introduction of a new Deputy Commissioner
position to focus on Indigenous issues, and having Superintendents report directly
to the Commissioner
3. creating multi-disciplinary teams at the institutions, where security, programs,
case management, health care, work, industries, and community reparation – all
the functions -- are integrated.
One of the most important changes, which was supported by all parties, was to expand
the role of correctional officers to include more inmate contact, get to know and follow
specific cases and become involved in their case management plans. But the structure
prevents this – officers are rotated through posts to different housing areas, they are
pulled off case management duties to do escorts, they have no supervision, and no
performance appraisals.
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4.1 Living Units
We described earlier how the rotation of staff needed to be minimized, and how the
current organisation was designed for a different time, with different needs, to promote
strictly custodial operations and to minimize staff-inmate interaction. This section
describes how to go beyond that model. Given the current and future strategy of
increased programming, increased work and training, and increased interaction between
staff and inmates, the organisational model needs to be realigned.
Principles behind the Living Units Model
• Social learning is important. Inmates learn values and pro-social behaviour from
interacting with staff
•
Staff select whether their preference is to be in an interactive post, or a more static
security post
•
Managers are assigned to particular housing areas or roles, rather than rotating
through them all. This gives greater knowledge of that area, of their team, and
gives ownership
•
Program staff report to the superintendent, rather than Head Office, and the
Superintendent is held accountable for their performance
•
Case management staff are assigned to housing units, getting to know their cases
and the correctional officers better. They share their case management expertise
with a small group of correctional officers
•
Correctional Officers (Interactive) are assigned to a housing unit, get to know
their supervisor, case manager, caseload (of about 5), and team members.
•
Correctional Officers (Interactive) are trained in security and case work and
interpersonal skills. Correctional Officers (Security) are trained in security.
•
All correctional officers report to a supervisor, who sets performance objectives,
measures their achievement, assesses training and development needs and ensures
they are met, and completes a performance appraisal.
Correctional Officers (Interactive) work days and evenings, responsible for:
• Security in their housing unit
•
Security in the visits, recreation, programs and work areas
•
Integrated Offender Management Systems duties for a small caseload
•
Can be involved in program delivery
•
Social learning, modelling pro-social behaviour
Correctional Officers (Security) work all three shifts, responsible for:
• Perimeter security
•
Dog squad
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•
Fixed posts with limited inmate contact
Programs Staff are responsible for meeting the needs of inmates, and liaising with the
Living Units staff to better understand their needs. Professional resources are tied to
Units through a functional relationship, with line to the Head of Programs. Some
programs are developed specifically for each housing unit, and others for the institution
as a whole. Programs can be delivered on two shifts.
Units develop an interdisciplinary team of correctional officers, case managers, mental
health specialists, and program specialists.
Units may develop different areas of focus.
The Living Unit Model has demonstrated its impact over time. Variations of it, under the
name “Unit Management” are used in other Australian jurisdictions. The Northern
Territory Correctional Services staff we spoke with who have transferred here with
experience in those systems unanimously supported it as a superior organisational model.
Appendix C has a more thorough description of the model, and Appendix D has a basic
organisation chart illustrating its application.
Applying the model to Darwin and Alice Springs Correctional Centres should be done in
a thoughtful manner, with adequate planning to prepare for and manage the transition. A
task force that includes head office, Department of Justice Human Resources, and
institutional representatives should guide the process. At each institution, a committee
should be established to guide the physical and organisational changes. That committee
should include representatives from all areas of the institution.
Significant preparatory work is needed. The transition should take place six to twelve
months from beginning the planning.
Effective implementation will also involve some physical design changes, described in a
later section.
31. We recommend the Living Units model of Unit Management be used as the basis
for aligning the organisation with its mission, with correctional officers becoming
more responsible for case management and interaction with inmates, and multidisciplinary teams being developed.
32. We recommend that planning to convert to Living Units be done by working
groups, with implementation over the next six to 12 months.
One key component will be ensuring adequate staffing levels for the interactive security
posts within the accommodation areas. We have made a preliminary examination of the
requirements, and consider that the currently approved correctional officer staffing levels
will be sufficient. There will be some readjustments, as noted below under Security, but
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overall numbers should not increase as a result of the Living Unit Program. (There will
be increased program staff, as described in section five of this report).
4.2 Rebalancing Resources
The Northern Territory is doing well at the standard security performance measures,
comparing favourably with other jurisdictions on achieving low rates of assault (both
inmate on inmate and inmate on staff), hostage takings, escapes, deaths from unnatural
causes, and disturbances.
It compares less favourably on program areas, such as time out of cells, inmate
employment, inmate education, visits, re-integrative programs.
Compared to several other jurisdictions, the inmate population is recognized as being
more compliant, and only a threat either in or out of gaol if under the influence. At the
same time, the Indigenous inmate population has very high needs for programming,
including literacy, English, job skills, life skills, addressing criminal behaviour and
thinking patterns, and reintegration. Thus, compared to some other jurisdictions, the
Territory has inmates who are higher need yet easier to manage. Despite this, the bulk of
the resources in the system are dedicated to security, rather than programs. This needs to
be rebalanced. Not to reduce security, or to in any way suggest it should not be front-ofmind at all times – but to balance security and programs.
It is impossible to deliver effective programs unless there is a secure envelope, and
inmates feel safe, secure, and humanely treated. And program staff are safe and secure as
well. At the same time, effective programs promote good security, by improving inmate
skills, values, and behaviour, and by letting the staff get to know the inmates better and
be better able to foresee and forestall problems.
4.3 Rebalancing rewards and accountability -The Folly of Rewarding “A” while hoping for “B”.
The reward and accountability systems need to be aligned with the mission as well.
Although the mission asks for certain things, the reward system is not focused on them.
For example, the need to improve conditions in Remand, to increase the amount of time
out of cells, was noted by Coroner’s inquests in to deaths in 1997, 1998, and 1999. The
Australian Guidelines require it. The former Commissioner told us it was one of his
objectives. The Prison Officers’ Association and Senior Prison Officers’ Association told
us it was a priority for them. Yet with all this support, the organisation continues to order
extensive lockdowns, indeed, reports are the amount of time in-cell has increased, rather
than decreased.
Managers do not, we are sure, sit at home over breakfast thinking “How can I make life
more difficult for the prisoners today?” However, managers are aware that if the union
protests that its members are not safe because there are too few of them to properly
supervise the inmates out of their cells, that they will be pressured by their superiors to
resolve that industrial dispute without industrial action. And they are aware that if they
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call in several overtime shifts to provide safety and support more activities and programs,
their superiors will respond negatively and their jobs will be at risk for failure to meet
budget targets. On the other hand, an institution that comes in under budget and has no
industrial disputes receives praise and rewards -- even if to do so they had to reduce
programs, and lock inmates in their cells in violation of common sense, international best
practice, local coroners’ orders and national standards.
While not deliberately setting out to do so, the organisation is rewarding one set of
behaviours while hoping for a different set. As long as the reward and accountability
structures remain the same, the behaviour will remain the same. Rather than wishing and
hoping, top management needs to start to reward the specific behaviours they want to see.
Management psychologists tell us that the effort expended to achieve results, depends not
only on rewards, but also on the belief that one is capable of achieving the results that
will be rewarded.
For example, recruiting Indigenous people is a priority. Several efforts have been made
to recruit additional Indigenous staff, with limited success. Out bush, we were told that
Indigenous people simply do not believe they are capable of succeeding in correctional
jobs – that there is no point in trying, since failure is assured. The potential reward of a
good salary, good health, education for their children, is just too distant. Similarly,
corrections staff, having failed previously to recruit Indigenous people, are less likely to
try – it is seen as not likely to happen. And besides, what rewards have been built in even
if the goal is achieved?
Second example. Everyone we spoke with supported the vision of professional
corrections laid out in the strategic plan and in the organisation’s mandate. Yet few were
proceeding in that direction, and many were engaged in actions quite the contrary. We
heard often from the person we were speaking with that they wanted to move to
professional corrections, but expected they could not because the opposition, “the old
guard”, was too strong, or “the public would never allow it”, or “there isn’t the political
will”. We pursued who this “old guard” was, asking how many there were. Universally,
including feedback from inmates, the reply was that about 70% supported professional
corrections, and only 30% were “old guard”. Yet the organisational reward structure is
not set up to promote and encourage the 70%, nor to reduce the influence of the 30%.
So the staff who would support the government’s policy direction, and comply with the
Australian Guidelines and international best practice, are in the majority. They have the
support of the government, the Chief Executive Officer – why haven’t they acted?
Because they expect that if they did, they would not be successful, that the old guard
would assert its influence, and they would end up back where they started.
They have a low expectation of success. And this is reinforced by the reward system and
by the accountability system, where there are no appraisals and no one is being held to
account for moving their work area towards the strategy:
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The support among staff for the mission is high enough that rapid progress toward that
mission could be achieved if the reward and accountability structures were made more
supportive.
33. We recommend that top management review the reward and accountability
structure and better align it with the Mission and Strategy.
4.4 Legislation
The current legislation was designed nearly a quarter century ago.
It will need to be amended, or better, replaced, by a streamlined act that deals with
principles and leaves operational details to the Commissioner’s Directives – the
regulations empowered under the Act. The mission and the values of the Service must be
entrenched within the Act.
Many staff expressed concern that the Service had moved first one way, and then another,
and then in yet a third, or even back to the first. This was done in response to the
personal vision of individual managers, or to perceived changes in public opinion or
political will.
But corrections is a profession, and we know the principles that underlie good
corrections. Those principles should be entrenched in the legislation. Then each person
can align their work to contribute to the legislation.
It will need to provide for amendments to the Sentencing Act and the Parole of Prisoners
Act to provide for alternatives to facilitate reintegration. An internal review of proposed
amendments has already been undertaken.
34. We recommend that government update the legislation, to embed the
philosophy, values, and mission of the Service, as well as to deal with operational
issues.
The Territory has committed to following the Australian Guidelines, recognizing they are
guidelines and not legislation. But there is no formal process to assess compliance.
35. We recommend a task force to assess compliance with the Australian Guidelines
and the Service’s Mission and Strategy.
4.5 Superintendents
The Superintendents’ role needs to be redefined and enhanced. First, accountability for
mission achievement, and delivery on measurable results tied to the mission, needs to be
clearly specified and measured. Second, they need to become responsible for and
accountable for the whole of the institutional operations, which would include having the
programs and treatment staff reporting to the Superintendent, not to head office
(programs would retain a functional reporting relationship to head office).
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The position has been seen as a uniformed position, in charge of uniformed staff. It
needs to be seen as a professional position, responsible for upholding legislation and
achieving the mission.
36. We recommend Superintendents be responsible and accountable for delivery on
measurable results tied to the Mission.
4.6 Oversight, Audit, Investigations and Community Input.
The Australian Guidelines suggest “an inspectorial or review system to ensure these
guidelines are administered by each prison” (3.1) and “a system of accredited community
representatives to inspect and observe prison facilities and programs.” (3.2).
The Northern Territory Official Visitor program has been established for several decades.
The Minister appoints qualified citizens to visit correctional institutions and report back
to him on their observations. As we understand it, the visitors do not assess against the
Guidelines, and do not inspect and observe programs. Their work, for the most part,
consists of talking with inmates, briefing the Superintendent, and submitting written
reports to the Minister.
In addition, the Ombudsman responds to prisoner complaints, and advises the Legislative
Assembly.
There is an internal Professional Standards function, with one staff, focused on
compliance with the Code of Conduct. Occasional audits are completed by the First
Secretary’s Department.
There is room for enhanced accountability and enhanced community involvement in
these functions.
External oversight should be enhanced. This is being done, with the placement of the
Service within the Department of Justice. Recommendations are made in the section on
programs for research and evaluation of programs. In addition, the audit/evaluation of
each of the major activities of the Service needs to be ongoing and regular, to measure
alignment with the mission and the policies and regulations of the government and the
department.
37. We recommend regular audit/evaluation of each of the major activities of the
Service, to measure alignment with the mission and the policies and regulations of
government and the department.
The official visitors is a long-standing program. As the Service moves to achieve its
objectives, there will be a need for both educating the community on effective,
professional corrections, and receiving community input. While the visitors now operate
largely independently, some other jurisdictions have found a benefit in having a
committee of citizens for each institution. Such committees are responsible for being the
voice of the community, and sharing what is going on inside the prisons with the public.
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38. We recommend expanding the official visitors program to include more citizen
participation.
5. Programs
5.1 Contributing to Crime Prevention
Prisons are traditionally seen as schools of crime, where younger more innocent offenders
“learn the ropes” from tougher “crims”. In fact, prisons can become schools, and teach
job skills, pro-social values, and life skills. As government moves to a whole-of-society
approach to dealing with a range of issues including Indigenous people, safer
communities, and reintegrating offenders, the potential for correctional institutions to
become schools should not be underestimated.
There is strong evidence internationally that effective programming generally improves
reintegration by 15% or more, and can contribute to up to a 50% reduction in crime
committed by inmates after their release. There is supportive evidence of the effect of
those programs already introduced in the Territory – an evaluation of the “Ending
Offending” program showed a significant 50% reduction in crime committed by
graduates from its program in the first two years after their release from prison.
5.2 Women’s Programs, accommodation, and issues
Women’s programs were not specifically part of the Terms of Reference. The Review
Team looked at these matters, but not thoroughly enough to make recommendations.
5.3 Mental Health Programs
Mentally disordered offenders are a chronic management problem in prisons. In addition
to the additional health care needs they have, their behaviour is disruptive to other
inmates, especially in the close quarters of a cell block – there is nowhere for other
inmates to go to get away from the unusual behaviour.
Additionally, recent Criminal Code amendments have created a new class of prisoner,
serving essentially indeterminate sentences.
The Departments of Health and Community Services is proposing a five tier continuum
of care for such cases. The Northern Territory Correctional Services would be
responsible for developing a secure treatment environment in which the Departments of
Health and Community Services could deliver specialized services.
In both Darwin and Alice Springs, a small high medium secure unit would be established.
This would be a distinct group of 12 to 20 cells, run on a unit management/living unit
model. Correctional staff would be dedicated to the unit, and not rotate through the
roster. They would be specially trained in the management of these cases by mental
health professionals. Psychiatric nurses, in the employ of the prison, would work day and
evening shifts, and be part of the multidisciplinary team. Specialized resources, including
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psychiatrist, psychologist, occupational therapy, and disability therapists would attend
and deliver programs as needed, under the authority of Mental Health.
An area of the prison would be renovated, or a new unit added, that would house these
inmates, plus have at least three offices, two interview rooms, a meeting room/group
therapy room, and physicians office. The facility should be near the medical centre.
The Ambulatory Team would be expanded, so that patients discharged from these units
or Royal Darwin Hospital would be followed up regularly by a psychiatric nurse from
Royal Darwin Hospital. The Ambulatory nurse would also do triage, recommending
cases for admission to either unit or the hospital. The team would also educate
correctional officers and case managers in the living units, about how to best manage
each case.
Acute cases could be brought in for stabilisation. Chronic cases could be housed there
indeterminately. Inmates requiring security escorts would, for the most part, no longer be
transferred to Royal Darwin Hospital.
These units should meet the applicable hospital or clinic standards, and be accredited by
the relevant body.
This unit, however, would fail to meet two needs. First, a high secure facility for pre-trial
competency assessments. Second, some programs are best delivered in a therapeutic
milieu, such as sex offender treatment.
The practice of transferring inmates needing intensive mental health services to hospital,
and having correctional officers provide security escort while they are there, is
inefficient. It does not provide the level of security needed, as the physical facility and
programs are not designed to maximum security standards. It is costly, in terms of the
number of officers assigned. The officers do not participate in the mental health
program, it is essentially lost time for them. Creation of small mental health units within
the correctional institutions would allow correctional officers to provide security in a
setting designed for security, and participate in patient care. The practice of security
escorts could be reduced or eliminated. Those minimum and medium security inmates
who did not need security escorts could be transferred to hospital, to be supervised by the
medical staff.
Royal Darwin Hospital may want to consider adding a couple of high security cells, or
the workforce capacity to manage these cases, in the absence of prison officers.
In the long term, it will be appropriate to have a purpose-built facility that meets both
prison standards and hospital standards. Although there is a policy in Australia that
mental health cases be treated in hospital, rather than prison, it is possible to create a
prison facility that is an accredited hospital and meets all the relevant standards.
Health and Correctional Services have begun discussions on how to best meet the needs
of their mutual clients. That process should be guided by the following:
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Develop Memorandums of Understanding with mental health service providers
Develop small mental health units in each prison, staffed by specially trained
correctional officers and psychiatric nurses, with specialist services provided by
Mental Health.
Enhance the ambulatory team services
Create a treatment-supportive environment
Tie in the Integrated Offender Management System to community mental health
release planning
Build supportive program space for the mental health team
Be part of a continuum of care, providing the capacity for delivery of programs in
a secure setting.
39. We recommend the Service pursue negotiations with Health and Community
Services to further develop the concept of small specialized secure mental health
units in each of Darwin and Alice Springs Correctional Centres, with security and
programs provided by corrections, and specialized treatment provided by Health.
These negotiations would lead to a Memorandum of Understanding that would
guide the service and fairly allocate costs.
40. We recommend these units meet both the Australian Guidelines for corrections
and the relevant health care standards.
41. We recommend ambulatory mental health services to the rest of the prison be
increased, and that the prisons do more to create an environment that is supportive
of such treatment.
42. We recommend that once these units are established, only inmates who can be
safely accommodated without escort would be transferred to Royal Darwin Hospital
for treatment.
5.4 Case Management
The Service has recognized the need for case management – assessing inmates at
reception, determining their educational, personal, and criminogenic needs; developing a
plan to meet those needs through programs; assessing progress; and making
recommendations about release and reintegration. Despite not being assigned resources
to add this function, valiant efforts are being made to introduce “Integrated Offender
Management”, a form of case management. Without adequate resources, this effort is
doomed to failure.
While the Service has correctly determined that correctional officers should be involved
in case management, it has not recognized that the process needs to be supported by
professional case management staff and psychologists.
Each institution has one or two psychologists, and one to three case management staff,
know as welfare officers and classification officers. This number is not adequate. The
actual numbers needed tend to be in the range of one case management staff per 30 to 50
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inmates, and one psychologist per 100 to 150 inmates. The actual number depends on the
needs of the inmates.
43. We recommend the Service assess the need level of its inmates, and provide the
additional professional staff, as part of the transition to the Living Unit/Unit
Management model, roughly on the ratio of one case management officer per 35 to
50 inmates, and one psychologist per 100 to 150 inmates.
5.5 Programs
The Northern Territory Correctional Services has been delivering programs to inmates for
several years. Difficulties include:
• Time in programs is often limited to 4.5 hours per day. The dosage is insufficient
• Teamwork with security could be increased
• Some programs are of limited intensity, are more educational than reformative in
nature
• There is limited research and evaluation to determine if the programs are effective
with their target audience
• Many programs are funded by the Commonwealth Government or other seed
funding at start-up. When start-up funding falls off, Northern Territory
Correctional Services does not have the resources to continue to deliver the
program.
• Work programs. About half the inmates are unemployed in prison. Many of
those that have work do not put in seven hours. Shops could be reopening with a
modest increase in operating funds. Cost recovery can be made on products.
•
Literacy. About 80% of inmates have not achieved public school graduation
levels, which are necessary to thrive in society. Many more spaces are needed.
Consider making literacy mandatory
•
English. Expand English as a Second Language courses
•
Criminogenic Needs. Programs targeted to the specific offending patterns of
individual inmates are needed. This includes sex offender programs, cognitive
behavioural therapy
•
Alcohol and Substance Abuse Programs.
•
Expand program delivery to the evening shift
Note: many of these programs have previously been provided, but have at times not had
their funding renewed.
44. We recommend that operational funds be restored to prison industries and the
shops be run at full capacity. This may require review of the legislation to allow for
sale of products not used internally by Corrections or the public service.
45. We recommend that targets for achieving literacy, numeracy, and English
comprehension be established and the spaces to deliver the programs be provided.
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46. We recommend that a review of inmate needs be conducted using the Integrated
Offender Management approach, and programs put in place to meet the
criminogenic needs identified (such as sex offender programs and cognitive
behavioural therapy).
47. We recommend that programs be delivered on the evening shift as well as the
day shift, with access expanded to a minimum of 3.5 hours in the morning, 3.5 hours
in the afternoon, and 2 hours in the evening.
5.6 Families – Supporting Families
A key success factor in reintegrating offenders, and staying out of jail, is to establish and
maintain bonds with supportive family. The expansion of telephone access about a year
ago has had a positive effect.
48. We recommend improved family-inmate visits and correspondence.
• Enhance the visits facilities. Security need not be compromised by providing a
grassy area on which families can sit and interact,
• More child-friendly, playground equipment for children
• Expand visiting times. Limits of one two hour visit or two one hour visits are not
adequate, nor do they appear to be compelled by operational reasons within the
prison. At Alice, especially, when top end families come for a weekend,
extensions should be made.
• Review the telephone program, to see if it can be enhanced and/or costs reduced
• Extended stay family visiting units
• Video links have proven useful, and should be expanded. In cases where inmates
have been involuntarily transferred, the service should look at paying the costs of
weekly video links
• Photographs taken during visits – if equipment control is an issue, the prison
could provide an instant camera and bill a dollar or two for the costs of film.
• Family days, with barbeque, dancing/singing by inmates. Done now at end of
Good Beginnings Program, should be expanded to whole of prison
• Improved provisions for young children to be housed with their incarcerated
mother
• Make visits and family contact a programs responsibility.
5.7 Life Sentenced and Long Sentence Prisoners
Long sentenced inmates can bring a sense of stability and continuity to prison. Or they
can be long-term management problems.
Three years prior to parole eligibility, there should be an extensive review of each case.
Progress should be determined, and a plan set in place that will address making the
person ready for parole consideration. Parties involved should include the inmate, the
Parole Board, and institutional staff and community representatives.
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The special interests of long-sentenced offenders, and their special needs on release,
might be better met if there was an organisation supporting them, or they were
encouraged to form their own representative group in prison.
49. We recommend special measures to manage long-sentence and life-sentenced
inmates, and prepare them for consideration by the Parole Board.
5.8 Two Worlds
Programming ideally will give inmates the ability to function, crime-free, in either
traditional or modern societies – that is, have literacy and job skills, speak English and
their country’s language, be able to control drinking and substance abuse, and fit in with
either society.
5.9 Recreation
Corresponding to the increase in educational and developmental programs, more attention
needs to be paid to recreation, art, and hobbies.
Art and music are two potential areas of employment on release. The rules for making
and selling art differ between the institutions.
50. We recommend there be more formal efforts to support the sale of art and music
products, at competitive prices (with suitable deductions for costs and restitution).
Within the institutions, sports fields could be improved. There is a good field at Darwin,
but it is outside the fence. The inside field is inadequate and dangerous.
There is no indoor sports facility at either institution, for exercise and sport during
inclement weather.
51. We recommend improved sports and recreation facilities and programs.
5.10 Research and evidence-based policy
There are several studies on what works in corrections, which were summarized in the
Labor Party’s April 2000 position paper “Labor’s Plan to Build a Better Territory.”
‘What works’ is a term of art within Corrections literature. The phrase originates from a
1974 article essentially debunking the possibility of rehabilitating inmates.2 Major
reviews conducted within the United Kingdom, North America, Canada and Europe have
since overturned the position of ‘nothing works’, and refocused upon ‘what works best?’
Meta-analyses and other studies have evidenced the potential for treatment programs to
diminish re-offending. Researchers have presented evidence that ‘appropriately designed
services’ can result in an average reduction in recidivism of from 15 to over 50%.3 We
know that the best outcomes for prisoners returning to the community require addressing
the factors that pre-dispose a person to criminal activity, whilst in prison, and when
physical and social needs are appropriately supported in prison and post-release.4
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The Correctional Service of Canada convened an advisory group of international experts
on effective correctional programming. Comprehensive reviews of the literature, surveys
of best practice and research into program effectiveness ensued, resulting in the
compilation of the Compendium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming. A
summary of these principles are found in Appendix E ‘Managing Change in Support of
Correctional Programs’, Part I The Research: What Works.
Ending Offending – our message was independently evaluated by Hauritz Associates of
Queensland, in 2001-2002. They found: recidivism rates for the first 150 graduates of the
program were less than half that of other prisoners released in the same time period, that
acceptance and completion rates were high.
The Community Support Program (outside work parties which contribute labour to
charitable organisations and citizens in need) was internally evaluated in 2002. The
finding was that “The work output is impressive, the contribution to the community is
significant, and the profile within the community is credible.”
Alice Springs Minimum Security Cottages were internally reviewed in 2003, and found to
be making a valuable contribution to the community through outside work parties, and to
inmates development of responsibility and life skills.
The basic outcome measure now being used by NTCS is a limited definition of
reoffending – return to incarceration within two years. This is a narrow definition – some
jurisdictions use five years without a criminal conviction as the criteria. According to
that criteria, the Northern Territory’s recidivism rate might be higher.
However, there are other measures that should be added.
52. We recommend that the Northern Territory Correctional Services should review
each program against the theoretical model of what works. It should also evaluate
the effectiveness of each program, establishing an in-house research capacity that
draws on resources from tertiary education facilities.
The Northern Territory Correctional Services briefly had a research capacity, but the
person was on short-term contract and the position was not filled permanently.
One of the lessons from the “what works” research is that programs should target the high
needs/high risk clients. The Territory Police, we understand, have identified the three or
four hundred highest risk repeat offenders in the Territory.
53. We recommend Corrections identify the highest risk cases in their care, and use
Integrated Offender Management to target them with intensive programming and
follow-through in the community.
6. Security
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As noted above, the Service is doing well on the standard security indicators. However,
there is concern, especially among correctional officers, that unless changes are made,
this will not continue to be true. They are rightly concerned that limited inmate time outof-cell is causing inmate resentment, and that limited training reduces staff’s ability to
deal with crises when they do arise. The Review addresses those two key issues in other
sections. Here, we look at improving security directly.
6.1 Consistency
Security procedures should be more consistently applied. While there can be justification
for why the two institutions have different procedures, or different approaches are used
within different units, departures should be justified. Beyond that, however, the Review
Team noticed that in simple day-to-day processes, you would get different approaches
with different staff. This is frustrating for inmates. It also diminishes security. The
inappropriate inconsistencies appear to be due to insufficient training and supervision.
54. We recommend attention be paid to improving the consistency of use of
appropriate security procedures.
6.2 Crisis Response
Even though serious security incidents are few and far between, readiness must be 24x7
year round. The training and response-capability should be enhanced.
55. We recommend the state or preparedness for crisis response be enhanced.
6.3 Training
The extensive training needs were identified in the section on people.
6.4 Dog Squad
The dog squad has some supporters, and a number who question its efficacy. Five staff,
and five dogs, are in place at each institution. The dogs are person-specific, they will
only work with the one officer who trains them. The dogs are aggressive, and their
purpose is to intimidate inmates, assist in response to crisis, and help detect potential
escapes. They are not used for drug detection, although that has been talked of.
It is unusual to have dogs patrol inside the perimeter of medium and low security
institutions in the presence of inmates. A more typical use of dogs is in maximum
security, on regular patrols of the perimeter at night, and in the yards after inmates have
been secured in their cells. The use of an aggressive dog, even on leash, in work and
housing areas with inmates present could be considered to be an inappropriate use of
force.
The squad currently makes about three rounds of the perimeter per shift. That frequency
is not likely to deter or detect escapes. At Alice Springs, where the fence has motion
detectors and cameras, rounds are not needed as much as at Darwin, where the fence is
much less secure. This is one area where a difference between institutions would be
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appropriate, with Darwin having more frequent perimeter patrols. Most institutions make
perimeter rounds without the use of dogs.
The dog squad does not appear to be necessary to good security. Those resources might
be better used in support of crisis management and perimeter patrol in a different manner.
56. We recommend that the Service review the appropriateness of maintaining the
dog squad, or of adjusting it by
• Assessing the benefits of going to command trained dogs that could be used
interchangeable
• Considering contracting out the care, training, housing and maintenance of the
dogs, with the contractor delivering the dogs to the site at the start of a shift
• Adding the capacity for drug-detection dogs
6.5 Strip Searches
Routine strip searches on the way to and from programs are conducted. Each inmate,
each day, is searched going to and coming from the program area. The security
justification for this is not compelling.
57. We recommend that strip searches be used on a random basis, or for cause, for
internal movement to programs in low security areas.
6.6 Equipment
Limited budgets have resulted in a deterioration of equipment. Of particular concern is
the equipment and supplies for crisis response. As more staff receive training, there will
be an increased need for training supplies and equipment.
Personal portable alarms are provided, but they are person-specific and do not give the
location of the crisis when triggered.
58. We recommend purchase of additional equipment, including personal portable
alarms, for security.
7. Partnerships
Corrections is traditionally less involved in partnerships than many other organisations.
The surrounding fences and walls contribute to a narrow world view. And organisations
outside corrections often see corrections as best left to others. That is changing in the
Territory, as it is in many jurisdictions.
Especially as the Territory moves to a whole-of-government approach to dealing with
underlying social problems, it will be increasingly important for corrections to nurture
partnerships and work together with other organisations, interest groups, and government
agencies. Fortunately, those other groups were clear and consistent in their message to
the Review Team, they are ready and willing to build and build on those partnerships.
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7.1 Incarceration Rates
The incarceration rate for Northern Territorians, excluding Indigenous People, is 178 per
hundred thousand. For Indigenous people, it is over 1,500 per 100,000.
This compares with international overall rates ranging between 155 in New Zealand and
64 in Denmark, with Australia at 115.
Table: Prison population rate per 100,000 of national population, 2001-2002.5
Australia
(30/6/2002) 115
New Zealand
(mid-2002) 155
England and Wales
(19/12/2003) 140
Canada
(average for 2001) 116
Denmark
(9/2002) 64
Sweden
(10/2002) 73
Table: Average number of prisoners per day per 100,000 population, 2002-2003.6
Northern Territory
Queensland
Western Australia
New South Wales
Tasmania
South Australia
Victoria
Australian Capital
Territory
New Zealand
per 100,000
persons all ages
Prisoners
362
135
147
120
93
96
74
61
per 100,000 adults
Non-Indigenous
178
139
133
123
110
92
91
70
Indigenous
1,569
1,692
2,678
2,095
601
1,773
1,108
1,186
146
109
783
In the past year (ending September) the Northern Territory recorded the highest
proportional increase in the Indigenous rate of imprisonment of any state7. Despite the
release on sentence expiry of about 150 foreign people smugglers, the prison population
continued to rise.
59. We recommend the NTCS partner with organisations interested in reducing
Indigenous incarceration rates to help achieve their mutual objectives.
7.2 Criminal Justice Partnerships
As the “downstream” component of the criminal justice system, corrections is affected by
changes in police and court policy. For example, the police decision to focus on bail
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cases lead to more people being detained and put on remand and fewer released on bail.
No notice was given to corrections that this change was coming, and no planning put in
place to increase the resources available for the remand facilities.
The recent review of the police services recommended several actions that will affect
corrections. The review recommended funds for Information Technology. Police and
Corrections share the Integrated Justice Information System, the police part is updated
and funds allocated. The corrections part limps along on the basic ten year old model.
Escorts are affected by police and court policy as well, with dramatic impacts on
correctional overtime.
Suggestions
1. Enhanced coordination among police, courts, and corrections. Forward planning by
courts and police, to consider the effect of their actions on corrections.
2. Build correctional resources in to significant policy changes in other parts of the
system.
3. Increase the use of videoconference appearances at remand hearings.
4. For appearance of inmates as witnesses in court (that is, not at their own trials),
consider going to a user-pay system.
7.3 Whole of Government
Several government agencies are working together to improve conditions in Indigenous
communities. Corrections could increase its partnerships with them, contributing through
becoming a centre for job skill and literacy development.
Central agencies that provide services to other government departments, such as the
Office of the Commissioner of Public Employment, could partner to provide management
training.
60. We recommend that NTCS partner with other organisations within and outside
government to better achieve their mutual objectives and manage the interface
between the organisations.
7.4 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission has, over the course of this
Review, stated its interest in corrections both publicly and privately. There is tremendous
potential for corrections to partner with the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Commission. One such potential is discussed under minimum security.
8. Facilities and Resources/Management Tools
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8.1 Improving Facilities
While it is tempting to select the lowest capital cost design for correctional facilities, such
choices usually have greater downstream costs, through increased staffing levels or
repairs and maintenance.
Darwin was built to house about half its current population. As new housing was added,
there was not a similar investment in program and support space. Many of the facilities
needed in a larger prison were not part of the original design (such as an indoor sports
facility). Other facilities were built to half the size currently needed (such as health care,
remand, program space, offices, meeting rooms). Some of the original buildings are now
approaching the end of their useful lives, while other more recent construction remains
suitable.
Alice Springs was built without due consideration to the amount of programming this
prison population needs, and without an expectation of full seven hours a day work for all
inmates.
At a minimum, the following renovations/additions are needed:
61. We recommend a comprehensive approach to adding the facilities needed for
NTCS to achieve its mandate. This includes a staff training facility at Darwin,
expanded program areas, and offices and programs to support the Living Unit
program. The appropriate public works processes need to be put in place to design
and build these facilities.
Training Facility for Darwin.
• Training currently takes place in a rented facility offsite or an area in the staff
lockers. There is a need for a small training facility similar to the one at Alice
Springs. This facility could be made available to other Department of Justice divisions
Physical Plant Improvements
• Space in the housing units for case management staff and dedicated correctional
staff
•
Expanded program areas, including mental health
•
A staff training capacity in Darwin, that could double as a boardroom when not
used as a classroom
Interviewing space
Recreational space
Improvements to the remand and maximum security areas at Darwin.
•
•
•
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8.2 Information Technology
Several internal studies have identified the need to update the Integrated Justice
Information System or buy an off-the-shelf replacement such as the system being used in
New Zealand. This would facilitate the Integrated Offender Management System and
security, and liberate energy now being used to do things manually.
No action has been taken, however, as the project remains unfunded. An electronic
information system is a necessary driver for the Integrated Offender Management
System. The project should be funded immediately. It takes about nine to twelve months
or longer from contract signing to “go live”. If the project were begun immediately, the
Service could time implementation to support the move to Living Units and a full
Integrated Offender Management System/Case Management implementation.
Such a system would also reduce duplication of requests from Head Office for handdeveloped information, and allow better tracking for accountability
62. We recommend the purchase or internal development of an Integrated Offender
Management electronic data system.
8.3 New Facilities
Department of Justice analysis (An Alternative Adult Custodial System, March 3, 2003)
correctly suggests that without intervention there will be a need for a third medium
security prison within the next five years. The cost will be $70M for design and
construction, and $15M per year to operate.
The current operating costs per inmate in the Northern Territory Correctional Services is
$160 per day. This is exclusive of the amortized cost of the buildings. The estimated cost
of minimum security accommodation in farm camps, halfway houses, and mobile work
camps is less, ranging from $90 to $140 per day.
It makes no sense to burden NT taxpayers with medium and maximum security costs for
inmates who pose minimal risk when supervised under less expensive regimes.
Most Northern Territory inmates have committed their crime while under the influence of
alcohol. In the absence of alcohol, they are cooperative with supervision and are a low
risk to reoffend or escape.
A typical ratio in other modern jurisdictions, where the population as a whole is more
difficult to manage than in the Territory, is 25% in minimum, 50% in medium, 25% in
maximum. Within Australia, New South Wales manages 45% of their inmates in open
custody, and Western Australia 30%. This compares to the Northern Territory’s 18% in
minimum.
Northern Territory Correctional staff note that their inmates are easier to manage than
most other populations.
We estimate that a significant percentage of current inmates could safely, and more
economically, be held in lower security. This should be confirmed by a classification
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review. At present, the Service is using the LSI, an instrument that is more static than
some others, and has not been validated as relevant to the Northern Territory Correctional
Services population. The Service should look at other more dynamic instruments, and
make classifications dependent on factors relevant to this population.
63. We recommend that the Service increase the number and percentage of
minimum security accommodations.
64. We recommend the Service review available security classification instruments
and ensure it is using one that accurately assesses the needs of its population.
Further, all remands are currently held in maximum security. Thus, a person charged
with a minor offence, who is likely to get a sentence of three months or less, and be sent
to minimum or even released to the community, is kept in maximum.
The maximum and remand areas of Darwin Correctional Centre are the oldest and most
in need of upgrade. On the basis of preliminary estimates, they would need about one
million dollars each in renovations to meet current standards.
The remand areas are overcrowded, and there is an expectation of increased
overcrowding.
A new remand centre at the cost of $7,000,000 is being considered by the service. While
an effective solution, it is costly, and a similar amount could fund almost all of the
recommendations in this Review, with a greater impact on public safety.
All remands are now held in maximum security, the most expensive to maintain and the
most restrictive of liberty. Yet remands are not sentenced, and their conditions of
confinement are supposed to be no more onerous than that of sentenced prisoners.
Many do not need maximum security. They are repeat offenders. Staff know them, and,
taking into consideration the charges they face, can assign a security level, which in most
cases would be medium or minimum, not maximum. The remandee, in most cases, also
knows the system, and can make an informed decision about whether to enter the general
prison population or not.
The United Nations and Australian Guidelines (Section 5.17) both allow for remands to
enter the prison population if both inmate and management agree. The inmate could be
protected further by having Legal Aid or their own lawyer sign off.
Much of the pressure on remand space could be relieved by moving those inmates who
are willing and have a lower security level, out into the general prison population.
The policy of housing remands separately has two main supports. One is to protect naive
inmates, new to the system, from exploitation by more seasoned prisoners. That
protection should remain for those that need or want it. Many other inmates, however,
would prefer to move into the general prison population with their countrymen, and
where they could access a wider range of activities. The second reason is for prison
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management convenience. It is easier to manage short term inmates separately from
longer term ones. In the case of the Northern Territory Correctional Service, however,
the balance of convenience for the service would be to transfer them to general prison
population.
65. We recommend the construction of a new remand centre be deferred, and the
funds used to support more urgent needs. At the same time, significant
improvements need to be made to the Reception, Remand, and Maximum Security
areas at Darwin CC.
Programming is not provided in maximum or remand in either facility. The principle that
program resources are best targeted at high risk offenders is well established in the
research literature. Arrangements need to be made to add program space in the maximum
remand areas and deliver programs there, or to send maximum remand inmates to
programs in the rest of the institution, and make appropriate security arrangements.
Programming for high risk high needs offenders is the best way to protect society and the
most cost effective use of resources because of its greater impact.
Programming for remands makes better use of their time and gets a jump start on meeting
their needs should they become sentenced inmates. If they are found not guilty, it has
perhaps sparked an interest in self development that may continue in the community.
Significant savings from predicted expenditures are possible.
There was a remarkable degree of support, among all parties, for re-introducing lower
security alternatives.
There was considerable support for previous ventures such as Gunn Point. These were,
however, not always well managed. The fault was not in the design, but in the operation.
New construction should feature self-contained housing units with four to six bedrooms,
a lounge and kitchen. Inmates would do their own laundry and cleaning, prepare meals
(instruction provided if needed on these tasks). This would promote their ability to
function independently on return to society.
8.4 Minimum Security
Once the percentage of true minimum security inmates is determined the appropriate
capacity should be added in:
• Mobile work camps to assist in construction of Indigenous community housing.
A team of two tradesmen, two security, and 15 inmates. This will reduce the
labour and material costs for construction, provide useful trade skills, and reduce
accommodation pressures in the prisons while facilitating community housing.
[expand]
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•
Pilot half-way houses in communities, in conjunction with the Reintegration
Project headed by Department of Justice.
•
Re-establish a farm camp and/or stock operation – possibly on the Darwin site.
66. We recommend that the additional minimum security space be developed: in
halfway houses in the communities; in a mobile work camp to build community
housing; and in a minimum security farm camp.
9. Costs
9.1 Reducing Costs
Current projections by the Department are that a new medium security prison will be
needed within the next five years, at a capital cost of $70M and an annual operating cost
of $15M. We believe that much of this cost can be avoided, by implementation of the
measures proposed in this report, in conjunction with other initiatives already planned by
government that will lead to healthier communities.
The main ways of reducing costs are to expand lower cost minimum security, and to have
inmates do work that either earns income or reduces costs of other services. For example,
re-establishment of a farm would reduce food costs. A few years ago, prison labour,
working from mobile camps, helped build the Larapinta Trail. Although the cost saved,
compared to contracting out the work was not estimated, it was significant.
There is a pressing need for more accommodation in Indigenous communities. Several
parties, including the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (which is
responsible for this construction) have expressed interest in exploring the potential of
corrections contributing to this initiative. One potential model would be for corrections
to set up a vocational training course in basic house construction, fencing, and
landscaping. Not necessarily to get people to tradesmen levels, but to get the basics to be
a mason’s helper, carpenter’s helper, and general work site skills.
Graduates from this program, and those who already have these skills, could be housed in
mobile caravans that would move to a community that had a construction project. The
inmates work would be supervised by a prison industries officer who was a skilled
tradesmen. The inmates security needs would be met by two prison officers
accompanying the team. And case management/counselling needs could be met by the
local community corrections staff. Thus, a group of 10 to 15 inmates could be supervised
by four or five staff, at a cost less than keeping them in Darwin or Alice Springs. Inmates
would develop work skills and work habits that would help them find employment upon
release. At the same time, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission and the
government would save significant sums by getting the labour at limited cost.
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Moreover, the inmates would gain by making a contribution to their society. Martin
Luther King Jr., whose birthday was celebrated as we were writing this section, said
“Life’s most persistent and urgent question is: What are you doing for others?”
9.2 Adjusting Budget Levels.
Resources have dipped below levels needed to effectively achieve the mission. The
Department has a submission that would rebuild the base budget. Several projects have
been submitted, some approved and in the works. There should be an overall chart listing
the submissions, how they should be phased in, and how they interact with each other (for
example, aligning the organisation and improved Information Technology as necessary
for the Integrated Offender Management System; the impact of the new “off-privileges”
unit approved for Alice Springs (design phase) and how new program space might be
integrated).
Quite simply, a modern correctional system costs more, per inmate, to run than a
traditional model. But it accomplishes more, and total costs to society can be reduced.
As a comparison of international jurisdictions demonstrates, Australia is at the lower
level of cost per inmate per day, and Canada considerably higher.
Table: Cost per inmate per day 2001-2002.1
Australia
151
New Zealand
157
Scotland
166
United Kingdom
196
Canada (Federal)
305
(Local currencies adjusted for comparability using the Economist Annual Comparison Index. Jurisdictional
differences exist concerning counting rules. See footnote below).
At $160, the Northern Territory has the lowest cost per inmate per day of comparable
jurisdictions.
Table: Total $ cost per prisoner per day 2002-2003.8
Northern Territory
Western Australia
Victoria
Tasmania
Queensland
160.5
175.2
179.7
185.6
195.1
1
Ref: In the Department of Corrections Annual Report 2002-2003, New Zealand.
The ‘Economist Annual Comparison Index’ model is used to adjust different local currencies without
requiring conversion to the New Zealand dollar. This index provides an indication of the strength of local
currencies by comparing the costs of a like commodity within each country, based on the theory of
purchasing power parity (PPP). It is noted that there is low comparability between the jurisdictions, due to
utilising different definitions and counting rules.
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South Australia
204.5
New South Wales
221.3
Australian Capital Territory 249.9
While the low cost could been seen as an advantage initially for the taxpayer, the reality
is that for a small marginal cost, that would bring the system in line with other
jurisdictions, considerable economic savings to the Territory, through reduced crime and
reduced numbers of people incarcerated, would more than pay for the investment.
And, after the initial capital investment in more minimum security beds, the average
operating cost should return to its lower level, as there will be more lower cost beds in the
system.
The biggest component of costs is staff salaries. Staffing ratios vary from one to one in
Canada, to one staff for each two inmates in New Zealand, with most clustered around
one staff per 1.5 inmates. The Northern Territory has one staff per 1.4 inmates, one of
the lowest rates. It appears that while the number of security staff per inmate is average
to a little higher, the number of program staff per inmate is low.
When calculated as cost per taxpayer, the Northern Territory rate is among the highest,
given the high incarceration rate. Over time, the initiatives proposed here, along with the
whole of government approach to safer communities, should bring down the recidivism
and reincarceration rate.
10. Change Management – an integrated plan
Change management is the most important area for top management attention.
Throughout this review, much of what we have identified as good practice had already
been identified by the Department of Justice, the Northern Territory Correctional
Services, or its staff, as good practice they would like to move toward. Several reports
and meetings have articulated that direction.
Yet movement toward that desired state has been slow.
Prison managers have not traditionally been asked to be change agents. Indeed, prisons
are seen as bastions of conservatism.
Management at times feels constrained from acting in what they know to be a
professional corrections manner, due to: budget concerns seen as being over-riding
policy; the unions being so powerful, and with such ready access to the Minister, that if
they object at the local level, one may as well accept their position rather than fight it; by
head office staff who are seen to micromanage the institutions; by the perception that
public attitudes would not allow such a policy; by the perception that cabinet would never
approve it; and by the absence of resources to permit implementation.
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We have attached as Appendix E “Managing Change in Support of Correctional
Programs”, an article that deals with change management.
10.1 Change Management Training
Change Agents
One Superintendent and several staff mentioned the need for a change agent.
It is a delicate balance between having ownership of the change by the staff with the need
for an immediate boost in change management skills. Bringing in two or three experts in
change management (preferably but not necessarily in a corrections setting) should speed
the change process – perhaps one to advise each superintendent, and one to advise Head
Office.
Change Management Team
There should be an advisory committee at each facility and Head Office, with
representatives from each of the three committees being part of a service-wide advisory
group. Committee members must include the Deputy Superintendent, a Senior Prison
Officer, a Prison Officer, a programs person, an official visitor, an Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander Commission representative or other service delivery person.
Change Management Tree
This is not a simple change that can be driven by one or two people. It must be combined
with communication and training, and affect every single staff member, security and
programs. To drive a change of this magnitude, we recommend a change management
tree – a process of having ten percent of the staff directly involved, and responsible for
ten other staff – to make personal contact.
67. We recommend that the Correctional Service be given a clear and consistent
message, from Cabinet, from the Department of Justice, and from the Director of
Corrections, in support of the Mission and Strategy.
68. We recommend that Cabinet approve sufficient funds to permit the Service to
achieve its objectives.
69. We recommend that change management experts be brought in to help the
organisation during the transition period.
70. We recommend that the Service support the communications and two-way flow
of information needed during the transition with special measures. We suggest two
options. First, that the approximately 60 people who participate in the team
building – change management course identified earlier be given special
responsibility to communicate with a specific ten other staff each, to understand
their concerns and to share information. Second, that there be an advisory
committee at each institution and head office, to advise on the changes.
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71. We recommend that all stakeholders work together to further develop the
recommendations of this Review and implement the decisions made by Cabinet.
11. Vision
What will the Service look like in five years? As a result of implementing these actions,
the Territory Correctional System, will look something like this:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Realigned organisational structure to meet current and future needs
The Service resourced at appropriate levels
Contributing to crime prevention, through increased and improved programs and
more effective reintegration into the community on release
Reducing projected costs, through increased minimum security capacity and
inmate work that provides revenue to government
Improving the two current facilities, and adding minimum security space, while
postponing the building of a new Remand Centre or third major prison.
Partnering, mutually beneficial relationships with stakeholders
Staff satisfaction shown to be high, in staff surveys
Published research on program effectiveness, treatment staff from other
jurisdictions coming to learn from the Northern Territory and share their
knowledge
The Northern Territory Correctional Services as part of a community of practice,
tied in to Australian and international best practice.
Should the Territory Government make this investment, the outcomes that can be
achieved are:
For Offenders
Offenders are sentenced to serve time, not waste time. They will return to society better
equipped to maintain a law-abiding life.
For Staff
Job satisfaction will increase. They will see things being accomplished for inmates, they
will have more input into decisions and receive more communication. They will have
trusting, open relationships with management.
For Management
Direction will be clearer, and they will be held accountable for achieving the mission and
specific deliverables, and rewarded for doing so.
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For Government
There will be consistency in the management of corrections, following a professional
model, with a consistent objective and consistent leadership style, across leaders – instead
of having to readjust to each new manager’s personal vision. Corrections will be a
contributing partner to the whole of government approach to safer communities.
For Society
There will be noticeable improvements in safety.
Conclusion
These recommendations are wide-ranging, and getting things right in these ten key areas
will drive the other changes that are necessary to fully achieve an effective, professional
corrections system for the Northern Territory. Still, the Review was limited to 50 days,
much of which was used to consult with various stakeholders. In that amount of time, it
is not possible to complete a comprehensive analysis, nor to develop a complete, detailed,
step-by-step guide. Moreover, we know from experience that change doesn’t work that
way. There is a need for the stakeholders to work together to further develop and apply
these suggestions, to build the Service over the next few years, so it can better achieve its
potential.
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APPENDIX A
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
ADULT CUSTODIAL SERVICES REVIEW
TERMS OF REFERENCE
OBJECTIVE
Conduct an independent review of the adult custodial operations of Northern
Territory Correctional Services.
BACKGROUND
The Northern Territory Correctional Services (NTCS) has undergone changes in
custodial practice and procedure. The Department of Justice and other
stakeholders including the Australian Liquor, Hospitality and Miscellaneous
Workers Union (LHMU)/ Northern Territory Prison Officers Association (NTPOA)
and Northern Territory Senior Prison Officers Association (NTSPOA) recognise
that change in NTCS is now required to meet the future needs service.
The review should endeavour to align recommendations with national best
practice standards in adult custodial practice in containment, offender
rehabilitation and reintegration, reparation, offender care and in advice to
sentencing authorities. The review should provide an analysis of the current
adult custodial centres, their management regimes, capacity to meet current and
future prisoner needs, limitations and future needs.
All stakeholders should be consulted.
TERMS OF REFERENCE
The Terms of Reference for the review should cover, but not be limited to:
1.
A review of the organisation, administration and operation of custodial
services activities including opportunities for improvement, as a division of
the Department of Justice in the Northern Territory. The review should
report on:
A.
the appropriateness and adequacy of current policies, management
and work practises. Specific regard should be given to, but not
confined to, examination of:
i.
human resource requirements
ii.
operational culture and attitudes
iii.
prison and prisoner management
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iv.
v.
vi.
2.
prisoner employment, education, rehabilitation programs and
repatriation.
custodial arrangements and approaches
legislative provisions
B.
the standards of services with specific reference to the capacity,
responsiveness and appropriateness of programs in place to meet
Government and Department of Justice policy and specific public
commitments in adult custodial services;
C.
the allocation and sufficiency of resources employed in adult
custodial services.
In examining the above, due consideration should be given to:
A.
the numbers of staff required to meet operational requirements in
each prison, and the staffing mix and organisational structure
necessary to ensure staffing is appropriate to the effective
management of prisoners;
B:
the roster structure in terms of its appropriateness to each centre in
support of the staffing allocations (IOM, workplace teams, case
management);
C.
the processes that support the recruitment and retention of a
skilled, motivated, committed and healthy workforce;
D.
the adoption of contemporary best practice techniques for the
delivery of adult custodial services;
E.
the factors affecting delivery of services in the Northern Territory,
including diseconomies of scale, population characteristics and
dispersal, remoteness, isolation and physical environment;
F.
the extent of community involvement and support for custodial
issues and ability for increased participation in service delivery with
particular regard to the management of Aboriginal prisoners;
G.
the establishment of the optimum environment which encourages
prisoners to correct offending behaviour whilst maintaining an
appropriate degree of control which minimises risk to the public,
staff and prisoners;
H.
the development of a custodial system which maximises prisoner
reparation opportunities;
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I.
the development of an integrated environment which allows
prisoners to live as normally as possible whilst progressing through
an approved sentence/rehabilitation process, having regard to their
assessed risks to the community, the nature of their offence(s) and
community expectations in terms of sentencing; and
J.
the structures and processes necessary to deliver the major project
initiatives of Government and the Department of Justice priorities.
K.
the recruitment, training provided to ensure that employees have
the necessary skills to undertake their duties safely, development,
promotion and remuneration of staff;
L.
all issues referred to the review following completion of Stage 2 of
the Plan Outline and Timetable.
a. Stage 2 issues identified by the NTPOA form Attachment A
DESIRED OUTCOME
A comprehensive written Report detailing the findings of the Review will be
provided to the CEO of the Department. The Report will contain prioritised
recommendations that address the Terms of Reference.
Attachment A
Northern Territory Prison Officers Association
Stage 2 Issues
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
Duties, range of knowledge, skills and experience required at each
management level of the NTCS and determines future requirements;
Current industrial relations environment across the NTCS;
Current performance accountability practice across the NTCS and provide
recommendations to assure and enhance accountability at all levels;
Internal NTCS communications;
The need for increased flexibility in the application of operational and
IR/HR systems across the NTCS;
Operation arrangements which place staff at risk;
Reasons for staff leaving the employment of the NTCS (exit interviews
with staff member, with LHMU/NTPOA representative involved);
The cost implications arising from loss of staff.
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PLAN OUTLINE AND TIMETABLE TO CONSIDER AND ADDRESS ADULT CUSTODIAL
ISSUES
PLAN OUTLINE
Process to be conducted in three stages.
Stage 1
Preliminary Action
• Identify key stakeholders.
• Engage with key stakeholders and finalise the Review methodology,
scheduling and Review of Custodial Services Issues – Draft Objectives.
• Establish a communications strategy.
Stage 2 – Settlement through dialogue
• Each stakeholder to develop a set of issues relevant to the strategies and
operations of the adult Custodial services within the Northern Territory.
• Stakeholders engage in a professionally facilitated environment and discuss
each of their relevant issues with the view of determining as many of the
issues as possible through constructive dialogue.
• Facilitator to draft minutes of this meeting identifying those issues which have
been settled through the dialogue process and those issues which could not
be settled through that process.
• Stakeholders sign off on Stage 2 outcomes.
Stage 3 – Independent Review
• Independent reviewer appointed.
• Reviewer undertakes research as required in order to develop
recommendations in accordance with the Terms of Reference including
processes to settle the unresolved issues from Stage 2.
• Draft report to CEO.
• Final report to key stakeholders.
• Implementation policy and procedures developed to address
recommendations of the Review.
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PLAN TIMETABLE
1.
Department, Associations and Union to finalise process and draft Terms of
Reference by Monday, 29 September 2003.
2.
Department, Union and Associations sign off on Terms of Reference by 3
October 2003.
3.
Appoint Reviewer by 7 October 2003.
4.
Appoint Facilitator by 10 October 2003.
5.
Dialogue contained in Stage 2 of the Plan Outline to be completed by 8
November 2003 and resolved issues signed off on by Department,
Associations and Union.
6.
Unresolved issues to be referred to the Reviewer with finalised Terms of
Reference by 8 November 2003.
7.
Estimated delivery of draft review report end February 2004.
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Appendix B: Teamwork and Change Management Development Course
Leadership Development Course
Proposal to strengthen the management team, expand leadership, build on the spirit of cooperation and
initiative shown in the Review, and prepare for the significant transition facing the organisation. In order to
proceed from policy to practice, the leadership team needs enhanced skills in teamwork, change
management, communication, and leadership.
The purposes of this three-week course are:
o To explain and generate commitment to the Cabinet approved direction for the Correctional
Service.
o To build leadership and management skills
o To build a team, and develop trust
o To begin solving work problems in a team context
o To build a leadership network, that will be responsible for communicating the change project.
Course delivery must recognize the diversity of educational levels of the course participants, be delivered in
an adult learning style, and use action learning.
COURSE CONTENT
The course should be purpose designed, building on the NT Public Service basic course for leadership
develop. It should be delivered by a combination of corrections managers and public sector trainers.
Strategic Direction:
What is our mission, our strategy, our mandate?
Leadership:
o What do NTCS employees want from their leaders? (sources: the Review, in-course discussion,
360 degree feedback, staff surveys)
o What do public servants generally want from their leadership (Three Pillars model)
o What do our staff think of our leadership style (360 degree feedback done on each participant
before the course).
o Character: the courage to do what professional corrections requires us to do, doing the right thing
despite pressure to the contrary. (James Soros, Monash U.)
o Building trust
o Being consistent between word and action, action and the mission
o Defining an ideal leadership style for NTCS
Problem Solving
o Basic problem solving
Conflict Resolution
o See article by Carol Beatty on Teams
Team Building
What Works in Corrections
o An overview of effective correctional programming (outside resource)
o An overview of NTCS programming
o Problem solving to develop space and programs NTCS
Leading Change
o A theory of change management
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o
o
o
o
Designing a change management strategy for NTCS
Motivating people
Communicating change
Emotional intelligence
Sharpening the Saw
o Continuous learning, as individuals, as an organisation
o Communities of practice, local and international
Beyond the Fence
o Engaging stakeholders
o Media interviews
o Communication plans
o Partnering with other agencies
o Effective presentation skills
This training should be given in groups of about 20 to 25.
In order not to deplete the ranks of one facility, participation should be staggered.
Each of the three courses should have:
‰ One Superintendent or Deputy Superintendent from each institution
‰
One deputy commissioner or commissioner
‰
One senior programs person from HQ
‰
One senior programs person from each institution
‰
One third of the members of SPOA from each institution (approx 4 each)
‰
Two elected members of POA
‰
Two members of POA agreed by POA and the Super, who are informal leaders, interested in IOMS
‰
A senior member from Department of Justice
‰
A senior community corrections person
Public Sector Management Program
Additionally,
o the Superintendents and Deputy Commissioners should complete an EMBA or the Public Sector
Management Program.
o Indigenous male staff should be offered sponsorship for the Kigaruk course
o Each Executive should have an individual learning plan developed
o Executive coaching should be available.
Leadership development and organisational development go hand in hand. This should not be a once in a
lifetime course, but should be followed up with a twice yearly meeting of the management team. Those
meetings would follow up on action plans and commitments, review and update organisational skills, and
bring in new thoughts. In essence an opportunity to reflect on where we have been, and where we are
going.
NOTE:
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These are suggestions, to begin a discussion by NTCS and OCPE that will lead to development of an
effective intervention.
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APPENDIX C
The Living Unit Model
The Living Unit Model, also known as ‘Unit Management’, is a method of managing
relatively small groups of prisoners by decentralised and stable teams of staff.
The Living Unit Model was first adopted by the United States Federal Bureau of Prisons
in the early 1970s, and has expanded to Western Europe and Canada. Each country and
state has adjusted the system to suit its own needs. It has been implemented in Victoria
since 1983, and the model has gradually been adopted in Queensland, South Australia
and Western Australia.
Traditional prison systems do not necessarily help prisoners become law abiding
members of our communities, or contribute to a secure, safe prison environment. The
routine of prison life can lead to institutional dependency and reduce the ability of
prisoners to cope with life, and to re-adjust when they are released. The unit management
prison model more closely resembles normal life- with sanctions and rewards for actions.
It also aims to provide the skills necessary for a lawful and productive life upon release.
Prisoners are encouraged to:
• Exercise greater self-determination
• Develop self-discipline
• Accept responsibility and accountability
• Predict and accept behavioural consequences
• Make appropriate decisions and choices
• Deal constructively with conflict
• Develop respect for themselves and the law.
Prisoners are assigned to a particular housing unit based on their supervision and program
needs. The prisoner population is divided into groups of an appropriate size, and managed
by a team with stable staff members. A unit team can manage groups of 10-70 prisoners.
The team manages each group using custodial, interpersonal, program and individual
management planning skills. This interdisciplinary team may consist of correctional
officers and case mangers, plus programs staff and mental health specialists as needed. A
supervisor sets performance objectives, measures their achievement, assesses training and
development needs and ensures these are met, and completes a performance appraisal.
The team can be delegated greater powers to control its own operations, provided it meets
the goals of the prison.
A key element is providing staff with the power to manage prisoners better. An important
outcome is the empowerment of staff to be active managers, decision makers and
problem solvers. The role of correctional officers is expanded to include more inmate
contact, to know and follow specific cases and to become involved in case management
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plans. It is recommended that staff members follow their preference for this type of
interactive work, or elect to focus upon roles with a security orientation.
Staff work in close proximity with the prisoners they are responsible for. Supporting the
social learning of prisoners is a key principle of unit management. Inmates learn values
and pro-social behaviour from interacting with staff. The relationship between staff and
inmates is enhanced by increased accessibility, frequency of contact, capacity to observe
inmates, and access to the staff that make decisions concerning the prisoner. Staff get to
know the prisoners better, can help with daily problem solving, detect problems and
security threats more readily, and provide a safer environment. Unit management is
associated with a lower incidence of violence.
The current organisational structure reduces the opportunities for interaction,
marginalises programming and restricts the correctional officers’ capacity to do more
than provide security. The unit management model enhances the knowledge of
individual’s needs, and the capacity to manage and respond to the prisoner. This
contributes to:
• a stable environment within which the reasons an individual is pre-disposed to
crime can be addressed
• the safety and job satisfaction of staff
• the security of prisoners
• the more successful re-integration of prisoners into community.
References:
Broad, Keith, (1990), Unit management guidelines: achieving leadership excellence in
Victorian prisons, Office of Corrections, Victoria.
Office of Corrections, (1989), Unit management in Victorian prisons: An introduction,
Office of Corrections, Victoria.
United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons, Program statements, Unit
Management manual, 9/16/1999, No. 5321.07.
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Appendix D
SUPERINTENDENT
PROPOSED ORGANISATIONAL CHART
BUS
DEPUTY
SUPERINTENDENT
LIVING UNITS
DEPUTY
SUPERINTENDENT
PROGRAMS
DEPUTY SUPERINTENDENT
SECURITY
Education
Vocational Training
Work Industry
Visits
Recreation Arts Music
Therapeutic Programs
Remand/Maximum Security
Chief
CS
CS
CS
CS
Correctional
Officers
COs
COs
COs
COs
Medium Security Chief
Low Security / Cottages Chief
Case Manager
Case Manager
Living Unit
Officers
Correctional
Supervisor
Programs
Living Unit
Officers
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Case Manager
Living Unit
Officers
Community
Service
59
APPENDIX E
Managing Change in Support of Correctional Programs
by Paul Crookall and Ole Ingstrup ©
Note: This is a paper presented at the 2003 International Community Corrections
Association. It discusses effective programs, “what works in corrections,” as well as
change management in community corrections. The principles and processes are similar
for change management in adult custodial services. It is included as an illustration of
some of the change management issues.
The Problem:
It was a glum crew indeed that gathered around the parole headquarter’s conference table.
The latest research showed their parolee success rate unchanged from two years earlier -when they had launched with some fanfare a new cognitive skills program approach
intended to reduce recidivism. What had gone wrong? The agency head had called
together the key players to find out.
As they eyed each other warily, seeking who to blame, the boss introduced a skilled
consultant, one who had worked with other teams to help them move from policy to
practice, from good intentions to good results.
The consultant knew that it would be challenging to recover from this difficult start.
Frustration and cynicism had already set in. She knew that to help them achieve the
results they wanted, they would need to work together in three key areas.
• First, to confirm their understanding of what works, to verify if effective programs
had been selected, and if there was a good fit with their clients and organization.
• Second, to build an understanding of the requirements for such programs to run
well -- in gardener's terms, what is the nature and complexion of the fertile soil
and care needed for this seed to thrive.
• Third, to prepare the soil -- to identify and make the organizational changes
needed in order that the treatment programs can accomplish their goals. Not just
understanding what is needed, but also translating that understanding into action.
The problem the agency faced is not unique. Indeed, as we work with public service
organizations, we find people with good intentions, and good policy, who know what
needs to be done, almost everywhere. Their biggest problem is they just don't implement
well.
As Martin Narey, head of the U.K. corrections system told us: "We shamelessly stole all
your good programs. They worked well in pilots, but we had trouble going to scale with
them."
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Such results, rather than being food for the cynics, should be food for thought. Why do
programs following the "What Works" model not always deliver the intended results?
For the past 11 years this conference has done an admirable job of sharing learning about
“What Works.” But only a fraction of our attention has been on the management side. It
is time to change that. It is time to look beyond our borders to the organizational change
management field, so that we can become better at implementation.
In this paper we will look briefly at “what works,” then at what it takes to be a programsupportive organization, then at managing change in support of correctional programs.
l The Research: What Works
The research on what works in corrections is clear and compelling. Over the past 20
years, a large and growing body of research has refined our understanding of the impact
correctional programs can have on public safety, correctional management, and the lives
of offenders.
But these concepts often go against the grain, and challenge assumptions that are widely
held publicly, and are the traditional “perceived wisdom” of corrections management. So
they are not easy to implement.
We assume that most readers of this text are familiar with that literature, and they can
skip the box below. For those less familiar, we recommend the following brief overview,
followed by a lengthier read of Compendium 2000 on Effective Correctional
Programming Laurence L. Motiuk and Ralph Serin, editors.
_______________
In Chapter 2 of that text, Don Andrews outlines 18 principles of effective correctional
programs:
Theory
1. Base your intervention efforts on a psychological theory of criminal behavior, as
opposed to biological, sociological, humanistic or social equality perspectives. When
the objective is reduced individual offending, theories that focus on other causes and
outcomes have less relevance.
2. The recommended psychological perspective is a broad band of general personality
and social learning that identifies the eight major risk factors of: (1) attitudes, values,
beliefs, rationalizations and cognitive-emotional states specifically supportive of
criminal behavior; (2) immediate interpersonal and social support for antisocial
behavior; (3) personality and temperament supports such as weak self-control, restless
aggressive energy and adventurous pleasure-seeking; (4) a history of antisocial
behavior, including early onset; (5) problematic circumstances in home, school/work,
and leisure/recreation.
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3. Reductions in reoffending are achieved through clinically relevant and
psychologically appropriate human service under conditions and settings considered
just, ethical, and efficient. Do not rely on restorative justice, incapacitation,
deterrence, or retribution.
4. Community-based services are preferred over residential. Residential programs
should be community-oriented with follow-up relapse prevention in the community.
Risk/need/responsivity/strength
5. Direct intensive programming to high risk cases. Low risk cases are best served
through just dispositions. Note that the highest risk cases of egocentric offenders
with extended criminal histories tend to be non-responsive to treatment.
6. Target Criminogenic need, focus on the risk factors from principle two that are
relevant to the individual
7. Multi-modal. Target a number of criminogenic needs.
8. Assess risk and the dynamic factor. Assess the risks in key areas noted in number 2.
9. Responsivity. Match the style, modes, and influence strategies of a service with the
learning styles, motivation, aptitude and ability of the cases. Structured behavioral,
social learning, and cognitive behavioral influence strategies work best.
Reinforcement, modeling, reinforced practice, anti-criminal modelling should be
used.
10. Specific responsivity and strengths. Match treatment style and goals with the level of
motivation. Build on the individual's strengths. Modify the program for the target
group (e.g. women, aboriginals)
11. Assess responsivity and strength factors.
12. Provide after care, structured follow-up, continuity of care, and relapse prevention
13. Use professional discretion, based on the individual circumstances
14. Create and record and follow a service plan, modified by subsequent assessment.
Implementation and Program Integrity
15. Ensure integrity in program implementation and delivery
16. Attend to staff
17. Attend to management
18. Attend to broader social arrangements.
__________
The consultant verified they had done a good job of selecting the right clinical model, so
they moved to the second key area, understanding what environment the organization
needed to create to be supportive of programs, and to implement them more productively.
ll The Research: Supportive Organizations
Most of the practitioners we have spoken with are not familiar with the substantive
literature on organizational change management, nor even the smaller body of literature
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on managing change in support of correctional programs. Too often, we fear, there has
been the naïve assumption that simply grafting the new programs on to the existing
organization will permit the programs to flourish – after all, doesn’t the research show an
average 15 to 30% reduction in recidivism from the projects?
Regrettably, these programs are not sufficiently robust to thrive in a non-professional
environment. Good programs do no produce good results unless they are accompanied
by good management of their implementation.
Some of the implementation problems practitioners have shared with us are:
• Top management does not endorse the values and objectives of “what works”
programs.
• Managers seek simple answers to complex problems.
• There are too many management layers, and the absence of direct access to the top
manager by the clinical director
• The “program board” assigns offenders to programs based on prison management
criteria, and who is needed to work in the kitchen, rather than on program priority.
• Apathy
• Entrenched beliefs, among non-program staff, in the merits of punishment and
just desserts.
• Territoriality and personal agendas versus common support of the mission
• Managers not understanding the nature of the treatment program, and letting other
criteria over-rule – for example, in one prison without enough work placements,
the warden insisted programs designed for a group size of 8 to 12 take groups of
20.
• Staff staying past their “best before date,” suffering “burn-out”.
• The public believes they know better than corrections professionals do how
offenders should be treated, and have no shyness in telling politicians and
correctional professionals what they think. In response, some correctional
managers abandon their professional principles for a political-survival type of
opportunism.
• Pilot projects are well funded, and receive management attention, but then the
program is left on its own, without an adequate budget and without the necessary
accreditation by outside review boards or other similar checks and balances, while
managers turn their attention to the next urgent thing.
Some of the solutions practitioners have shared with us, based in experience, include:
• Training all the staff in the essence of the programs, and refreshing that training
regularly
• Framing the program objectives in ways that appeal to non-program staff. For
example, explaining how it is important to understand the offender’s crime cycle
in order to intervene to disrupt it and prevent future crime, thereby protecting
society.
• Supervise the staff on site
• Provide personal and environmental support to the front line. It is a difficult
environment to work in.
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•
•
•
Involving the community, for example, circles of support for sex offenders
Staff exchanges between treatment teams and parole officers, detailed case
conferences
Team training, in treatment style, problem solving, conflict resolution, and team
process
The need for the organization to be supportive is simply common sense. Consider two
groups of inmates who receive the identical program in anger management. One group
resides in a therapeutic community where the anger management skills are practiced in
group meetings dealing with life in the cell block. The other group returns to a cellblock
where violence is rampant and officers are distant and angry. Which group will do better
after release?
To get a “what works” view we interviewed Don Andrews. Four of the principles he lists
(see box above) apply to the organization providing the program. Andrews sees that the
same social learning principles that contribute to effective programs also contribute to
effective organizations. He stressed that there needs to be high quality training, that staff
are rewarded for appropriate interactions, the programs must be consistent with the
organizational mission, and management needs to be on board. Staff need to believe in
the program and be supported in that belief by significant stakeholders. While staff’s
values should be predisposed to the program, they can be trained to function at higher
levels and be more effective.
One of the few articles on the subject is by Gendreau, Goggin, and Smith in the
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology (43.2.1999,
p.180). Gendreau et al note that “The effectiveness of any state-of-the-art (program) is
diminished if careful attention is not paid to how programs are implemented in the first
place.”
Building on personal experience and the technology transfer literature, Gendreau et al
identify four areas that need management attention:
• Organizational factors, how the host agency is managed. Success is seen as more
likely if there is a history of adopting new initiatives, problem solving and conflict
resolution skills are high, staff turnover is low, staff are trained, there is university
support for the programs.
• Program factors: the need has been empirically demonstrated, the program is
evidence-based, stakeholders agree the program is worthwhile and is congruent
with their values, the program initially focuses on intermediate goals, the program
chosen is one of those demonstrated to achieve on average success
• Change Agent: a skilled and committed change agent leads the process and
follows through
• Staff Factors: staff are trained and have the skills and confidence to run the
program, they participate in the program design and receive feedback.
Gendreau has begun a necessary process, getting program managers to more deeply
consider implementation factors. But this needs to be accompanied by correctional
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managers doing the same thing – and correctional and program managers talking with
each other about how best to support each other’s work. Gendreau’s experience and
research, for the most part, corresponds with our own. We diverge on one key point: the
change agent. Program implementation is not an easy task. It is not an isolated change
that can be grafted on – it fundamentally affects the whole organization, and the
community. It requires the support of the whole management team, not just one change
agent. It must be ‘championed’ by the top manager. And the project leader must be
someone who is clearly supported by and in close collaboration with the top manager.
Another approach to studying and improving management of programs is program and
site accreditation. James McGuire describes the model used in the United Kingdom.
Programs are assessed against eleven criteria, and the program is accredited if it achieves
19 or more of 22 possible points. In addition, the site where the program is to be run
must meet the criteria of having a system to collect monitoring information and have an
annual on-site audit. The Correctional Service of Canada and the prison service in the
United Kingdom have established a process of program AND site accreditation to begin
to address some of these issues.
As the parole agency team reviewed the research, they realized there is more to becoming
an effective organization than just having good programs. And even knowing the
principles of change management does not mean they will be applied effectively. They
realized they didn’t know a lot about the field, and that perhaps it was a good idea to have
an expert to coach them. So they next turned to better understanding organizational
change.
III The Research: Change Management
Information, lessons learned, and best practices are of little inherent worth. They are
only useful when they lead to new and more productive actions. It all depends on the
application. Peter Senge
(in the Academy of Management Executive Magazine 2003/17/2 p.47)
Chris Argyris pointed out that people often have an espoused theory -- what they tell the
world is the way things work, and how they behave. In corrections today, many of us
espouse the “what works” model. But, Argyris notes, many of us in fact act differently
from our espoused beliefs, acting on our "theories in use."
The theories of retribution, deterrence, and incapacitation have deep roots in every
correctional system and have become, over the centuries, entrenched in behavior. They
are still both espoused and practiced by much of the public, and many politicians. To
move an organization from these "theories in action" to a "what works" model is much,
much more complex and time consuming than hiring a few psychologists to deliver
programs. The whole of the organization must change. It must go further, and reach out
to change its surrounding environment.
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Change Management Models
No single approach can fit all. Yet we have discovered, in our research into excellence in
public service organizations, that every successful organization had in practice a change
management model, which they had adjusted to their own circumstances.
When change efforts fail, or a program does not achieve its objectives, it is common to
blame organizational resistance, but this is an inadequate explanation. Change goes
wrong for systemic reasons: poor vision, inadequate communications, insufficient
planning and resources, failure to make a compelling case, inconsistent messages and
flip-flopping between "espoused theory" and "theory in use."
The consultant realized she needed to head off any tendency for the team members to
blame each other, and instead to focus on selecting a change management model that fit
the needs of the organization.
Change models fall into three main types: top-down; transformational leadership; and
strategic approaches.
Top-down models are the traditional favorite in the para-military world of institutional
corrections. They emphasize leadership. The boss can orchestrate relatively rapid
change by developing a vision, communicating it and involving staff. The leaders set
goals, clarify desired outcomes, provide feedback, give rewards for desired performance
and take action when goals are not met. They do not ignore the human factor -- they care
about people and want to see them grow -- but they focus on performance driving cultural
change, not the other way around.
On the other hand, the social science graduates employed in program design and delivery,
and in community corrections, tend to resist top-down approaches. As do more and more
of the generation now joining the work force, the baby boom echo.
They tend to better appreciate transformational leadership, which works by influencing
the values and priorities of staff, thereby motivating them to achieve more. Leaders
inspire followers through the mission, optimism, enthusiasm and emotional appeal. They
provide personal support and encouragement, show concern, and offer coaching. They
set a personal example, sacrifice for the group and show good ethics. They challenge
people to view problems from new perspectives and to find new solutions, while making
it safe for them to express negative emotions and concerns about management. Staff then
connect better with the mission, and seek ways to improve their performance.
Management guru Henry Mintzberg, in Managing Politically, observes that change
bubbles upward: "You can't drive change down an organization," he says, "You facilitate
the situation so that change can come up. Create a climate where people can individually
and collectively think for themselves, take initiatives, and build interesting things.
Change grows from the grass roots, where people know what needs to be done."
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Within the models, not all leaders are bigger than life. Some are dramatic leaders, like
Jack Welch. Others work quietly behind the scenes. Leading by example and working
through others. It is, however, important to remember that corrections always – directly
or indirectly – is prominent in the political arena, and that leaders who let their employees
express any feeling in any form may create difficulties for the relevant minister and
thereby for the correctional organisation itself.
Strategic approaches follow a recipe, and the best known is that of Harvard Professor
John Kotter. He lays out an eight step strategy:
1. Establish a sense of urgency
2. Create a guiding coalition
3. Develop a vision and strategy
4. Communicate the change vision
5. Empower employees for broad-based action
6. Generate short-term wins
7. Consolidate gains and produce more change
8. Anchor new approaches in the culture
Surprisingly, his model does not start with the mission -- that follows after a sense of
urgency has been created or understood to exist and there is a coalition to support it.
And while many people focus on cultural change from the start, Kotter sees it as a byproduct. "Culture changes only after you have successfully altered people's actions," he
says, "after the new behavior produces some group benefit for a period of time, and
people see the connection between the new actions and the performance improvement."
Each of the three basic approaches is effective in some situations, ineffective in others.
In some cases, you can change how individuals feel and provide them with new
experiences, and they will eventually adopt new behaviors, leading in time to a new
"corporate culture." In other cases, where the leader has trust and credibility, and control
of the levers of recruitment, promotion, incentives, and dismissal -- a top-down approach
can work, provided the people factor is not ignored. The new behavior is forced, but then
becomes accepted. And finally, the systems approach of changing the work processes, so
that, over time, people change as well, can also be effective.
All three approaches are more effective if the following principles are respected:
• Strong leadership, a vision, and a change team or guiding coalition charged with
implementation are present
• The management team has perseverance and commitment, following through
• The management team shows understanding of the current culture, and listens to
staff,
• Managers have the courage to change, both to change oneself, and to tackle
resistance head-on.
• Managers simultaneously understand that not all resistance is personal, not all
resistance is inappropriate, and listening to why there is resistance may lead to
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solutions. The resistance to be tackled head-on is that which impedes achieving
the mission.
Generally speaking, all of the effective change management models involve a variation
on five key stages:
1. Understanding: identify the need for change, research change, understand yourself
and your organization, select a change model that is right for you,
2. Vision and strategic planning. Analyse the gap between where you are now and
where you want to be. Develop plans and performance indicators
3. Implementation: making the case for change. Communication. Capacity
building. Reach out to both hearts and minds
4. Transition: letting go, dealing with resistance, getting external systems consistent
5. Following up: monitor and assess. Report on progress. Re-evaluate. Adjust.
Continue.
Stage 1: Build Understanding
Choosing a Change Management Model
It is as important to select a change model appropriate to the organization's situation as it
is important to select correctional programs based on the risk, needs, and responsivity
principles. The first stage "Assessment" provides a solid foundation for subsequent
stages. Leaders need to be aware of their own leadership style as well as the
organization's culture.
Understand one's leadership style
Long-serving managers must be careful not to assume that they know the organization
intimately and skip this stage, or treat it casually.
Leaders must first understand themselves. Are you a quiet, behind-the-scenes leader?
An out-front take-charge type? Transformational? How do you work best with others
and influence them? Sources of feedback include the plethora of tests and types -- Myers
Briggs, your colours, etc. (Be cautious, to match the tool to your organization’s needs.
The most expensive isn’t always the best). Most revealing, however, is a comprehensive
360% degree feedback, which we recommend for any manager wanting better insight.
Do you understand how you build trust, hold people accountable, communicate with
others, work as a team member?
Knowing your personal leadership style helps determine which change model to use.
Understand the organization's culture
What are the values and “theories in action” of the staff? Know what is required to
support correctional programs, assess if the organization provides those supports.
Understand the organization's response to change
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The consultant worked with the District team through the first stage: the team had
already identified the need for change -- the poor outcome measures. Together, they
analyzed the management culture, reviewed past change attempts, and decided on an
approach. It was a small agency, and people knew each other well, so they decided on a
task force led by the Director. But their review had revealed that while the agency tended
to be a "front-runner" with enthusiastic support for new initiatives, they tended to
abandon those projects in favor of the next new thing.
Stage 2: Mission and Strategy
Building on the understanding gained in the original analysis, the next step is to create a
vision of what the organization will look like after the change, consistent with its mission
and values. Comparing where you want to be, to where you are, is a gap analysis. Out of
this the strategic plan is built. It includes how to communicate the vision and plan, how
to document the gap between here and there, to identify priorities for improvement and
early success, set measurable targets, and specify how to report on progress.
The whole organization should be involved, not just the program staff. Useful
approaches include town hall style meetings and open forums where everyone
participates, not just the usual vocal few. Early in the process, choose your change team
carefully. And most importantly, make sure they are trained as a team.
Professor Carol Beatty of Queen's University has researched effective teams and found
three key factors lead to team success (Canadian Government Executive Magazine, issue
2003-4):
1. problem solving skills, including patient communication, learning to really listen,
and consistently applying a structured problem-solving model
2. conflict resolution skills, surfacing and dealing with, rather than glossing over
concerns and problems, dealing with the thorny issues rather than moving on to
the next fad
3. team management practices, including a team-specific mission, a one-for-all and
all-for-one mentality, role clarity and commitment to the team
Just throwing a group of people together does not make a team, or a task force.
Our research shows successful managers consider getting the mission right to be their
most important task. But it is neither the first, nor the last, thing done. Jim Collins,
researching the best in the private sector, reports in “Good to Great” that the vision
emerges over time. But, ultimately, people need a clear idea of where to go, and how to
get there. Some things need to be specific -- for example, a noble statement like "staff
must treat offenders with dignity" is not as helpful as basing a specific direction that staff
follow the research-based supervisory model Don Andrews describes that combines
"quality of interpersonal relationships and the structuring skills of the worker."
The vision must allow people to integrate present, past, and future practices -- as opposed
to a 90 degree turn that rejects all previous values. The vision must convince staff the
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program will have a positive impact on the offender, a positive contribution to the
community, and increase their job satisfaction.
Once the vision has taken shape, and measures have been identified to test its
achievement, it is time to refresh the "gap analysis" with more specific data.
Kotter points out in an organizational context what we all know from therapy -- early
successes are important, to generate enthusiasm and overcome fatigue. Don't count on
such successes to happen spontaneously -- make sure they occur.
Organizational culture is difficult to change. It is wise to identify features in the current
culture that support "what works" programming, and to reward and highlight them. And
to identify what new features need to be introduced. Often ignored is the need to let go of
some things, to recognize those values, beliefs, and behaviors that are incompatible with
effective programs. For example, the warden who overloaded the groups may have to let
go of his commitment to “full employment” in favour of effective programs placements.
Other managers may have to let go of outdated hierachical styles and move to more
horizontal, collaborative models.
Develop a plan and performance indicators
How will you measure results? Re-arrest, reconviction, re-incarceration are traditionally
used. But as the parole agency found out, it can be years before reliable feedback is
received. What interim measures can be used? What other changes are being made, and
how can they all be integrated with each other? What is the plan, and how will you know
you are making progress?
Communicate
Tell stories. Art Daniels, former head of the correctional system in the Province of
Ontario, Canada, advises "To change culture, you have to tell stories of people who broke
down those barriers. Stories from within your organization and from best practices
elsewhere." At the same time, it is important to tie the initiative into the history of the
organization. People are tired of new, disconnected organizational initiatives, pumped
out by head office or over-zealous bosses returning from conferences. "Say it has roots,"
Daniels advises, "It's part of a natural evolution. It's building on what we did before."
That, discussions revealed, had been one of the problems at the parole agency. Outside
of the program delivery staff, who were deeply committed, the parole officers and
support staff saw this as just another fad, that would come and go. In fact, some were
going so far as to tell the parolees that. At one halfway house where day parolees stayed,
the supervisor was stressing the importance of the latest "build a positive self-image"
personal development course at the local community college. He made no effort to
ensure offenders hooked up in community programs that were supportive of the cog.
skills courses they had taken inside.
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Stage 3: Execution (Implementation)
Reshaping organizations
Implementation follows the vision and the plan. The first step is to build the foundation - make the case so that staff understand and support the program -- how it is better for the
offender, how it helps protect society, and what is in it for them personally. The research
stats, of up to 30% reductions in recidivism should be motivating. But staff also need to
see that they are capable of making the transition from their current approach to "what
works". And to see that their jobs will become more satisfying.
The next step is to communicate the plan. Our recent surveys of organizations show that
poor communication has become the number one bottleneck to change. Having worked
with hundreds of organizations, we have yet to find one where the staff report too much
“real” communication. We found managers who said they communicated well, and staff
who were inundated with memos and e-mail, neither of which contained much
communication, and certainly offered no two-way dialogue on important issues.
Jack Welch, the legendary chairman of General Electric, says "Whenever I had an idea or
message I wanted to drive into the organization, I could never say it enough. I repeated it
over and over, at every meeting and review, for years, until I could almost gag on the
words. I always felt I had to be 'over the top' to get hundreds of thousands of people
behind an idea."
Many of the implementation aides suggested by Gendreau and Andrews are common
with the organizational change literature's recommendations: reinforce the desired
behavior; structure incentives; focus on the people aspects of change; provide
opportunities to experience the change first-hand; and develop an infrastructure to
consolidate the desired culture.
Implementation is an ongoing process, with continued discussions of how and what,
questioning, following through, and ensuring accountability. Support from the top is
crucial.
Major management changes take 30 to 50 per cent of the top managers time for the first
six months or so, and significant time thereafter. This is a marathon, not a hundred-yard
dash.
The Burning Platform.
John Kotter, and many others, contend that you need a "burning platform", a compelling
reason to change. Communications focus on how bad things are, and that they will get
worse -- it is urgent to change.
But that strategy can appear a little contrived, and lead to cynicism. At the other extreme
is the "Paradise Island” approach of showing people what's in it for them, identifying
their needs and how the change will benefit them doesn't always deal with the benefits to
the clients. What works best is to focus on the mission, and how the change will
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contribute to better achieving the mission while improving the workplace. Most good
employees do understand that we go to work to accomplish something while having a
good life at work – and not the other way round.
The Elevator Speech
"You must be able to describe the vision driving a change in five minutes or less and get
a reaction that signifies both understanding and interest, or you are in trouble" Kotter
advises. Some wags have reduced this to "What is the key message you would want to
get across if you only had the time you were riding in the elevator together?"
One of the most powerful ways to communicate is through stories. Leaders must tell
stories that touch both emotions and intellect. It works better than graphs or recidivism
charts. Despite the lack of overall progress, the parole agency staff knew of several
parolees, chronic offenders who, having taken the program, went on to successful work
and personal lives. Those stories, the consultant realized, would have a more powerful
impact on the staff than reading an unknown academic's research data.
Another tool is "powerful conversations". One where the manager creates a situation
where he/she and the staff member can honestly share feelings, beliefs, and ideas with
each other -- through ensuring a clear expression of wants and needs by both sides, and
making sure the discussion ends with explicitly stated commitments that are followed up
on.
Elevator speeches alone are not enough. Two researchers, Allan Kennedy and Terry
Deal, found that managers need to capture five to ten percent of each employee's time to
achieve cultural change. That's 10 to 25 days per employee a year in meetings, training,
learning, and discussion.
Most important of all, it is not what you say, but what you do that matters. It takes more
than memos to inspire staff. What is effective is when managers "walk the talk".
Capacity Building
We know enough not to ask an offender to register for university courses before
obtaining his high school equivalency. But how often do we ask staff to take on tasks
without having built the capacity, within the organization, and within them, to succeed?
Capacity building involves providing incentives to recognize and reinforce the desired
new behaviors. It includes focusing on people, to ensure they have the support and the
capacity to handle the stress and make the change. It means providing training, based on
adult learning principals and social learning theory, allowing them to try out the new
behavior in safe circumstances, where they can question and experiment to resolve
personal concerns.
Capacity building deals with the gaps identified in the infrastructure, and provides the
tools and training to get the job done.
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The performance appraisal and reward system needs to be updated to reinforce "what
works" contributions.
The capacity is personal, as well as organizational. Change stirs feelings of concern and
creates stress. It is important to be sensitive to these concerns, rather than dismissive.
The challenge is to
• build awareness and acceptance of changing roles and responsibilities
• articulate competencies and skills
• assess what is needed for new competencies, and
• enact learning plans to meet the needs.
It really is not responsible, professional corrections to place offenders or staff in a
situation where they are not prepared and do not have the capacity to thrive.
Especially since we all know that public service agencies tend to be risk averse. Staff
need to know they can make the transition with confidence. They also need to know that
risk management is different from foolish behaviour or indifference to outcomes. Only
the managed risk is acceptable.
New programs require thoughtfully targeted training, development, and infrastructure,
based on the understanding developed in Stage 1, Understanding, and the needs revealed
by gap analysis.
And all of this capacity building and strategic planning needs to be costed, with a budget
assigned and realistic time-frames established. If, through poor planning and inadequate
budgeting, management sends the message that rigorous implementation is not crucial,
then staff will take the same approach.
One correctional system provides a centre of expertise, where staff can go to get more
information and upgrade their skills. The Correctional Service of Canada has an internal
research and program development department that both collaborates and competes with
the academics to find and develop more effective programs.
Providing "what works" programs without the supporting infrastructure, without the rest
of the organization being on-line, is a "poisoned gift."
Stage 4: Transition
"It may look difficult, but it's quite safe holding on to the first bar. And it's fine when
you've grabbed the second bar. It's when you let go, and are between bars, that you are
vulnerable." Karl Wallenda, aerialist, head of The Flying Wallendas
The mission development, understanding, planning, and implementation have led to the
big event, the program launch. Now the hard part begins, making the transition -- letting
go of one set of procedures, behaviors, and habits, to take on a new way of doing things,
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and a new way of feeling. And being vulnerable, as we let go of the old and safe on our
way to the new and safe.
The first priority is usually to deal with resistance to change, and to do so head-on.
Pretending it isn't there does not often lead to it going away. Another priority is to get
external systems consistent with the desired culture, and supporting staff through the
transition.
Most correctional agencies have partners in government, the NGO and private sectors.
Getting them on line, and consistent with "what works" is important.
Having a contract with an aftercare agency that firmly believes in an empathic, warm
relationship with offenders, without any accompanying accountability and structure, for
example, is not consistent with the “what works” model.
One crucial partner is the media. The media readily reports both the good and the bad in
the private sector, knowing we can learn from both. But they tend to over-report the
negative in the public service, and under-report the positive. To thrive, "what works"
programming needs community support. Building relationships with the media, when
things are going well, when there are positive results to share, is important. Realize that
we also have to understand that corrections always – because of it’s very business – will
have a tremendous communications challenge compared to other public service
organizations.
The communications, training, and review are constant, and the early successes and
rewards need to start flowing. Have early events where staff are recognized for their
contributions; track success rates at three and six months, not just after two years; support
staff as they try on the new behaviours.
Culture has deep roots that are not easily pulled up -- certainly not by exhortation. The
trick is to be both actor and observer. To be, as Jim Collins puts it "Both on the dance
floor, active, and in the balcony, observing and reflective" at the same time.
During transitions, both short-term “wins” and long-term objectives must be
simultaneously in mind. Managers must step back and reflect, reinforce progress and
correct where needed.
We often hear that changing organizational culture is like turning around an ocean liner, a
slow ponderous task. Some estimate it takes seven to ten years for organizations to make
a turn around. And in the case of large institution-based prison systems, that may even be
an underestimate. That, however, does not justify going slowly. In fact, it should spur
efforts to get things going now. There is more danger in moving too slowly than too
quickly. And after all we are in the business of getting things done. The costs in financial
and especially human terms are enormous when we advance in the slow lane.
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Stage 5: Follow through
Every project looks like a disaster in the middle. You have to work through the messy
middle. Rosabeth Moss Kanter
The best-laid schemes o' mice and men
Gang aft a-gley Robert Burns, Scottish Poet.
Bitter experience has often proven the truth of Robbie Burns’ admonition that the best
laid plans often go awry. So it is essential to keep returning to the first stage, to check
where things are, how the implementation is going, whether things have “gang a-gley”.
What progress is being made? What has contributed to successes and failures? What do
the measurements show of how far you have advanced. We should in this context remind
ourselves that “what gets measured gets done” is a particularly important principle in
times of change.
Within the agency, the research and evaluation people had been vigilant, and caught the
problem as soon as the data was available. It was not a pleasant story, but it was far
better to know and take action, than to wait until some high-profile incident brought
public scrutiny and disaster response.
Even in times of success, when the change effort has created a new culture that reflects
the mission and supports the new behavior, it is still important to review. To reflect on
what went well, and what didn't. Measuring and reporting on progress is important -- we
are dealing with evidence-based, research supported, audited and accredited/evaluated
programs. We should subject management efforts to the same scrutiny -- so we can
better tell our story, and learn and improve.
Reporting results
For "what works" to increase in use and public support as a correctional model, it
becomes increasingly important to market the principles and practices to agencies you
partner with, and the public.
And, as this conference is showing, it is equally as important to research and report on
organizational change to embrace evidence-based programs.
To measure and document progress, letting everyone know how you have done compared
to your targets – whether the news is good or bad.
As management practices supportive of “what works” programs become better
established within the field of corrections, it will be important to market both the
programs and the management practices to others in the field, and to partner agencies.
Adjusting
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Inevitably, there will be mistakes and unwelcome surprises. The change process must
foresee that and be prepared. Or, as Dr. Phil puts it “Sometimes we make the right
decision. Other times we need to make the decision right.”
We used to employ the imagery of a ship’s captain, responding to the winds that would
blow the ship off course, and correcting so that they ended up at the intended destination.
It is time to update that imagery. Airline pilots now study the variables, and make
adjustments before going off course, tens and even hundreds of times during a trip. And
if they don’t do it, the measurement systems in their computers and the air traffic controls
stations will quickly bring it to their attention.
Management texts often treat change as a process with an end state, where you “refreeze”
the organization in the new, improved style. It doesn’t work that way. Major change
requires constant attention. Adopting the new culture must remain a management
priority, not simply something to mention in the annual appraisal. The management
team, and not just the program head or a change champion, must continue to
communicate regularly, have powerful conversations, share stories, listen to staff,
respond to concerns, and embody the change they want to see in the culture. –
Continuous change must become a way of life.
There are many different patterns, within this five stage framework, that can be effective.
Managers should chose a change model that fits with their personal style, the
organization’s readiness for change, areas of resistance and strength, and the strategic
plan. There are core competencies that need to be developed, including: teamwork
(process, problem solving, conflict resolution); the ability to surface staff concerns,
through open sessions, surveys, powerful conversations, and dialogue; and an
appreciation for the right correctional programs for the agency and the clients.
The cultural undercurrents in the organization inevitably affect how change is perceived
and how successful the change initiative will be. Managers must pilot their organization,
striving to understand the beliefs, values, and behaviour. And they must take action, to
remove barriers, build capacity, and, above all, communicate passionately at all stages.
The investment will pay off in the longer term: the resulting more mature and
professional organizational culture will be better able to cope with future change, and the
programs will have more impact on the offenders, improving their well-being while
increasing the protection of society.
Taking Personal Change Seriously
Be the change you want to see in the world
Mahatma Gandhi
The important thing is not to stop questioning Albert Einstein
Would you like to work for yourself? Paul Crookall
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Organizations, much as we want to make them out to be living, breathing creatures, are
still made up of individuals. Organizational change depends on individual change.
Organizational change efforts fail when management tries to change everything and
everyone, except themselves. The single most effective way for managers to change
people is to change themselves, and model what they want to see. That is what it means
to be “a change leader.” It is not by chance that the same principles underlie both the
programs that change individual behaviour in offenders and individual behaviour in
ourselves. And one should not forget that people usually don’t mind change, but they
hate to be changed.
There exist limitations to organizational learning arising from deep habits of thought and
action that we have acquired over the years, and resist analysis and removal because they
are so deeply rooted.
Detecting and correcting personal error is a radical concept. In the 1990s Paul visited a
prison that had, much like the parole agency, launched a new program. This was an
industrial program intended to both provide inmates with an income (by paying close to
‘street’ wages), and give them the job and work skills needed to stay employed, and
crime free, on release. The program was well received, the staff and inmates were happy,
there was a steady stream of visitors to the facility to benchmark on their best practices.
There was even a five-person research unit set up to track a host of success indicators. At
the time of his visit, the research team was about to issue its first report -- showing that
the prison indicators were all positive. Violence was down, shop production up, the jail
was clean and efficient. Those offenders who had been released were more successful
than normal in getting better-paying jobs. But they were no more successful than
offenders released from other prisons in keeping those jobs, and no more successful than
offenders released from other prisons in staying free of reconviction.
Interested in what actions the prison had taken in response to the report, Paul checked
back with the research department a year later. It had been downsized to one person, who
was focused on the industrial productivity indicators. Not exactly the best response. If
you don’t like what you see in the mirror – don’t break the mirror, fix the problem!
Peter Senge has pointed out that the detection and correction of error is eminently logical
and the role of management. But some of the sorts of "errors" are personal. To detect
personal error is to admit incompetence. To go public with this confession is often a
career limiting move.
Many public service organizations place a great deal of emphasis on denying error, rather
than detecting and correcting it. In one department that we know the view is that “if you
admit to a mistake – you have committed two!!” Especially when the "higher ups" have
championed the policy or program. But saying "I am denying that an error exists"
constitutes, as Senge puts it, admitting the error. So we must deny the denial to
ourselves, as well as others. The weight of institutional culture is often contrary to
learning. Actually it is often tempting to characterize certain correctional organizations as
suffering from advanced learning disabilities.
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Many public service organizations rate managers on how well they interface with the
boss. A pleasant personality, a quick reassurance that everything is alright, agreement
that the boss's new policy idea is wonderful -- and that is it for the accountability session.
But, as Chuck Kehoe, president of the American Correctional Association told us,
"Performance measurement is no longer a group of managers sitting around telling
stories. New technology allows us to measure performance-based outcomes. The bar is
being raised." And so it should.
Conclusion
As the consultant went through her description of the five stages of change, the staff
realized they would have to work as a team to achieve the necessary changes to the
organization in support of the correctional programs they believed in. They thought
about how to apply what they had learned.
They realized that when “what works” programs are rooted in a supportive organization,
it is reasonable to expect a 15 to 30% reduction in re-offending. In contrast, doing “what
doesn’t work,” spending time and money on programs while failing to provide the
conditions necessary for them to thrive, is fundamentally irresponsible. It is poor
stewardship of the resources entrusted to them. It was in violation of their mission
statement to protect society while helping offenders become law-abiding.
Investing in change management, and focusing on implementation, would lead to benefits
in public safety, the quality of life of individual offenders, and staff job satisfaction. It
would be worth the effort.
They set up a change management group to further research change, and work through
the stages of change to make their organization a more fertile field in which the programs
could thrive. The head of the organization made it a personal priority, and a corporate
priority, with the support of the group, and the whole management team. The final
results are not yet in, but they are making progress, and initial results are positive.
The Challenge
Professionals in many disciplines are finding they make more breakthrough discoveries at
the edges of their discipline, when they cross over and share across disciplines.
We suggest that your challenge is to cross over into the field of organizational change.
To research and build a better model of change management in support of correctional
programs. And if you accept that challenge, both the correctional program and change
management fields will benefit.
The challenge for researchers is to look at what managers do well, and what they do not
so well, in facilitating “what works” programming. The challenge for managers is to
become better at changing themselves, and their organizations, so that our communities
can better benefit from improved results from “what works” programming.
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These are not easy challenges, but we are capable of meeting them, if we have the
courage to change, and the tenacity to stay with it till it is done.
Bibliography
Ingstrup, Ole, and Crookall, Paul, The Three Pillars of Public Management, McGillQueen’s University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-77352-061-9
Kotter, John, The Heart of Change, Harvard Business School Press, 2002, ISBN 157851-254-9
McGuire, James, “Defining Correctional Programs” in Compendium 2000, L. Motiuk and
R. Serin (eds), 2001, published by the Correctional Service of Canada ISBN 0-66231411-5
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Appendix F: Footnotes
Sharman, P. (2002), Healthy Workplace Project consultant’s report, Prison Service of Tasmania.
Martinson, R. What works? Questions and answers about prison reform, The Public Interest, 35, 22-54,
1974.
3
Andrews, D.A., Zinger,I., Hoge, R.D., Bonta, J., Gendreau, P. & Cullen, F.T. (1990), Does correctional
treatment work? A clinically relevant and psychologically informed meta-analysis, Criminology, Vol. 28,
369-404, referred to in Howells, K. & Day, A. (1999) Trends and issues in crime and criminal justice,
Australian Institute of Criminology, May, No. 112.
4
Borzycki, M. & Baldry, E. (2003), Trends and issues in crime and criminal justice, Australian Institute of
Criminology, July, No. 262, with reference to Cullen, F.T. & Gendreau, P. (2000), Assessing correctional
rehabilitation: Policy, practice and prospects”, Criminal Justice 2000: Policies, Processes and Decisions of
the Criminal Justice System, vol. 3, pp.109-76.
5
Ref: World Prison Brief of the International Centre for Prison Studies (which sources Australia data from
Australian Bureau of Statistics). www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/rel/icps/worldbrief. Website based at Kings College
London.
6
Dr Monica Henderson, Comparative Analysis 2002-2003, Report to the National Corrections Advisory
Group, November 2003. Not available to public, this version has final agreement of Advisory Group.
7
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Corrective Services Australia, September Quarter 2003, No. 4512.0.
8
Dr Monica Henderson, Comparative Analysis 2002-2003, Report to the National Corrections Advisory
Group, November 2003. Not available to public, this version has final agreement of Advisory Group. Total
cost is the total of recurrent and capital cost per prisoner per day. Note there is ‘a reasonably wide level of
jurisdictional variation, attributable at least in part to counting methodological differences.’
1
2
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Recommendations
Mission
1. We recommend that the Northern Territory Correctional Service (NTCS)
maintain its Mission and Strategic Direction.
2. We recommend that the NTCS align its organisation with the Mission, providing
the necessary support to achieve it.
People
3. We recommend the Department recruit a new Director, with leadership and
change management skills and experience, as soon as possible to fill the current
vacancy.
4. We recommend the Superintendents report directly to the Director. (The Service
might also want to consider making the heads of community corrections and juvenile
corrections direct reports as well).
5. We recommend the Service create a new position of Deputy Director Indigenous
Affairs and Programs, to be responsible for inmate programming, Indigenous staff
recruitment and retention, Indigenous programming, and liaison with Indigenous
organisations and other government departments responsible for Indigenous issues.
6. We recommend the position of Deputy Director Indigenous Affairs and Programs
position be staffed with an Indigenous Territorian experienced in one or more of the
components of the portfolio – corrections, education, reintegrative programs,
Indigenous affairs, psychology, or community development.
7. We recommend the two current Deputy Commissioner positions be reviewed and
new statements of qualifications and duties be prepared that integrate the two
Deputy Commissioner roles into the two Deputy Director roles.
8. We recommend that program staff report to the Superintendents and that the
Superintendents be held accountable for program delivery and its impact.
9. We recommend expanded interaction with other correctional services,
organisations, and experts, including staff exchanges.
10. We recommend that each member of the senior management team have an
individual development plan that includes participation in the Territory course for
executives.
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11. We recommend a teamwork and change management course be designed and
delivered (see Appendix B for details).
12. We recommend that correctional officers be given a minimum of five days per
year training.
13. We recommend that ten additional correctional staff be assigned to each of
Darwin CC and Alice Springs CC for up to two years to support training.
14. We recommend each prison officer, prison officer first class, senior prison
officer, and chief prison officer be assigned a specific supervisor who will: meet
regularly with the individual, determine and record training and development needs
and pass that information on to staff training, set mutually agreed specific
measurable objectives (tied to the NTCS mission and the institution’s objectives) in
writing for the next year, meet periodically to discuss achievement of the objectives,
and complete a performance appraisal at the end of the year.
15. We recommend that all non-security staff similarly have appraisals and
performance reviews.
16. We recommend that the rotation of Chief and Senior Prison Officers and the
regular reassignment of these positions stop immediately. Specific reassignments
can continue to be made as needed.
17. We recommend the rotation of prison officers be reduced as much as possible,
pending development of a new roster in support of the Living Unit/Unit
Management program.
18. We recommend that correctional officer training be expanded.
19. We recommend that non-security staff should receive at least a week of
orientation training to the prison environment and their security responsibilities
(and basic self defence, should they choose it).
20. We recommend that the current psychological testing for recruits be assessed for
its validity, reliability, and cost effectiveness.
21. We recommend that there be a steady intake of correctional recruits, that
qualified candidates be placed on a waiting list, and that trained be provided and
appointments made in anticipation of vacancies, rather than in response to them.
We recommend rosters be kept at full strength.
22. We recommend that correctional centre managers be involved in screening as
well as selecting recruits.
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23. We recommend that exit interviews be conducted with staff who have left in the
past year, and those who leave in the future, to determine causes for separation, and
suggest solutions for retention of good staff.
24. We recommend that the action plan to advance Indigenous employment be made
a management priority and the special measures outlined above be taken in support.
25. We recommend the organisation review the appropriateness of the flat
award, and consider restoring shift and weekend bonuses (sometimes referred to
as penalty pay). They should also review the roster for improvements to allow
more weekends off.
26. We recommend that rosters be adjusted to ensure they meet the requirements of
the collective agreement.
27. We recommend that a joint union-management task force be established to
examine the causes and solutions for high sick leave usage.
28. We recommend rosters be maintained at their authorized levels, of 150 at Alice
Springs CC and 170 at Darwin CC.
29. We recommend that officers not available for correctional officer duties, on a
long-term basis, be replaced on the roster.
30. We recommend the Department of Justice to assign a senior HR specialist to this
project for the next two years.
Aligning the Organisation
31. We recommend the Living Units model of Unit Management be used as the basis
for aligning the organisation with its mission, with correctional officers becoming
more responsible for case management and interaction with inmates, and multidisciplinary teams being developed.
32. We recommend that planning to convert to Living Units be done by working
groups, with implementation over the next six to 12 months.
33. We recommend that top management review the reward and accountability
structure and better align it with the Mission and Strategy.
34. We recommend that government update the legislation, to embed the
philosophy, values, and mission of the Service, as well as to deal with operational
issues.
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35. We recommend a task force to assess compliance with the Australian Guidelines
and the Service’s Mission and Strategy.
36. We recommend Superintendents be responsible and accountable for delivery on
measurable results tied to the Mission.
37. We recommend regular audit/evaluation of each of the major activities of the
Service, to measure alignment with the mission and the policies and regulations of
government and the department.
38. We recommend expanding the official visitors program to include more citizen
participation.
Programs
39. We recommend the Service pursue negotiations with Health and Community
Services to further develop the concept of small specialized secure mental health
units in each of Darwin and Alice Springs Correctional Centres, with security and
programs provided by corrections, and specialized treatment provided by Health.
These negotiations would lead to a Memorandum of Understanding that would
guide the service and fairly allocate costs.
40. We recommend these units meet both the Australian Guidelines for corrections
and the relevant health care standards.
41. We recommend ambulatory mental health services to the rest of the prison be
increased, and that the prisons do more to create an environment that is supportive
of such treatment.
42. We recommend that once these units are established, only inmates who can be
safely accommodated without escort would be transferred to Royal Darwin Hospital
for treatment.
43. We recommend the Service assess the need level of its inmates, and provide the
additional professional staff, as part of the transition to the Living Unit/Unit
Management model, roughly on the ratio of one case management officer per 35 to
50 inmates, and one psychologist per 100 to 150 inmates.
44. We recommend that operational funds be restored to prison industries and the
shops be run at full capacity. This may require review of the legislation to allow for
sale of products not used internally by Corrections or the public service.
45. We recommend that targets for achieving literacy, numeracy, and English
comprehension be established and the spaces to deliver the programs be provided.
46. We recommend that a review of inmate needs be conducted using the Integrated
Offender Management approach, and programs put in place to meet the
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criminogenic needs identified (such as sex offender programs and cognitive
behavioural therapy).
47. We recommend that programs be delivered on the evening shift as well as the
day shift, with access expanded to a minimum of 3.5 hours in the morning, 3.5 hours
in the afternoon, and 2 hours in the evening.
48. We recommend improved family-inmate visits and correspondence.
• Enhance the visits facilities. Security need not be compromised by providing a
grassy area on which families can sit and interact,
• More child-friendly, playground equipment for children
• Expand visiting times. Limits of one two hour visit or two one hour visits are not
adequate, nor do they appear to be compelled by operational reasons within the
prison. At Alice, especially, when top end families come for a weekend,
extensions should be made.
• Review the telephone program, to see if it can be enhanced and/or costs reduced
• Extended stay family visiting units
• Video links have proven useful, and should be expanded. In cases where inmates
have been involuntarily transferred, the service should look at paying the costs of
weekly video links
• Photographs taken during visits – if equipment control is an issue, the prison
could provide an instant camera and bill a dollar or two for the costs of film.
• Family days, with barbeque, dancing/singing by inmates. Done now at end of
Good Beginnings Program, should be expanded to whole of prison
• Improved provisions for young children to be housed with their incarcerated
mother
• Make visits and family contact a programs responsibility.
49. We recommend special measures to manage long-sentence and life-sentenced
inmates, and prepare them for consideration by the Parole Board.
50. We recommend there be more formal efforts to support the sale of art and music
products, at competitive prices (with suitable deductions for costs and restitution).
51. We recommend improved sports and recreation facilities and programs.
52. We recommend that the Northern Territory Correctional Services should review
each program against the theoretical model of what works. It should also evaluate
the effectiveness of each program, establishing an in-house research capacity that
draws on resources from tertiary education facilities.
53. We recommend Corrections identify the highest risk cases in their care, and use
Integrated Offender Management to target them with intensive programming and
follow-through in the community.
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Security
54. We recommend attention be paid to improving the consistency of use of
appropriate security procedures.
55. We recommend the state or preparedness for crisis response be enhanced.
56. We recommend that the Service review the appropriateness of maintaining the
dog squad, or of adjusting it by
• Assessing the benefits of going to command trained dogs that could be used
interchangeable
• Considering contracting out the care, training, housing and maintenance of the
dogs, with the contractor delivering the dogs to the site at the start of a shift
• Adding the capacity for drug-detection dogs
57. We recommend that strip searches be used on a random basis, or for cause, for
internal movement to programs in low security areas.
58. We recommend purchase of additional equipment, including personal portable
alarms, for security.
Partnerships
59. We recommend the NTCS partner with organisations interested in reducing
Indigenous incarceration rates to help achieve their mutual objectives.
60. We recommend that NTCS partner with other organisations within and outside
government to better achieve their mutual objectives and manage the interface
between the organisations.
Facilities
61. We recommend a comprehensive approach to adding the facilities needed for
NTCS to achieve its mandate. This includes a staff training facility at Darwin,
expanded program areas, and offices and programs to support the Living Unit
program. The appropriate public works processes need to be put in place to design
and build these facilities.
62. We recommend the purchase or internal development of an Integrated Offender
Management electronic data system.
63. We recommend that the Service increase the number and percentage of
minimum security accommodations.
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64. We recommend the Service review available security classification instruments
and ensure it is using one that accurately assesses the needs of its population.
65. We recommend the construction of a new remand centre be deferred, and the
funds used to support more urgent needs. At the same time, significant
improvements need to be made to the Reception, Remand, and Maximum Security
areas at Darwin CC.
66. We recommend that the additional minimum security space be developed: in
halfway houses in the communities; in a mobile work camp to build community
housing; and in a minimum security farm camp.
Change Management
67. We recommend that the Correctional Service be given a clear and consistent
message, from Cabinet, from the Department of Justice, and from the Director of
Corrections, in support of the Mission and Strategy.
68. We recommend that Cabinet approve sufficient funds to permit the Service to
achieve its objectives.
69. We recommend that change management experts be brought in to help the
organisation during the transition period.
70. We recommend that the Service support the communications and two-way flow
of information needed during the transition with special measures. We suggest two
options. First, that the approximately 60 people who participate in the team
building – change management course identified earlier be given special
responsibility to communicate with a specific ten other staff each, to understand
their concerns and to share information. Second, that there be an advisory
committee at each institution and head office, to advise on the changes.
71. We recommend that all stakeholders work together to further develop the
recommendations of this Review and implement the decisions made by Cabinet.
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