Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products

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Global Carbon
Impacts of Energy
Using Products
www.mtprog.com
Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using
Products
Report for Defra / the Market Transformation Programme by Klinckenberg Consultants
Prepared by:
Bilyana Chobanova
Michael McNeil
Virginie Letschert
Lloyd Harrington
Frank Klinckenberg
Meerssen, April 2009.
Contents
Summary Overview
Domestic products overview
Commercial products overview
Global CO2 emissions and mitigation
1
5
12
19
Methodology
20
Product group information sheets
Product group: Domestic cold
Product group: Domestic wet
Product group: Domestic lighting
Product group: Televisions
Product group: Domestic ICT
Product group: Consumer electronics, excluding TV and ICT
Product group: Domestic cooking – electric
Product group: Domestic cooking – gas
Product group: Domestic water heaters – gas & oil
Product group: Domestic water heaters – electricity
Product group: Domestic boilers – gas & oil
Product group: Domestic boilers – electricity
Product group: Domestic air-conditioning
Product group: Commercial refrigeration
Product group: Commercial lighting
Product group: Street lighting
Product group: Commercial ICT
Product group: Motors – electric
Product group: Commercial boilers – oil & gas
Product group: Commercial boilers – electricity
Product group: Commercial water heating – oil & gas
Product group: Commercial water heating – electricity
Product group: Commercial air-conditioning
Product group: Heat pumps (heating and cooling)
24
25
28
32
37
39
41
43
45
46
48
50
53
54
58
60
64
66
68
71
72
73
74
75
79
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Summary Overview
Defra is interested to understand the global carbon impacts of energy-using products, and commissioned an
analysis describing these impacts for a range of product sectors. This analysis should also cover the global
market size and growth potential of the various sectors. In addition, Defra wants to be informed about the
countries and programmes currently engaged in developing policies for a range of energy-using products, and
those with specific expertise for some products. These questions were addressed through a quick review of
available materials and to build on that, as needed and practicable, rather than to do a full bottom-up analysis of
all product sectors. That approach is in line with our common approach for similar studies, as quite often the
summary information needed is already available and needs only to be collated in an accessible format to
support an analysis, or basic information (e.g. about sales and usage data in a country) is missing and can only be
collected at disproportional costs. Further, some of the objectives of the works, especially those about countries
involved in work on specific products, are essentially requests for opinions, which are often better provided in
the form of a consensus view of qualified experts.
In a first stage, information was collected about global trade volumes and (current and projected) carbon
impacts of products. This is presented for 10 regions (defined in the table below) and globally. This was
complemented with information about test and performance standards in use in all main economies. Overview
have been prepared of the main issues per product group, related to product testing and product performance,
based on our analysis of the data and expert opinion, and provide information about the countries active in and
leading on specific product groups, alone or in international collaborations.
All detailed information is presented in Product groups information sheets, while comparison of the market,
energy demand and carbon impact data for the different product groups is given in this summary, as well as
regional distribution for the top five impact product groups.
Regions definitions
Region
Oceania
North America
Western Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
Former Soviet Union
Latin America
Sub-Saharan Africa
North Africa/Middle East
Centrally Planned Asia
South Asia/Other Pacific Asia
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
The determination of the Base Case End Use Energy Demand, Market Size and Carbon Emissions Mitigation has
been made through a bottom-up model developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This model,
called the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS) forecasts the uptake and consumption of individual
technologies in the residential and commercial building sub-sectors. The model takes a modular approach, and
builds up sub-sector energy one end-use at a time. In the first module, energy service demand (activity) is
modelled according to trends in economic growth. In the residential sector, the ownership of each appliance is
modelled econometrically according to projections of household income, urbanization, electrification, and
heating and cooling degree days in the case of space heating and cooling. In the commercial sector, total
commercial floor=space is forecast, and is coupled with end use per-area intensity as a function of economic
development. This module results in a projection of total appliance stock, or per area penetration, from which
turnover (sales) is determined from new installations and replacements.
1
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Modular structure of the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS)
The second module determines end use energy intensity in the base case and in a high-efficiency (efficiency
standards) scenario, resulting in energy savings and carbon mitigation. Baseline energy efficiency parameters
are based on current technology mix and engineering data at the regional level – recent energy efficiency
policies, such as those promoting a shift towards more efficient lighting technology, have not been taken into
account in this scenario. Efficiency scenario targets are based on existing standards and labelling programs
throughout the world, assuming achievement of cost-effective efficiency levels by 2020, and intermediate targets
by 2010. A third module tracks the penetration of high efficiency equipment according to mean equipment
lifetimes, and an assumption of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) in 2010 and 2020. The
modular structure of BUENAS is shown in the figure.
The determination of energy demand, market size and carbon emissions mitigation are as follows:




Base Case Energy Demand – Penetration of each end use technology in each region over the forecast
period, multiplied by baseline energy consumption (electricity or fuel), and multiplied by number of
households or commercial floor space.
Energy related emissions result from the energy demand estimates, multiplied by a carbon factor in each
year. Electricity carbon factors taken from IEA data are used, which is averaged over countries, yielding
a carbon factor for each region. Fuel energy is converted using a single universal multiplier for natural
gas.
Market Size – Turnover rate of each product, as the sum of new installations (due to new floor space,
population growth or increase in ownership rate) plus replacements (determined by retirement of
equipment installed in previous years)
Emissions Mitigation – Difference in energy savings in Base Case and Efficiency Case, multiplied by
carbon factors (CO2 per unit of electricity or fuel), forecast at a regional level.
The availability of data for the different products groups varies a lot, the table below shows what kind of data has
been available for a different product groups, indicates where gaps in the information exist, as well as gives
details on what products are covered with the data presented. In general data has been searched and analysed
for 29 product groups, for 17 groups most of the information has been collected, for 19 some gaps exist and for
three product groups no information is available on a global scale.
2
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Product group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Domestic cold2
Domestic wet3
Domestic lighting
TVs
Domestic ICT4
Consumer electronics5
Domestic cooking - el6
Domestic cooking - gas7
Domestic boilers - gas8
Domestic boilers - oil
Domestic air - conditioning
Commercial refrigeration
Commercial lighting
Street lighting
Commercial ICT9
Servers
Commercial cooking - el
Commercial cooking - gas
Motors electric10
Commercial boilers - gas11
Commercial boilers - oil
Commercial air - conditioning
Heat pumping
UEC1
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
yes
n.a
n.a
n.a
x
yes
yes
yes
n.a
Market
size
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
yes
yes
n.a
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
yes
n.a
n.a
n.a
n.a
yes
yes
yes
n.a
Energy
Energy related
Demand emissio
ns
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
n.a
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
n.a
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
n.a
n.a
n.a
n.a
n.a
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
n.a
3
Emissio
n
mitigati
on
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
yes
yes
n.a
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
n.a
n.a
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
Policy
overvie
w
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
n.a
n.a
n.a
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
Additional product groups
Product group
1 Domestic boilers electricity
2 Domestic water heating electricity
3 Domestic water heating fuel
1
UEC
yes
yes
yes
Market
size
yes
yes
yes
El.
Carbon
Demand impact
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
Policy
Test
overview methods
n.a
n.a
yes
yes
yes
yes
Unit Energy Consumption
Market size, energy demand, related emissions and emission mitigation potential data are only for refrigerators and
combined refrigerators/freezers, market share and impact of stand alone freezers not significant on a global scale.
3 Market size, energy demand, related emissions and emission mitigation potential data are only for washing machines.
Market share and impact of dishwashers are not significant on a global scale.
4 Market size, energy demand and emission mitigation potential data, based on Stand-by power for domestic ICT are included
in Consumer electronic product group.
5 Energy demand, related emissions and carbon impact calculations are available for stand-by power only. The range of
products under this category is too wide to be able to estimate actual demand and emission in working mode.
6 Market size, energy demand, related emissions and emission mitigation potential data are available for ovens only.
7 Market size, energy demand, related emissions and emission mitigation potential data are available for ovens only.
8 Market size, energy demand, related emissions and emission mitigation potential data are available for domestic water
boilers using fuel in total (oil and gas).
9 Energy demand, related emissions and carbon impact calculations for commercial ICT are based on stand-by power only.
10 Energy demand, related emissions and carbon impact calculations are available for industrial motors only.
11 Market size, energy demand, related emissions and emission mitigation potential data are available for commercial water
boilers using fuel in total (oil and gas).
2
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
4 Commercial boilers electricity
5 Commercial water heating electricity
6 Commercial water heating fuel
yes
n.a
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
4
yes
yes
yes
n.a
n.a
n.a
n.a
n.a
n.a
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
5
Domestic products overview
Global market estimates, thousand units12
Product group
Electricity
Domestic cold
Domestic wet
TVs
Domestic lighting
Consumer electronics
Domestic cooking el
Domestic boiler electricity
Domestic water heating electricity
Domestic air-conditioning
Fuel
Domestic boilers, fuel
Domestic water heating, fuel
2005
2020
97 223
79 775
150 382
13 239 988
405 976
32 990
13 386
16 925
17 539
149 743
126 883
225 294
19 286 056
592 130
42 971
20 340
23 963
25 581
41 700
58 626
62 317
86 310
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
Global market estimates for domestic lighting, thousand units
Thousand units
2005
2020
Incandescent lighting
12 592 146
18 313 301
Fluorescent lighting
295 383
439 694
Compact fluorescent lights
352 459
53 3061
Total
13 239 988
19 286 056
Relative share
2005
2020
95%
95%
2%
2%
3%
3%
4011
4041
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
Global market estimates, domestic products
700000
600000
thousand units
500000
400000
300000
200000
100000
0
Domestic cold
Domestic wet
TVs
Consumer
electronics
Domestic
cooking el
2005
12
Domestic water Domestic water
boiler, electricity
heating,
electricity
2020
Figures on domestic lighting are given in a separate table
Domestic airconditioning
Domestic water
boilers, fuel
Domestic water
heating, fuel
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
6
Market estimates by product groups and region
70000
thousand units
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
2005
2020
2005
Domestic cold
PAO
NAM
2020
2005
Domestic wet
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
2020
Television
SSA
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
Domestic lighting market estimates, regional
6000000
thousand units
5000000
4000000
3000000
2000000
1000000
0
2005
PAO
NAM
WEU
2020
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
Consumer electronics market estimates, regional
140000
120000
thousand units
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
2005
PAO
NAM
WEU
2020
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
Energy demand estimates, TWh
Electricity
Domestic cold
Domestic wet
TVs
Domestic lighting
Consumer electronics and ICT
Domestic cooking
Domestic boiler electricity
Domestic water heating electricity
Domestic air-conditioning
Fuel
Domestic boilers
2005
977,1
231,5
266,7
707,9
230,4
103,5
596,9
746,2
400,8
2005
5 982,7
2030
1 238,6
429,6
1 080,2
1 421,6
428,8
149,8
913,8
1 097,3
929,9
2030
9 295,7
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Domestic water heating
1 734,7
2 723,8
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
Domestic products energy demand, electricity
1600
1400
1200
TWh
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Domestic
cold
Domestic wet
TVs
Domestic
lighting
Consumer
electronics
2005
Domestic
cooking el
2030
Domestic
Domestic Domestic airwater boiler, water heating, conditioning
electricity
electricity
Domestic products energy demand, fuel
10000
9000
8000
7000
TWh
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
Domestic water boilers, f uel
Domestic water heating, f uel
2005
2030
Domestic appliances energy demand, regional
6 000
5 000
3 000
2 000
1 000
2030
CPA
MEA
SSA
SAS-PAS
2005
LAM
FSU
EEU
WEU
NAM
0
PAO
TWh
4 000
7
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Domes tic Wa ter
Hea ting, fuel
Domes tic wa ter boi l er,
fuel
Domestic product groups energy demand, Regional
6 000
Domes tic Wa ter
Hea ting, el
Domes tic wa ter boi l er,
el
5 000
Tel evi s i on
TWh
4 000
Cons umer el ectroni cs
Domes tic a i rcodi tioni ng
Domes tic col d
3 000
2 000
Domes tic cooki ng,
el ectri ci ty
Domes tic wet
1 000
Domes tic Li ghting
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
0
SASPAS
Energy demand estimates by product groups and region
TWh
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2005
2030
2005
Domestic cold
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
2030
2005
Television
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
2030
Domestic lighting
CPA
SAS-PAS
Energy demand estimates by product groups and region
TWh
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
2005
2030
2005
Domestic water boiler
electricity
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
2030
2005
Domestic water heating,
electricity
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
2030
Domestic air-conditioning
SAS-PAS
TWh
Energy demand estimates by product groups and region
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
2005
2030
2005
Domestic water boiler fuel
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
2030
Domestic water heating, fuel
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
8
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Energy related emissions, MtCO2
2005
443,5
137
209,9
493,7
159,6
55,9
377,4
501,8
258,6
998,3
289,5
Domestic cold
Domestic wet
TVs
Domestic lighting
Consumer electronics
Domestic cooking el
Domestic boiler electricity
Domestic water heating electricity
Domestic air-conditioning
Domestic boilers, fuel
Domestic water heating, fuel
2030
812,4
224,4
709,9
831,5
244,7
63,4
469,7
613,6
495,5
1551,1
454,5
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
Domestic products energy related emissions
1800
1600
1400
MtCO2
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Domestic
Domestic wet
cold
TVs
Domestic
Consumer
Domestic
lighting
electronics
cooking el
2005
2030
Domestic
Domestic
Domestic air-
Domestic
water boiler water heating conditioning water boilers,
electricity
electricity
fuel
Domestic
water
heating, fuel
2030
CPA
MEA
SSA
SAS-PAS
2005
LAM
FSU
EEU
WEU
NAM
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
PAO
MtCO2
Domestic products energy related emissions, regional
9
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Energy Related Emissions by product groups and region
350
300
MtCO2
250
200
150
100
50
0
2005
2030
2005
Domestic cold
PAO
NAM
2030
2005
Television
WEU
EEU
FSU
2030
Domestic lighting
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
Energy Related Emissions by product groups and region
600
MtCO2
500
400
300
200
100
0
2005
2030
Domestic water boiler
electricity
PAO
NAM
2005
2030
Domestic water
heating, electricity
WEU
EEU
FSU
2005
2030
Domestic airconditioning
LAM
SSA
MEA
2005
2030
Domestic water boiler
fuel
CPA
SAS-PAS
Emission mitigation potential, MtCO2
Domestic cold
Domestic wet
TVs
Domestic lighting
Consumer electronics
Domestic cooking el
Domestic boiler electricity
Domestic water heating electricity
Domestic air-conditioning
Domestic boilers, fuel
Domestic water heating, fuel
2020
128
32
134
125
79
15
53
12
11
43
7
2030
303
63
251
292
192
30
108
137
74
110
21
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008; M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
10
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Domestic products emissions mitigation potential
350
300
MtCO2
250
200
150
100
50
0
Domestic
cold
Domestic
wet
TVs
Domestic
lighting
Consumer
electronics
Domestic
cooking el
2020
Domestic
water boiler
electricity
2030
Domestic
water
heating
electricity
Domestic
Domestic
Domestic
airwater
water
conditioning boilers, fuel heating, fuel
Domestic products emissions mitigation potential, regional
400
MtCO2
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
Domestic product groups emissions mitigation potential
400
CPA
Domestic Water Heating,
fuel
Domestic water boiler, fuel
Domestic Water Heating, el
350
300
Domestic water boiler, el
250
200
Television
Consumer electronics
150
100
Domestic air-comditioning
50
0
Domestic cold
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
Mt CO 2
MEA
SSA
2030
SAS-PAS
2020
LAM
FSU
EEU
WEU
NAM
PAO
0
PAONAMWEU EEU FSU LAM SSA MEA CPA SASPAS
Domestic cooking,
electricity
Domestic wet
Domestic Lighting
11
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Commercial products overview
Energy demand estimates, TWh
Electricity
Commercial refrigeration
Commercial lighting
Commercial ICT
Motors, electric
Commercial boiler
Commercial water heating
Commercial air-conditioning
Fuel
Domestic boiler
Domestic water heating
2005
267,2
872,6
297,3
3892,7
283,3
351,7
556,5
2005
2247,6
796,1
2020
508,5
1647,5
565,8
7655,7
443
485,7
1197,7
2020
3328,8
1148,4
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs for Industrial motors”, Lawrence Berkeley National
laboratory, April 2008
Commercial products energy demand, electricity
1800
1600
1400
TWh
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Commercial
refrigeration
Commercial lighting
Commercial ICT
2005
Commercial water
Commercial water
Commercial air-
boiler
heating
conditioning
2030
Industrial motors electricity demand
9000
8000
7000
TWh
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
Motors, electric
2005
2030
12
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Commercial products energy demand, fuel
3500
3000
TWh
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Domestic water boiler
2005
Domestic water heating
2030
Commercial products energy demand, regional
3 500
3 000
TWh
2 500
2 000
1 500
1 000
500
CPA
MEA
SSA
2030
SAS-PAS
2005
LAM
FSU
EEU
WEU
NAM
PAO
0
2030
CPA
MEA
SSA
SAS-PAS
2005
LAM
FSU
EEU
WEU
NAM
2 000
1 800
1 600
1 400
1 200
1 000
800
600
400
200
0
PAO
TWh
Industrial motors electricity demand, regional
13
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Commercial product groups energy demand, Regional
Commerci a l Wa ter
Hea ting, fuel
3 000
Commerci a l Wa ter
boi l er, fuel
2 500
Commerci a l Wa ter
Hea ting, el .
TWh
2 000
Commerci a l Wa ter
boi l er, el .
1 500
Commerci a l ICT
1 000
Commerci a l
Refri gera tion
500
Commerci a l a i rcondi tioni ng
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
Commerci a l Li ghting
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
2030
2005
0
SASPAS
TWh
Energy demand estimates by product groups and region
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2005
2030
2005
Commercial
refrigeration
PAO
2030
2005
Commercial lighting
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
2030
2005
Commercial ICT
LAM
SSA
2030
Commercial airconditioning
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
TWh
Energy demand estimates by product groups and region
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
2005
2030
Motors
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
14
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Energy demand estimates by product groups and region
1200
1000
TWh
800
600
400
200
0
2005
2030
2005
Commercial water boiler, fuel
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
2030
Commercial water heating, fuel
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
Energy related emissions, MtCO2
2005
2030
165,3
275,2
578,2
937,5
183,9
306,2
2848,5
4 497,70
239,3
304,6
203,4
222,2
375
555,4
132,8
191,6
Commercial refrigeration
Commercial lighting
Commercial ICT
Motors, electric
Commercial boiler, electricity
Commercial air-conditioning
Commercial boiler, fuel
Commercial water heating, fuel
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009; M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency
Standards and Labelling Programs for Industrial motors”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, April 2008
Commercial products energy related emissions
1000
900
800
MtCO2
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Commercial
refrigeration
Commercial
lighting
Commercial ICT
2005
Commercial water Commercial air- Commercial water Commercial water
boiler, electricity
conditioning
boiler, fuel
heating, fuel
2030
Commercial products energy related emissions
5000
4500
4000
MtCO2
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
2005
2030
Motors, electric
15
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
16
Commercial products energy related emissions,
regional
1400
1200
MtCO2
1000
800
600
400
200
CPA
MEA
2030
SAS-PAS
2005
SSA
LAM
FSU
EEU
WEU
NAM
PAO
0
Commercial products energy related emissions,
regional
1400
1200
MtCO2
1000
800
600
400
200
CPA
MEA
2030
SAS-PAS
2005
SSA
LAM
FSU
EEU
WEU
NAM
PAO
0
MtCO2
EEnergy Related Emissions by product groups and region
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2005
2030
2005
Commercial refrigeration
PAO
NAM
2030
2005
Commercial lighting
WEU
EEU
FSU
2030
Commercial ICT
LAM
SSA
MEA
2005
2030
Commercial water boiler, fuel
CPA
SAS-PAS
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
MtCO2
Energy Related Emissions by product groups and region
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
2005
2030
Motors
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
Emission mitigation potential, MtCO2
2020
54
62
4,5
48
3,6
58
9,5
5,5
Commercial refrigeration
Commercial lighting
Commercial ICT
Motors, electric
Commercial boiler, electricity
Commercial air-conditioning
Commercial boiler, fuel
Commercial water heating, fuel
2030
94
203
15
150
7
214
32
11
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008; M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009; M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency
Standards and Labelling Programs for Industrial motors”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, April 2008
Commercial products emissions mitigation potential
250
MtCO2
200
150
100
50
0
Commercial
Commercial
refrigeration
lighting
Commercial ICT
Motors, electric
2020
2030
Commercial
Commercial air-
Commercial
Commercial
water boiler,
conditioning
water boiler, fuel
water heating,
electricity
fuel
17
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Commercial products emissions mitigation potential, regional
250
MtCO2
200
150
100
50
CPA
SAS-PAS
SAS-PAS
MEA
SSA
CPA
2020
LAM
FSU
EEU
WEU
NAM
PAO
0
2030
Emissions Mitigation Potential, Industrial Motors
70
60
MtCO2
50
40
30
20
10
2020
MEA
SSA
LAM
FSU
EEU
WEU
NAM
PAO
0
2030
Commercial product groups emissions mitigation potential
250
200
100
50
0
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
2020
2030
Mt CO 2
150
PAO NAM WEU EEU FSU LAM SSA MEA CPA SASPAS
Commercial Water
Heating, fuel
Commercial Water
boiler, fuel
Commercial Water
Heating, el.
Commercial Water
boiler, el.
Commercial ICT
Commercial
Refrigeration
Commercial airconditioning
Commercial Lighting
18
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Global CO2 emissions and mitigation13
13
Vattenfall’s global climate change abatement map. 2007, http://www.vattenfall.com/www/ccc/ccc/577730downl/index.jsp
19
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Methodology
Defra is interested to understand the global carbon impacts of energy-using products, and commissioned an
analysis describing these impacts for a range of product sectors. This analysis should also cover the global
market size and growth potential of the various sectors. In addition, Defra wants to be informed about the
countries and programmes currently engaged in developing policies for a range of energy-using products, and
those with specific expertise for some products.
These questions were addressed through a quick review of available materials and to build on that, as needed
and practicable, rather than to do a full bottom-up analysis of all product sectors. That approach is in line with
our common approach for similar studies, as quite often the summary information needed is already available
and needs only to be collated in an accessible format to support an analysis, or basic information (e.g. about sales
and usage data in a country) is missing and can only be collected at disproportional costs. Further, some of the
objectives of the works, especially those about countries involved in work on specific products, are essentially
requests for opinions, which are often better provided in the form of a consensus view of qualified experts.
The main objectives of the work were to determine:
 Global market size on a product sector basis
 Global carbon impact on a product sector basis
 Growth potential on a product sector basis
 What products have the main energy efficiency/policy issues?
 What countries are working on these internationally on behalf of policy makers?
 Are these countries working through collaborative activities e.g. IEA, APP, International MoU, Communities of
Practice, other?
 What countries have particular product policy development expertise?
The Study covers the following product sectors:
 Domestic cold
 Domestic wet
 Domestic lighting
 Televisions
 Domestic ICT
 Consumer electronics excluding TVs and domestic ICT
 Domestic cooking – electric
 Domestic cooking – gas
 Domestic boilers (space and water heating) – gas
 Domestic boilers (space and water heating) – oil
 Domestic boilers (space and water heating) - electricity
 Domestic air-conditioning
 Commercial refrigeration
 Commercial lighting
 Street lighting
 Commercial ICT
 Servers
 Commercial cooking – electric
 Commercial cooking – gas
 Motors- electric all that are not over lapping with other categories in this list
 Commercial boilers (space and water heating) – gas
 Commercial boilers (space and water heating) – oil
 Commercial boilers (space and water heating) – electricity
 Commercial air-conditioning
 Heat pumping (heating and cooling)
20
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
In a first stage, information was collected about global trade volumes and (current and projected) carbon
impacts of products. This is presented for 10 regions (defined in the table below) and globally. This was
complemented with information about test and performance standards in use in all main economies. Overview
have been prepared of the main issues per product group, related to product testing and product performance,
based on our analysis of the data and expert opinion, and provide information about the countries active in and
leading on specific product groups, alone or in international collaborations.
Region definitions
Region
Oceania
North America
Western Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
Former Soviet Union
Latin America
Sub-Saharan Africa
North Africa/Middle East
Centrally Planned Asia
South Asia/Other Pacific Asia
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
Data on global trade volumes and (current and projected) carbon impacts of products has been derived from
recently published reports on Global product Impact by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Base Case
End Use Energy Demand, Market Size and Carbon Emissions Mitigation were determined through a bottom-up
model developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This model, called the Bottom-Up Energy
Analysis System (BUENAS) forecasts the uptake and consumption of individual technologies in the residential
and commercial building sub-sectors. The model takes a modular approach, and builds up sub-sector energy one
end-use at a time. In the first module, energy service demand (activity) is modelled according to trends in
economic growth. In the residential sector, the ownership of each appliance is modelled econometrically
according to projections of household income, urbanization, electrification, and heating and cooling degree days
in the case of space heating and cooling. In the commercial sector, total commercial floor=space is forecast, and
is coupled with end use per-area intensity as a function of economic development. This module results in a
projection of total appliance stock, or per area penetration, from which turnover (sales) is determined from new
installations and replacements.
The second module determines end use energy intensity in the base case and in a high-efficiency (efficiency
standards) scenario, resulting in energy savings and carbon mitigation. Baseline energy efficiency parameters
are based on current technology mix and engineering data at the regional level. Efficiency scenario targets are
based on existing standards and labelling programs throughout the world, assuming achievement of costeffective efficiency levels by 2020, and intermediate targets by 2010. A third module tracks the penetration of
high efficiency equipment according to mean equipment lifetimes, and an assumption of minimum efficiency
performance standards (MEPS) in 2010 and 2020. The modular structure of BUENAS is shown in the figure.
21
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Modular structure of the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS)
The determination of energy demand, market size and carbon emissions mitigation were as follows:




Base Case Energy Demand – Penetration of each end use technology in each region over the forecast
period, multiplied by baseline energy consumption (electricity or fuel), and multiplied by number of
households or commercial floor space.
Energy related emissions result from the energy demand estimates, multiplied by a carbon factor in each
year. Electricity carbon factors taken from IEA data are used, which is averaged over countries, yielding
a carbon factor for each region. Fuel energy is converted using a single universal multiplier for natural
gas.
Market Size – Turnover rate of each product, as the sum of new installations (due to new floor space,
population growth or increase in ownership rate) plus replacements (determined by retirement of
equipment installed in previous years)
Emissions Mitigation – Difference in energy savings in Base Case and Efficiency Case, multiplied by
carbon factors (CO2 per unit of electricity or fuel), forecast at a regional level.
In parallel data has been collected via various international sources and databases (and in particular the APECESIS / CLASP database) to complete the overview of existing product policies in major world economies. This is
presented in a form of summary table showing the countries that have implemented test methods, performance
standards or labels for a product group/product and countries that are internationally leading in energy
efficiency policy for a product group. Different test methods used in countries are analysed and possible options
discussed for global harmonisation of test methods per product. Finally, an assessment was made which
22
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
countries are internationally active on behalf of policy makers per product group, whether these collaborate in
some formal or informal way, and which have particular expertise for a product group.
23
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Product group information sheets
Detailed information per product group is presented in information sheets, on the following pages, for:
 Domestic cold
 Domestic wet
 Domestic lighting
 Televisions
 Domestic ICT
 Consumer electronics excluding TVs and domestic ICT
 Domestic cooking – electric
 Domestic cooking – gas
 Domestic boilers (space and water heating) – gas
 Domestic boilers (space and water heating) – oil
 Domestic boilers (space and water heating) - electricity
 Domestic air-conditioning
 Commercial refrigeration
 Commercial lighting
 Street lighting
 Commercial ICT
 Servers
 Commercial cooking – electric
 Commercial cooking – gas
 Motors- electric all that are not over lapping with other categories in this list
 Commercial boilers (space and water heating) – gas
 Commercial boilers (space and water heating) – oil
 Commercial boilers (space and water heating) – electricity
 Commercial air-conditioning
 Heat pumping (heating and cooling)
24
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
25
Product group: Domestic cold
Assumptions for unit energy consumption and efficiency improvement (refrigerators and combined
refrigerators/freezers only)
kWh / year
Region
Base
2010
2020
Assumption
PAO
537
476
318
Based on current programs in Japan, AUS/NZ and Korea. Assume Korean market
reaches 'A' level by 2020, Top Runner achieves additional 10% improvement, and
AUS/NZ standards harmonize with those in the U.S. Efficiency in all countries reaches
EU A+ level by 2020.
NAM
WEU
EEU
562
506
391
Additional improvement found cost effective in 2010 by (Rosenquist, McNeil et al.
2006). Efficiency reaches EU A+ level by 2020.
364
268
271
Average reaches A level by 2010, A+ level by 2020.
483
268
271
Meets current EU standards by 2010, synchronized with WEU by 2020.
FSU
644
483
271
Match EU 1999 MEPS by 2010. Average meets current ‘A’ level by 2015.
LAM
440
261
216
Based on current MEPS in Mexico and Brazilian labelling program. Assume 39%
improvement in Brazil by 2010. Mexican standards harmonized with U.S. by 2010.
Efficiency reaches EU A+ level by 2020.
MEA+SSA
445
364
271
Currently at pre-standard European levels. Achieves current EU levels by 2010.
Efficiency reaches EU A+ level by 2020.
CPA
489
353
302
2010 Baseline according to 2007 MEPS. Average meets current A level by 2010.
Efficiency reaches EU A+ level by 2020.
Based on current Indian standards and assumes an aggressive update in 2010.
548
301
223
Efficiency reaches EU A+ level by 2020.
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
SAS-PAS
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact
Region
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SASPAS
GLOBAL
Global market
estimates, thousand
units
2005
5650
10537
12572
2338
6427
10637
3743
4566
25044
15708
97223
2020
6821
14166
16155
2798
8581
15328
10389
6943
41295
27265
149743
Energy demand
estimates, TWh
2005
43,3
82,1
70,2
17,3
66,4
56,8
10,8
24,7
139,1
66,3
577,1
2030
57,9
124,8
91,6
21,2
92,7
113,7
88,5
60,9
333,4
253,9
1238,6
Energy related
carbon emissions,
MtCO2
2005
27,7
48,4
26,7
9,5
36,3
57,3
11,3
9,7
156,3
60,3
443,5
2030
28,8
57,2
27,1
9,0
39,5
89,2
72,1
18,6
291,3
179,5
812,4
Emission mitigation
potential, MtCO2
2020
1,6
2,8
3,6
2,1
5,1
18,4
5,9
4,8
41,0
42,6
128
2030
7,2
11,5
6,4
3,6
15,5
39,0
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
23,5
9,2
94,5
93,0
303
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Brazil2
China3
EU4
India5
Japan6
USA/Canada7
Mandatory
standard
Voluntary
Label
Mandatory
label
x
x
x
AS/NZS 4474:2001
x
x
x
x
RESP/001-REF
GB/T 8059.2-1995
EN153:2006
AS/NZS 4474:1997
JIS C9801-2006
DoE CFR Part 430
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Test standard
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
other countries
More than 20 other countries are considering or implementing efficiency policy instruments for
domestic refrigerators
1Energy
labelling for domestic refrigerators was firstly introduced in Australia in 1986, followed by introduction of minimum energy
efficiency requirements in 1999 and new categorical label in 2000. In 2005 more stringent efficiency requirement broadly harmonised with
US 2001 requirements were adopted. New energy labelling star rating algorithm will be introduced in April 2010. Proposed policy also sets
out plans to introduce Energy star as primary endorsement label.
2
Brazil has introduced mandatory labelling scheme, from 2006, grading appliances from A-G as the EU labelling scheme.
Firstly introduced in 1999, the MEP requirements in China has been revised twice in 2003 and 2007. Mandatory labelling has been put in
force from 2005 and is operating in parallel with voluntary endorsement scheme set to promote energy conservation technology ** (China
have cloned ISO15502 recently – have a mandatory energy labelling scheme)
3
4Apart
from the 27 EU member states, European energy efficiency policy instruments are introduced or currently under consideration in a
number of countries including Turkey, Ukraine, Croatia, Switzerland, Norway, Macedonia, Albania, Russia.
In 2002 a voluntary scheme for energy efficiency labelling for frost free refrigerators was developed in India. Australian test standard is
used as a reference test standard. An existing rating system for direct cool products has been in place since 2004.
5
Japan does not have MEPS; instead it operates the Top Runner standards program. This program aims to dramatically improve energy
efficiency of appliances by setting target values based on the current highest efficiency level of each type of product instead of the current
average efficiency level. Manufacturers and importers have to ensure the average (sales weighted) efficiency of all shipped appliances meet
this standard by a specified date (the target year). The program allows for improvement over time, making manufacturers constantly
increase the efficiency of appliances. In addition a voluntary labelling scheme has been initiated in 2000 to indicate compliance with the set
criteria. The Top Runner standards are voluntary as there is no minimum level, however the program itself is mandatory for all
manufacturers and importers. The Japanese test standard is identical to ISO. In 2010 the scheme will be revised according already set
specification. Test standards were changed in 1999, 2001 and 2006 initially to harmonise with ISO, then to implement a test procedure that
reflected the range of actual use in Japan. Circumvention has been a problem (minimising energy only in the test procedure).
6
Minimum standards of energy efficiency for many major appliances were established by the U.S. Congress in the National Appliance Energy
Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987, and in the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988. The first MEPs for
refrigerators were introduced in 1990 and revised in 1993 and 2001. Two labelling programs exists “Energy guide” and “Energy Star”. The
US policy is adopted also in Canada and Mexico. Canada adopted mandatory labelling in 1978 and the USA in 1980.
7
Test methods
Test and reference test standards per country and products.
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Brazil2
China
Product
Test standard
Freezers
AS/NZS 4474.1:2007
Refrigeratorfreezer
AS/NZS 4474.1-2007
Freezers
RESP/001-REF
Refrigeratorfreezer
RESP/001-REF
Freezers
Refrigerator
Refrigeratorfreezer
EU
India
Japan
GB/T 8059.3-1995
GB/T 8059.4-1993
GB 12021.2-2003
GB/T 8059.1-1995
GB/T 8059.2-1995
GB/T 8059.4-1993
EN153:2006
AS/NZS 4474.1:1997
JIS C9801-2006
Ref. standard
ISO 5155
US DOE (closer)
ISO 8187 ISO 8561:1995/
Amd.1:1967 ISO5155 (some
elements), US DOE AHAMA
HRF-1 ((closer), has developed
considerably in isolation since
1985
ISO 5155 ISO 8187 ISO 8561
ISO 5155
ISO 8187
ISO 8561
ISO 8561:1995
ISO 5155
ISO 8561 (more recent)
ISO 7371:1995/Adm.1:1997
ISO 8187
ISO 8561:1995/ Amd.1:1967
Not legally in force yet
Based on old JIS – no
26
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Korea
KS C9305
Canada
CAN/CSA-C 300-00
10 CFR Part 430
Subpart B App B1
USA
similarities to ISO
Similar to old JIS without door
openings
Same as US
ANSI / AHAM HRF 1-1978
(cited in US DOE CFR430)
Note: all 4 ISO standards were republished in 2005 as ISO15502. This has now been withdrawn and republished as IEC62252 (identical).
Revision of IEC in progress to make it more globally applicable.
Sources: APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php;
http://www.energyrating.gov.au/man1.html;
http://www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/e_02.html
The main differences in the major test procedures for refrigerators and freezers are for the choice of ambient
temperature used for the steady state energy test, the interior design operating temperatures, the method of
measuring the interior operating temperatures (average versus maximum in freezer), whether frozen food
compartments are loaded or not and whether door openings are included or not. The current refrigerator and
freezer test procedures have varying levels of reproducibility and repeatability but are not likely to be very
accurate at reflecting actual average in-use performance, even within a single economy’s borders. ISO/IEC test
procedure drives European designs to have very cold freezers and warm fresh food temperatures. The use of a
maximum test pack temperature decouples the test condition from the average compartment temperature which
is an important energy driver for refrigerators and results in poorer repeatability. Test packs can take weeks to
stabilise to get one satisfactory result.
A global test procedure would require a much more extensive characterisation of the refrigeration system under
a broad range of operating conditions coupled with an algorithm that is primed using data of actual local usage
practice and conditions. JIS is the only test procedures that attempts to assess the impact of ambient temperature
and processing loads (door openings and warm food/drink). The two elements have the largest impact on
energy consumption during normal use. While JIS does assess these elements to some extent, it has many
drawbacks and is not suitable for global adoption.
For refrigerators and freezers, the way forward, at least in the short term, is unclear and most likely difficult with
respect to harmonisation. The differences in test procedures are so significant and the number of economies
involved is so large and the existing energy regulations so extensive, that the prospects of alignment are small, at
least in the short term. Furthermore, on a technical level all of the existing test procedures have many weak
points and none is clearly superior to any other. There is also a huge amount of institutional (industry,
government and regulator) inertia associated with existing test procedures for refrigerators in many economies
(e.g. regulations for energy labelling and MEPS); this makes the prospects for changes somewhat remote in the
short term until there is something available that is technically superior to the current offerings.
Some work on a new global test procedure has been progressing slowly within IEC. The objective is to more fully
assess the key energy characteristics of changes in ambient temperature and processing load, which can vary
dramatically by region. However, the transfer of the standards committee from ISO to IEC has been slow and it
has taken more than 2 years to form a formal sub-committee under IEC TC59 (occurred in early 2009). General
lack of resources and strong resistance to change from some parties (especially within Europe) and overall lack
of management has meant that progress to date has been very slow.




Test method: All existing methods have major drawbacks, these do not reflect use or climate effects (JIS
very complex)
Efficiency metric: Typically adjusted volume per kWh, but meaningless as test method does not give a
sensible measure of energy related to normal use (ambient temperature effect and processing loads)
Regulatory regimes: Most regulated product type in the world for labelling and MEPS, many approaches
deeply entrenched in regulations
A global test method must be able to reflect normal use and climate.
27
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
28
Product group: Domestic wet
Assumptions for unit energy consumption and efficiency improvement (washing machines only)
kWh
Region
Base
Case
2010
Target
2020
Target
Reference
Assumption
PAO
60
14
14
(Murakami, Levine et al. 2006)
New High Efficiency washing machine
(54Wh/cycle) becomes mandatory by 2010
(assumes 250 cycles per year)
NAM
194
194
194
US Standard (2007)
No further efficiency improvement after
2007 standard set at 775Wh/cycle
(GfK 2005), (Bertoldi and
Atanasiu 2006)
The current labelling program pushes the
whole market to the Level A by 2010 (80%
is Level A or better in 2004), assumes
2.5kg/load and 250cycles/year
WEU
126
119
119
The current labelling program pushes the
whole market Level A by 2010 (67% is
Level A or better in 2004), assumes
2.5kg/load and 250cycles/year
Level C is reached by 2010, and level A
becomes mandatory that year, assumes
2.5kg/load and 250cycles/year
(GfK 2005), (Bertoldi and
Atanasiu 2006)
EER
128
119
119
FSU
169
119
119
LAM
191
149
108
(Lutz, McNeil et al. 2008), US
Standard, European Label
SSA
181
97
68
(Pretoria 2003), US Standard,
European Label
MEA
183
141
99
(Davoudpoura and Ahadib 2006),
US Standard, European Label
For horizontal axis machines, European
Level C in 2010, Level A in 2020 (same
usage as baseline, and baseline is level E),
2004 US standard adopted in 2010, 2007
US standard in 2020 for vertical axis
machines
(Lin and Iyer 2007)
Based on 32Wh/kg/cycle for the baseline
and 17Wh/kg/cycle for the efficiency
scenario (current endorsement label),
assumes 2.5 kg/cycle and 250 cycles/year
(Letschert and McNeil 2007)
Based on India Market consideration (semi
automatic machines versus horizontal axis)
CPA
12
6
6
SAS-PAS
190
102
102
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact (washing machines only)
Region
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SASPAS
GLOBAL
Global market
estimates, thousand
units
2005
4803
8800
10824
1969
5462
7889
1422
3766
20862
13979
79775
2020
5819
11648
13393
2384
6624
11389
6727
5675
35475
27749
126883
Energy demand
estimates, TWh
2005
6,8
118,4
35,9
9,8
25,4
8,4
1,1
7,4
3,6
14,6
231,5
Energy related
carbon emissions,
MtCO2
2005
4,4
69,8
13,7
5,3
13,9
8,5
1,2
2,9
4,0
13,3
137,0
2030
4,3
79,8
13,6
5,1
14,8
14,5
19,2
5,6
6,2
61,2
224,4
Emission mitigation
potential, MtCO2
2020
0
0
4,6
0,9
2,6
2,0
2,9
0,9
1,5
16,4
32
2030
0
0
8,4
2,1
6,1
5,2
9,2
2,5
2,7
27,3
63
2030
8,7
174,1
45,8
12,0
34,9
18,5
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
23,6
18,3
7,1
86,6
429,6
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
29
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Brazil2
China4
EU5
USA/Canada5
other countries
Mandatory
standard
Voluntary
Label
Mandatory
label
Test standard
AS/NZS2007.2:2005 (DW)
AS/NZS 2040.2:2005 (WM)
AS/NZS2442.2-2000 (Dryer)
x
x
IEC 60456
GB/T 4288-1992
x
x
GB12021.4-2004
EN 60456:2005
x
x
x
prEN 50242/2007
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B App J1
x
x
x
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B App C
23 other countries are considering or implementing efficiency policy for washing machines and/or
dishwashers
x
x
1Although
no MEPs exist for washing machines, clothes dryers and dishwashers in Australia, a number of requirements must be met by the
products during the performance test, to be eligible for the mandatory energy rating label. Water efficiency labelling scheme existed as
voluntary since 1988 and became mandatory in 2006 – currently applies to washing machines and dishwashers and a range of other
products. A standby power strategy 2002-2012 contains wide range of possible policy measures to address excessive standby power for a
range of appliances including washing machines and dishwashers. Standby included in the label energy consumption.
Brazil has developed mandatory labelling scheme, from 2006, grading appliances from A-G as the EU one. The energy label is currently
applied for washing machines only. The Brazilian government passed legislation allowing the imposition of MEPs for a wide range of
products, specific requirements are currently under development.
2
3China’s
standards are mostly harmonised with ISO/IEC procedures. In 2004 MEPs were developed for washing machines (effective from
2005), but still no efficiency requirements are set for dishwashers. The mandatory energy label still does not apply for domestic wet
appliances.
4Apart
from the 27 EU member states, European energy efficiency label is introduced or currently under consideration in a number of
countries including Turkey, Ukraine, Croatia, Switzerland, Norway, Macedonia, Albania, Russia. Voluntary commitments were put in place by
industry for washing machines in 1997 and for dishwashers in 1999. Separately from mandatory energy label, a number of eco-labelling
schemes are implemented in different member states incl. EU Eco label, Nordic Swan, Blue Sanger, Etc.
Minimum standards of energy efficiency for many major appliances were established by the U.S. Congress in the National Appliance Energy
Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987, and in the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988. Minimum efficiency
requirements for washing machines were first introduced in 1994, followed by two revisions in 2004 and 2007. For dishwashers the
efficiency requirements were revised in 2004. Two labelling programs exists “Energy guide” and “Energy Star”. The US policy is adopted also
in Canada and Mexico.
5
Test methods
Test and reference test standards per country and products
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Brazil2
China
Product
Test standard
Washing
machines
AS/NZS 2040.1
Clothes dryers
AS/NZS 2442.1
Dishwashers
AS/NZS 2007.1
Washing
machines
Projeto de Norma
ABNT 03:059.05-025
de 07/1999
RESP/005
Dishwashers
Washing
machines
Dishwashers
GB12021.4-2004
Ref. standard
IEC 60456 (was originally close,
but has evolved in parallel,
some differences)
ANSI/AHAM HLD-1
IEC 60436 (close, small
differences)
IEC 60456
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
EU
Canada
USA
Washing
machines
Clothes dryers
Dishwashers
Washing
machines
Clothes dryers
Dishwashers
Washing
machines
Clothes dryers
Dishwashers
EN 60456
EN 61121
EN 50242
CAN/CSA-C 360-98
CAN/CSA-C 361-92
CAN/CSA-C 373-92
10 CFR Part 430
Subpart B App J1
10 CFR Part 430
Subpart B App D
10 CFR Part 430
Subpart B App C
AHAM HWL-1
ANSI/AHAM HLD-1
ANSI/AHAM DW-1
Sources: M. Presutto “Preparatory studies for Eco-Design requirements of EuP, LOT 14: Domestic dishwashers and washing machines, Part I,
Task 1, rev3”, ENEA, July 2007;
APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php;
http://www.energyrating.gov.au/man1.html;
http://www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/e_02.html
For washing machines currently a wide range of test procedures exist, some home grown and others derived
from IEC. Historically, the IEC test procedure has been inadequate as it did not cover top loading (vertical axis)
machines. Wide range of work is under way within IEC to address all aspects of the test, but it will be some time
before all major issues have adequately progressed. IEC60456 Edition 5 (currently passed CDV stage) IEC is
probably the best of the existing test methods but needs wider international input. Edition 6 (2012?) could
address many of the key global concerns. However, the IEC method is a very complex, expensive and in general a
high level test method that in many ways does not reflect normal use in some regions. It is highly unlikely to be
adopted by developing countries.
One problem is that there are many local and cultural factors which impact on the clothes washer performance
and energy consumption: use of external hot water, water hardness, local detergent composition, program
selection, wash temperature (possibly most important), typical load composition. While it is possible (even
necessary) to specify all of these variables in an IEC or other international test procedure, this can move the test
method away from “actual use”, particularly in developing countries.
One issue of great importance is the prevalence of internal electric heaters for drum (front loading European
style) machines. Many of these machines cannot import hot water and many have a minimum program
temperature that is substantially above “cold”. So technology and design can have a strong influence on energy
consumption, especially for electricity, which is a premium energy source.
Currently there are several approaches to testing dishwashers –the AHAM method is used to assess performance
(with a heavy soil load, now mandated for sensing controls, otherwise used for comparative performance testing
in the USA) and the US DOE method specified in CFR430, which has no soil on the load for energy consumption
testing (circumvention forced the introduction of the heavy soil load test). IEC60436 is used by most of the result
of the world, with some variations. While IEC60436 is a complex and high level performance standard,
dishwashers are really only used extensive in developed countries. An international round robin by IEC has
proved reproducibility. The only contentious variants in IEC are oven drying of soil before washing (Europe) vs
air drying (Australia and NZ).
There are currently two major approaches used for clothes dryers: the AHAM style of approach and the IEC
approach. In fact, the two test methods are not so different from each other and are certainly not irreconcilable.
The major differences include different initial moisture contents, operation into the cool down period (or not),
and some differences in test load composition. AHAM specifies the bone dry method for determining load mass,
while IEC allow both the bone dry and conditioned mass methods. Both mass methods are perfectly comparable
30
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
and have been shown to be the same with extensive testing. However, all the energy test methods have the
drawback of not estimating the energy consumption of the dryer under different load sizes or initial moisture
contents (which is in turn affected by the spin performance of the washer). A revised IEC method is under
development which will provide an accurate function to estimate energy consumption under any initial moisture
content (and load). While this is welcome, there are still some minor technical points to resolve.
Washing Machines
 Test method: Existing IEC very Euro-centric, barely applicable to top loading or impeller or cool
washing, Edition 5 will be an improvement, Edition 6 should be more global with additional input.
 Efficiency metric: kg clean clothes, but also spin, gentleness and rinsing are important, water and
detergent inputs complicate the equation
 Regulatory regimes: Regulated in many countries. Massive differences in regulatory approaches
 IEC Edition 5 is a big step forward (2009), but there are still issues, consumer habits and practices and
variations in detergents and water hardness make defining a metric hard, big differences in regulation
would suggest poor prospects for harmonisation. Makes international harmonisation problematic as
energy service is somewhat subjective and can be highly qualified in some cases.
Dishwashers
 Test method: IEC now used widely around the world, except in North America -arguments about type
and amount of soil vs adhered soil, soil drying. Dishwashers fairly limited to developing countries.
 Efficiency metric: Clean and dry dishes. Little agreement of minimum levels that may be acceptable for
“clean”, water and detergent inputs
 Regulatory regimes: Only regulated in a limited number of developed countries, but approaches
entrenched in regulations (DOE vs EU vs AU)
 Some prospects for global metrics if test method and acceptable performance requirements agreed
Clothes dryers
 Test method: IEC used in Europe and some other countries, some local procedures (US, AU)
 Efficiency metric: kg of dry clothes, some debate about “dry”, initial moisture content (washer spin
performance) is biggest global variable
 Regulatory regimes: Regulated in some countries, usually at a specific initial moisture content that is
locally relevant
 Good prospects -draft IEC method to test at 2 initial moisture contents which will provide a function of
initial moisture content and/or load against energy consumption - no need to retest ever, some issues
with washer-dryers, condensers, some technical issues to be resolved.
31
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
32
Product group: Domestic lighting
Lighting Type Assumptions
Region Number
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
%IL
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
%FL
%CFL
22%
91%
74%
73%
100%
57%
7%
15%
22%
0%
8%
2%
12%
4%
0%
68%
53%
100%
57%
12%
32%
0%
20%
20%
15%
0%
23%
59%
37%
4%
Reference/Assumption
(IEA 2006)
(IEA 2006)
(Bertoldi and Atanasiu 2006)
(Bertoldi and Atanasiu 2006)
(IEA 2006)
(Figueroa and Sathaye 1993), (McNeil 2003), (Lutz, McNeil,
Tanides et al. 2008), (IEA 2006), (Friedmann, DeBuen, Sathaye J.
et al. 1995)
(Constantine S. and Denver A. 1999)
(IEA/OECD 2001)
(IEA 2006)
(CLASP 1997),(Kulkarni and Sant 1994),(Kumar, Jain and Bansal
2003)
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Lighting Usage Assumptions by Region
Region
Hrs per day
Source/ Assumption
PAO
1.0
Calibrated to IEA data (IEA 2007)
NAM
2.5
Calibrated to IEA data (IEA 2003)
WEU
1.0
Calibrated to IEA data (IEA 2007)
EEU
2.5
(Bertoldi and Atanasiu 2006)
FSU
4.7
Calculated from (IEA 2006) assumes all incandescent (60W)
Other
2.3
Average of Multiple Sources – See Appendix 3.1
Source:
M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Regions
Nov 2008
Lighting consumption is determined by assuming certain wattage per lamp bulb. The most common wattage
found in the surveys is 60W for incandescent bulb, 15W for CFLs and 36W for fluorescent tubes. Annual lighting
consumption is then given by:
UEC(kWh)  Nb of Pts  Hrs  365  (%IL  60  %FL  (36 
Eff
 Ballast)  %CFL *15)/1000
Eff 0
The impact of CFL endorsement labelling programs is modelled by simply assuming that between 2010 and
2030, households will gradually replace half of their incandescent bulbs with CFLs.
Assumptions for Linear Fluorescent UEC and Efficiency Improvement
W (Tube 36W + Ballast)
Region
Base Case
2010
Target
2020
Target
Source
Assumption
36% savings by 2010, compared to 1997.
1997 baseline is assumed to be efficient
electromagnetic ballasts.
PAO
41.4
26.496
26.496
(IEA
2006),
Japanese
Luminaire Association, 2005
NAM
34.6
34.6
34.6
(IEA 2006)
WEU
41.4
34.6
34.6
(IEA 2006)
EEU+LAM+SSA
+CPA
44
41.4
34.6
(IEA 2006)
All ballasts are electronic ballasts by 2010,
no further improvement
Electronic Ballast become mandatory in
2010
Low-Loss
electromagnetic
ballasts
mandatory in 2010, electronic ballast in
2020
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
33
Low-Loss
electromagnetic
ballasts
mandatory in 2010, electronic ballast in
SAS-PAS
51.6
48.7
40.6
Voice magazine (Oct 2005)
2020
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact
Region
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SASPAS
GLOBAL
Global market
estimates, 2005, mln
units
FL
90
23
44
6
-
13
13
-
42
64
295
IL
501
3998
2977
242
705
857
166
601
1562
984
12592
CFL
36
18
97
3
-
50
9
-
126
13
352
Global market
estimates, 2020, mln
units
FL
109
31
59
8
-
22
31
-
74
104
440
IL
581
5304
3838
337
881
1446
500
1011
2474
1940
18313
Energy demand
estimates, TWh
2005
Energy related
carbon emissions,
MtCO2
2005
22,9
135,3
33,8
8,8
40,0
49,5
12,8
11,9
112,1
66,7
493,7
2030
23,6
169,2
40,8
13,4
49,4
95,8
58,3
23,0
205,9
152,1
831,5
Emission mitigation
potential, MtCO2
2020
3
31
7
2
10
14
6
4
29
19
125
2030
5
64
15
5
19
35
19
9
72
49
292
CFL
2030
42
23
124
4
-
85
28
-
200
26
533
35,9
229,6
88,7
16,1
73,1
49,0
12,2
30,2
99,8
73,3
707,9
47,5
369,1
137,6
31,6
116,0
122,1
71,6
75,3
235,7
215,1
1421,6
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Australia
California
Canada
China
EU
Japan
Korea
New Zeeland
USA
Mandatory
standard
Voluntary
Label
Mandatory
label
Test standard
AS/NZS 4783.2:2002
AS/NZS 4782.2:2004
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1Australia
implemented MEPS for LFL ballasts in March 2003 and for LFLs in October 2004. The provisions for ballast MEPS are essentially
harmonised with the European Union’s MEPS. The minimum efficacy requirements for LFLs are essentially harmonised with those applied in
the United States and Canada but are adapted for Australian power supply and test conditions. They include requirements for a minimum
colour rendering index. Performance requirements for linear fluorescent lamps include a limit on mercury content. Within the program
Greenlight Australia a wide range of new policy measures are being developed or are under active consideration. MEPS for low-voltage
halogen transformers, CFLs, Halogen and reflector lamps are being introduced progressive during 2009/2010 (including a ban on standard
efficiency GLS incandescent lamps). MEPS for luminaries, HID lamps and ballasts are under development.
2California
have implemented mandatory or voluntary efficiency standards for GLS incandescent lamps. These MEPS impose minimum
efficacy levels as a function of the rated lamp power and seem to be roughly equivalent to Korea’s target value for incandescent lamps
operated at 110 V. California’s torchiere MEPS, which came into effect in March 2003, prohibit the sale of torchières that consume more than
190 W and hence effectively outlaw all but the lowest-power halogen torchières.
3Canada
now applies MEPS for fluorescent lamps, incandescent reflector lamps and ballasts. These MEPS are harmonised with the equivalent
US regulations as are the associated lamp labelling regulations. In addition, both countries operate a voluntary performance requirement for
CFLs and both apply the ENERGY STAR label in their territory. Canada also has an extra CFL endorsement label operated by Environment
Canada.
4Lighting
MEPS have been implemented in China since June 2003 for fluorescent lamps, high pressure sodium and metal halide lamps as well
as for lamp ballasts. China operates an extensive endorsement labelling scheme, which sets performance criteria for efficient products,
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
34
including lighting, and certifies performance levels of eligible products via a third-party testing and certification process. Lighting products
that are addressed include high-pressure sodium lamp ballasts, tubular fluorescent lamp ballasts, two-end fluorescent lamps and CFLs. In
addition, certification labelling requirements are being developed for HID lamps and LEDs.
5The
current EU policy instruments are adopted or under consideration in several non EU member states – Norway, Switzerland, Croatia,
Turkey, Macedonia, Albania. The European Union, the United Kingdom and Denmark operate CFL-performance certification schemes to
ensure that consumers are able to distinguish and attain high-quality CFLs.
6Japan
first implemented efficiency standards for fluorescent lamps in 1993 in which the government called for an improvement in energy
efficiency by 2000 of 3–7% compared to the level of 1992. In 1999 the Top Runner Program started, where average efficacy targets have
been set for 12 individual fluorescent lamp technologies. This program aims to dramatically improve energy efficiency of appliances by
setting target values based on the current highest efficiency level of each type of product instead of the current average efficiency level.
Manufacturers and importers have to ensure the average (sales weighted) efficiency of all their appliances meet this standard by a specified
date (the target year). The program allows for improvement over time, making manufacturers constantly increase the efficiency of
appliances. In addition a voluntary labelling scheme has been initiated in 2000 to indicate compliance with the set criteria. The Top Runner
standards are voluntary as there is no minimum level, however the program itself is mandatory for all manufacturers and importers.
Fluorescent lamps also have mandatory energy label, such that when a product has met or exceeded the Top Runner threshold it is colourcoded green, but when it is of a lower efficiency -coded orange. The label also expresses the product’s efficiency as a percentage of the Top
Runner target such that values above 100% have surpassed the target and values below are yet to attain it. In addition to the product label,
Japan has begun to implement an innovative retailer- labelling scheme, where retailers who stock predominantly high efficiency equipment
are eligible for an endorsement label that can be mounted as a plaque on the store entrance and used in promotional materials.
7Korea
has one of the more established and comprehensive MEPS and labelling programmes addressing lighting equipment, with the first
MEPS coming into effect in 1996 (incandescent lamps) and the most recent in 2000 (CFLs). In particular, Korea’s energy-labelling
certification scheme has one of the broadest coverage of any such schemes and is alone in addressing light sensors, reflectors and metal
halide lamps. The Korean energy efficiency standards and labelling programme, established in 1992 covers nine items, including
incandescent bulbs (October 1992), fluorescent lamps (October 1992), ballasts for fluorescent lamps (July 1994) and self-ballasted lamps
such as ballast-integrated CFLs (July 1999). To date, South Korea is the only national authority to have implemented MEPS for standard
incandescent lamps (GLS incandescent lamps). These MEPS do not prohibit the sale of incandescent lamps but they do prevent the sale of the
least efficient varieties. Mandatory energy labelling has also been introduced for all these products, using an efficiency grading scale
operating from 1 (most efficient) to 5 (least efficient). In addition to the MEPS and mandatory labels implemented for the products
mentioned above, a voluntary energy certification label exists known as the “Energy Boy”, which indicates that products carrying the label
are energy efficient and their performance has been certified by KEMCO.
8New
Zealand has MEPS for LFL ballasts and LFLs. The requirements for ballasts are harmonised with Australia’s, but those for LFLs are not.
New Zealand introduced its LFL MEPS in July 2002, before Australia did, and although LFLs are tested to the same standard in both countries
the New Zealand MEPS requirements are slightly more stringent than the Australian equivalents.
The United States have the most established and comprehensive lighting MEPS programme in the OECD, with provisions now either
covering or pending for all the main lamp types. In addition, labels are implemented for all products. The October 2005 Energy Policy Act
prohibited the manufacture or import of mercury vapour ballasts from 1 January 2008. The 1992 EPAct called for a voluntary national
testing and information programme for luminaries. A programme has been created jointly by a stakeholders’ working group called the
National Lighting Collaborative. The working group introduced a new tool for comparing luminaries, the luminaries’ efficacy rating (LER),
which is based on NEMA’s LE 5 standard for fluorescent luminaries. NEMA has since released several lighting performance testing standards
relevant to luminaries. ENERGY STAR sets performance specifications for LFLs, fluorescent ballasts, industrial HID luminaries and
fluorescent luminaries.
8
Test methods
Overview of test standards per country and equipment type
Australia/New Zeeland
Product
Test standard
Ref. standard
Electronic ballasts
AS/NZS 4783.1:2001 (energy)
AS/NZS 60921:2002
(performance)
AS/NZS 60929:2000
(performance)
EN 50294 (when combined
with AS/NZS4783.2)
IEC 60921
IEC 60929
Magnetic Ballasts
AS/NZS 4783.1:2001
EN 50294
Performance of transformers
and electronic step-down
convertors for ELV lamps
AS/NZS 4879
Incandescent lamps for
AS/NZS 4934
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
35
general lighting services
Canada
Self-ballasted lamps for
general lighting
AS/NZS 4847
Fluorescent lamps
AS/NZS 4782.1:2004
AS/NZS 60901:2003
IEC 60081
IEC 60901
Electronic ballasts
CAN/CSA-C 654-M 91
US DOE
Magnetic Ballasts
CAN/CSA-C 654-M 91
US DOE
CFLs
CAN/CSA-C 861-95
Fluorescent lamps
CAN/CSA-C 819-95
Incandescent lamps
CAN/CSA-C 862-01
Lighting systems
CAN/CSA-C 239-94
CAN/CSA-C 653-94
Electronic ballast
GB 19574-2003
GB/T 15042-1994
GB/T 15144-1994
GB/T 17262-2002
GB/T13434-1992CAN/CSA-C
654-M91
IEC 60901
IEC 60929
Magnetic ballast
GB/T 14044-1993
CAN/CSA-C 654-M 91
IEC 60921
CFLs
GB 19044-2003
GB/T 17263-2002
IEC 60969
Fluorescent lamps
GB/T 10682-2002
IEC 60081
Magnetic ballasts
EN50294
Fluorescent lamps
EN60901
Fluorescent lamps
JIS C 7601
Associated ballasts
KS C 7621
Magnetic ballasts
KS C 8102-99
JIS C 8108
Electronic ballasts
KS C 8100-01
IEC 60929
CFLs
KS C 7621-99
IEC 60969
JIS C 7601
JIS C 8108
Fluorescent lamps
KS C 7601-01
JIS C 7601
Incandescent lamps
KS C 7501-99
IEC 60064
JIS C 7501
Electronic ballasts
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App Q
ANSI C 82.2
China
IES LM 31-95
IES RP 8-00
EU
Japan
Korea
USA
IEC 60081
IEC 60901
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
36
Magnetic ballasts
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App Q
ANSI C 82.2
CFLs
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App R
US Energy Star
IES LM 66
Fluorescent lamps
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App R
ANSI C 78.1
ANSI C 78.2
ANSI C 78.3
ANSI C 78.375
ANSI C 82.3
IESNA LM-58-94
IESNA LM-9-99
Incandescent lamps
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App R
ANSI C 78.21
ANSI C 79.1
IESNA LM-20-94
IESNA LM-45-00
IESNA LM-58-94
Sources: Light’s Labour Lost-Policies for Energy Efficient Lighting”, OECD/IEA, 2006;
APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
http://www.energyrating.gov.au/man1.html;
http://www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/e_02.html
IEC test procedures for lighting equipment are widely used but as yet there is no suitable IEC standard for the
determination of ballast efficacy. There is a need to develop a new IEC ballast test procedure based on the
superior methods now used in North America and Europe for determination of efficacy. An energy test for CFLs
and some other lamps types is also needed.





Test method: Wide use of IEC for lamps, mostly fine, but complex side issues, CFLs not covered yet
Efficiency metric: Lumens output widely accepted. Issues regarding secondary requirements such as
colour rendering and lighting quality (glare), mercury content of growing concern for some lamp types
Regulatory regimes: Mandatory and voluntary programs in place around the world mostly using similar
metrics but with variations
Work on standardised metrics required
Need to control other elements like quality and performance to complement, global initiatives
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
37
Product group: Televisions
Assumption of Television market share and baseline power rating
The television UEC forecast is made according to projections of TV size and type market share (Jones, Harrison and Fairhurst
2006).
Power rating
W
70
130
300
Technology:
CRT
LCD
Plasma
UEC (4 hrs per
day)
102
190
438
Average UEC kWh
2000
100%
0%
0%
102.2
2010
43%
43%
14%
186.9
Market Share
2020
18%
55%
26%
238.8
2030
8%
61%
32%
261.1
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
A recent study (Armishaw and Harrison 2006) found that LCD consumption can be reduced by 34% by using “super bright
LEDs” instead of CFL/discharge backlighting and that plasma TVs’ consumption can be reduced by 36% by incorporating an
energy recovery circuitry and additional effects from large-scale integrated circuits (LSI).
Assumption of Television Base Case UEC and Efficiency Improvement
TVs, Efficiency
Region
All
regions
Base
Case
2010
Target
2020
Target
100%
137%
148%
Source
Assumption
(Armishaw and Harrison
2006)
34% improvement on LCD, 36% on
Plasma TVs by 2010
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact
Region
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
SSA
MEA
5875
6807
37395
SASPAS
29930
15388
6,1
80,3
10041
10,6
52,2
60924
74,2
297,8
47023
35,9
229,0
6,4
4,2
83,3
32,6
209,9
65,4
15,9
260,2
161,9
709,9
LAM
Global market
2005
8778 16464
18603
3378
9553 13600
estimates,
2020
thousand units
10653
22897
23513
4036 11459
19361
2005
Energy demand
18,3
32,2
39,6
7,5
19,8
22,5
estimates, TWh
2030
47,4
101,3
103,6
18,2
56,1
94,5
Energy related
2005 11,7
19,0
15,1
4,1
10,8
22,7
carbon emissions,
2030
23,6
46,4
30,7
7,7
23,9
74,2
MtCO2
Emission
2020
5,0
9,0
6,3
1,7
5,0
14,1
mitigation
2030
8,3
16,4
10,9
2,7
8,5
26,2
potential, MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
CPA
Australia/New
Zeeland1
China2
EU3
Japan4
Republic of
x
x
x
Mandatory
standard
Under
consideration
(UC)
x
Voluntary
Label
x
x
x
x
x
225294
266,7
1080,2
2,9
49,0
30,9
134
23,1
5,6
92,1
57,3
251
Mandatory
label
UC
150382
10,3
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
GLOBAL
Test standard
AS/NZS62301
AS/NZS 62087
GB 12021.7-1989
EN50301
EN/IEC62301
JIS C 6101-1
US EPA
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
38
Korea5
USA/Canada6
x
DOE CFR10, Part 430 subpart
B, appendix A-VIII
1TVs
are part of some of the sub-programmes of the Australian Equipment Energy Efficiency Programme, and will be regulated for MEPS and
labelling in Oct 2009. A voluntary energy labelling program is in place as a transition program. A regulatory impact statement recommended
setting up labelling scheme following already existing six star rating systems plus the introduction of MEPS.
China applies standard GB 12021.7-1989 - The limited value and testing method of electrical energy consumption for broadcasting receiver
of colour and monochromic televisions and a certification label that requires TVs to have stand-by loss under 3 Watts.
2
3In
2003, EICTA (the European Industry Association for Information Systems, Communication Technologies and Consumer Electronics)
submitted to the European Commission a Self Commitment to improve energy performance of household consumer electronics sold in the
European Union. The EICTA Self Commitment provides targets for maximum passive standby power consumption as well as an Energy
Efficiency Index. A number of energy and eco labelling schemes exist in EU and in certain member countries including European Eco-Label,
Nordic Swan, GEEA label, Blue Angel, etc.
Japan does not have MEPS; instead it operates the Top Runner standards program. This program aims to dramatically improve energy
efficiency of appliances by setting target values based on the current highest efficiency level of each type of product instead of the current
average efficiency level. Manufacturers and importers have to ensure the average (sales weighted) efficiency of all their appliances meets this
standard by a specified date (the target year). The program allows for improvement over time, making manufacturers constantly increase the
efficiency of appliances. In addition a voluntary labelling scheme has been initiated in 2000 to indicate compliance with the set criteria. The
Top Runner standards are voluntary as there is no minimum level, however the program itself is mandatory for all manufacturers and
importers. TVs are part of the Japan’s Top Runner program. The voluntary labelling program was launched in August 2000, in April 2006, the
revised Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy that stipulates the obligation of retailers to provide information of products at their
stores using “National standard Energy-saving Label” which includes information such as energy consumption and expected electricity cost.
4
Korean e-Standby Program is managed according to the long-term road map, “Standby Korea 2010,” which details the three stages of the
“1W initiative,” that is designed to reduce standby power usage to below 1W by 2010. The Energy-Saving Label is proposed by the National
Energy-Saving Promotion Committee on May 27, 1998, which is an endorsement label for office equipments and home electronics. The
equipment eligibility requirements are mostly the same as the International Energy Star program. The nickname of the Energy Saving Label
is called the 'Energy Boy' with which all of the people are familiar and can be aware of the necessity of the energy saving.
5
US Energy Star is jointly managed by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1992 as a
voluntary, market-based partnership that seeks to reduce air pollution through increased energy efficiency. The program is originally
covered only computers, monitors and printers, but has now been expanded to cover a wide variety of appliances, equipment, building
products and homes and windows. US Energy Star specification for TVs stand-by requirements was first published in 1998 and revised in
2002, 2005 and 2006. The US EPA has started a process in 2005 to revise the current specifications for TV, which is linked to efforts made on
IEC level to develop new standard power measurement method reflecting active mode power consumption
6
Sources: “Preparatory studies for Eco-Design requirements of EuP, LOT 5: Televisions, Task 1”, Fraunhofer IZM, August 2007;
APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
http://www.energyrating.gov.au/man1.html;
http://www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/e_02.html
Test methods:
 Test method: Old IEC62087 method not applicable to flat screens, but strong global effort to develop
new procedure within IEC nearing completion
 Efficiency metric: screen size, but picture can affect energy -standardised clips, some debate about
features and screen settings/brightness. Issue of store settings (bright picture) versus settings for
normal use.
 Regulatory regimes: Not regulated in many places at this stage -Top Runner in Japan and China has
MEPS. Energy Star level. About to be regulated by AU, maybe EU and US soon
Good prospects as not much existing regulation and good participation in new IEC method, perhaps not enough
cooperation on metrics at this stage
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
39
Product group: Domestic ICT
Assumptions for Domestic ICT Power UEC and Efficiency Improvement – n.a.
Global market size, trends and expected carbon impact
Global market estimates, thousand
units
2005
2020
n.a
n.a
Electricity demand estimates,
TWh
2005
2030
n.a
n.a
Emission mitigation potential. MtCO2
2020
n.a
2030
n.a
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Canada2
China3
EU4
Japan5
Republic of
Korea6
USA7
California8
Mandatory
standard
x
UC
UC
x
x
x
UC
x
Voluntary
Label
x
x
x
x
x
Mandatory
label
Test standard
AS/NZS 4665.1
US EPA
US EPA
CCEC/T22-2003
x
US EPA
US EPA
x
US EPA
1Two
voluntary labelling schemes apply for computers and monitors in Australia and New Zealand - the “Energy Star” Program and “Good
environmental choice”. The Australian eco-label program was launched in 2002 by the Australian Environmental Labelling Association.
Products have to meet environmental performance criteria including energy usage requirements. Minimum efficiency requirements for
power supplies were introduced in December 2008 in Australia and April 2009 in New Zealand. Energy performance requirements include
the average efficiency (measured at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of rated output power) and consumption at no load – test method developed
with USA, China and Europe. Regulation of computers is under consideration.
2Apart
from Energy Star program, the Environmental Choice Program (ECP) also known as EcoLogo is implemented in Canada. It allows
companies to apply to have a product or service certified if it improves energy efficiency. Certification is indefinite providing licensed
companies confirm annually their continued compliance. ECP also conducts random inspections or product testing to confirm continued
compliance. Canadian Standards Association (CSA) is preparing a Canadian national requirement for a single output EPS regarding minimum
efficiency and no-load performance. The mandatory compliance date is targeted for 2008.
3China
is considering introduction of minimum efficiency requirements for computers and monitors. So far only the Energy conservation
certification scheme is applied for these products. Based on the voluntary China Energy Conservation Project (CECP), China has set
mandatory standards regarding the minimum allowable values of energy efficiency for single voltage external AC-DC and AC-AC power
supplies (CSC/T30-2005).
4Apart from the EU EcoLabel and the Energy Star there are some national and international labelling schemes computers and monitors such
as GEEA label (computers, battery chargers), TCO label (computers), Blue Angel, Nordic Swan. For power supplies EC has introduced a Code
of Conduct, aiming at minimising energy consumption of EPS both under no-load and load conditions. In October 2008 EU Member States
endorsed the European Commission's proposal for a regulation aimed at improving the energy performance of external power supplies.
Japan does not have MEPS; instead it operates the Top Runner standards program. This program aims to dramatically improve energy
efficiency of appliances by setting target values based on the current highest efficiency level of each type of product instead of the current
average efficiency level. Manufacturers and importers have to ensure the average (sales weighted) efficiency of all their appliances meet this
standard by a specified date (the target year). The Top Runner standards are voluntary as there is no minimum level, however the program
itself is mandatory for all manufacturers and importers. Computers and hard disk drives are part of the Japan Top runners program.
Computers are also covered by a mandatory retailer labelling programme that mandates retailers to provide information of products at their
stores using “National standard Energy-saving Label” which includes information such as energy consumption and expected electricity cost.
Energy Star and EcoMark program are also applied as voluntary labelling schemes.
5
6Computers,
monitors and power supplies are covered by the Korean e-Standby Program that has been implemented since April 1, 1999. The
e-Standby Program is managed according to the long-term road map, “Standby Korea 2010,” which details the three stages of the “1W
initiative,” that is designed to reduce standby power usage to below 1W by 2010. The Energy-Saving Label is an endorsement label for office
equipments and home electronics. The equipment eligibility requirements are mostly the same as the International Energy Star program.
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
7US
Energy Star is jointly managed by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1992 as a
voluntary, market-based partnership that seeks to reduce air pollution through increased energy efficiency. The program is originally
covered only computers, monitors and printers, but has now been expanded to cover a wide variety of appliances, equipment, building
products and homes and windows. Products that have earned the Energy Star designation prevent greenhouse gas emissions by meeting
strict energy-efficiency specifications set by the government. Battery chargers and EPS are among the appliances scheduled by US DOE
schedule for setting new mandatory federal appliance efficiency standards. DOE must issue standards for EPS by 2008, which are to be
effective by August 2011.
8In
2004 the California Energy Commission (CEC) adopted mandatory efficiency requirements for external power supplies sold in California
(amended in December 2006). The general definitions and the efficiency requirements for the Phase 1 are identical to those of the ENERGY
STAR. Following the example of California, a number of other US States have recently developed appliance energy efficiency standards,
including standards for ‘single-voltage external power supplies’.
Sources:
“Preparatory studies for Eco-Design requirements of EuP, LOT 3: Personal Computers (desktops and laptops) and Computer Monitors, Final
report”, IVF, August 2007;
“Preparatory studies for Eco-Design requirements of EuP, LOT 7: Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies, Final report”, Bio
Intelligence service, January 2007;
APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
http://www.energyrating.gov.au/index.html
Test methods
Information technology (this relates to computers not EPS)
 Need to establish internationally developed test method for computers within the IEC.
 Test method: Existing Energy Star measures energy consumption by mode (many modes)
 Efficiency metric: energy service is very unclear, focusing on energy consumption rather than efficiency.
 Regulatory regimes: Mostly Energy Star, some country requirements, being considered in some
countries
 Reasonable prospects for mode harmonisation, but energy management, especially in networks, is the
missing link
External power supplies - IEC 62301 and Energy Star test methodology
 Test method: Agreed international method, but not yet published by IEC
 Efficiency metric: Efficiency no load plus 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% rated output widely agreed (curve
is ideal), range of efficiency levels now defined (I to V, VI in development)
 Regulatory regimes: Mandatory and voluntary programs in place China, USA, Australia and soon EU
Korea Japan, all using same metrics
 Already achieved if others copy the approach
40
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
41
Product group: Consumer electronics, excluding TV and ICT
Assumptions for Domestic Consumer Electronics Unit Energy Consumption
Domestic Consumer Electronics Unit Energy Consumption savings potential is estimated by considering standby
power only (including television standby power). Uptake of products utilizing standby power is modelled
according to household income (see McNeil et al., 2007). The model of standby power is in terms of total Watts
per household, covering all products consuming standby (as many as 65 products including various video and
hi0fi equipment, ICT, cooking appliances, telephony, and other consumer electronics). Data by country is taken
from estimates from the IEA report “Things that go blip in the Night. A baseline standby power of 5W is assumed
for all products, with efficiency targets of 3W in 2010 and 1W in 2020.
Assumptions for Domestic Stand by Power UEC and Efficiency Improvement
Region
All regions
Stand By, kWh
2010
Base Case
Target
44
26
2020
Target
9
Assumption
3W in 2010, 1W in 2020
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SASPAS
45988
96180
82129
6384
12794
28866
18989
14608
54983
45054
405976
2020
55951
132456
112804
9984
16426
48013
Energy
2005
28,8
56,1
48,4
3,6
7,5
14,8
demand
estimates,
2030
38,3
91,9
78,0
7,4
12,1
35,8
TWh
Energy related
2005
18,4
33,1
18,4
2,0
4,1
15,0
carbon
emissions,
2030
19,1
42,1
23,1
3,2
5,2
28,1
MtCO2
Emission
2020
6,5
14,9
8,3
1,0
1,8
8,5
mitigation
potential,
2030
14,9
33,0
18,1
2,5
4,0
22,1
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
30868
23025
91410
71191
592130
9,6
7,3
29,7
24,6
230,4
23,8
17,5
70,5
53,3
428,7
10,0
2,9
33,3
22,4
159,6
19,4
5,3
61,6
37,7
244,7
5,9
1,7
18,5
11,7
79
15,2
4,2
48,4
29,7
192
Region
Global market
estimates,
thousand units
2005
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Canada2
EU3
Japan4
Republic of
Korea5
USA6
Mandatory
standard
Voluntary
Label
Mandatory
label
x
AS/NZS 62087
CSA C380-06
EN 62087
x
x
x
Test standard
x
x
x
1Minimum
efficiency requirements for set-top boxes will be effective as of December 2008 in Australia and April 2009 in New Zeeland.
Mandatory horizontal requirement for standby in 2012 will cover the majority of energy consumption for other products in this group.
2Energy
star label is applicable to consumer electronic equipment in Canada
GLOBAL
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
3The
European Commission has pursued voluntary agreement with the European Association of Consumer Electronics Manufacturers
(EACEM) to cut the power consumption of televisions, videocassette recorders and audio equipment when they are in standby mode. EC have
proposed draft regulation setting eco design requirements for simple set- top boxes in September 2008. EU regulation on standby will cover
the majority of energy consumption for other products in this group.
Japan does not have MEPS; instead it operates the Top Runner standards program. This program aims to dramatically improve energy
efficiency of appliances by setting target values based on the current highest efficiency level of each type of product instead of the current
average efficiency level. Manufacturers and importers have to ensure the average (sales weighted) efficiency of all their appliances meet this
standard by a specified date (the target year). The program allows for improvement over time, making manufacturers constantly increase the
efficiency of appliances. The Top Runner standards are voluntary as there is no minimum level, however the program itself is mandatory for
all manufacturers and importers. VCRs and DVD recorders are part of the Japan Top runners program, they are covered also by mandatory
retailer labelling programme that mandates retailers to provide information of products at their stores using “National standard Energysaving Label”.
4
5DVDs,VCRs
and set top boxes are covered by the Korean e-Standby Program that has been implemented since April 1, 1999.
6US
Energy Star is jointly managed by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1992 as a
voluntary, market-based partnership that seeks to reduce air pollution through increased energy efficiency. Energy star label is applicable to
consumer electronic equipment in USA
Sources: “Preparatory studies for Eco-Design requirements of EuP, LOT 18: Complex Set-Top boxes, Task 1 Interim report”, Bio Intelligence
service, May 2008;
APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
http://www.energyrating.gov.au/man1.html;
http://www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/e_02.html
Test methods
Simple set top boxes (IEC62087, IEC 62301)
 Test method: Existing IEC probably OK, set top boxes are more complex – need to be treated as a
separate product
 Efficiency metric: energy service is sometime a bit unclear, much energy used in non active modes, most
power in active mode probably not essential
 Regulatory regimes: Regulated in a few countries, mostly non active mode limits as covered by standby
and Energy Star
 Reasonable prospects on non-active mode requirements through standby regs, set top boxes should be
OK, active mode for other HE unclear
42
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
43
Product group: Domestic cooking – electric
Regional Fuel Shares for Domestic Ovens – Industrialized and Transition Economies Only
Fuel Share
Region
Elec
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
22%
61%
59%
59%
Fuel
78%
39%
41%
41%
Reference
(EDMC)
(USDOE 2007)
IEA
Same as WEU
FSU
22%
78%
DHS Surveys
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Assumptions for Electric Oven UEC and Efficiency Improvement (Industrialized and Transition
Economies Only)
Base
Case
Ovens. kWh
Region Number
kWh
2010
Target
2020
Target
kWh
Reference
Assumption
kWh
PAO+WEU+EER+FS
U
132
70
61
(Kasanen 2000)
Economically acceptable target in
2010, maximum technical potential
in 2020
NAM
167
88
77
(U.S. Department
of Energy 1993)
Same efficiency improvement as
Europe, 110cycles/year
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact (electric ovens)
Region
Global market
estimates,
thousand units
PAO
2005
5175
NAM
9076
WEU
EEU
FSU
12096
2440
4203
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SASPAS
GLOBAL
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
32 990
2020
6215
11954
14721
2831
7250
n.a.
Energy
2005
10,6
56,8
25,0
4,4
6,6
n.a.
demand
estimates,
2030
13,5
81,6
31,0
6,3
17,5
n.a.
TWh
Energy related
2005
6,8
33,5
9,5
2,4
3,6
n.a.
carbon
emissions,
2030
6,7
37,4
9,2
2,7
7,5
n.a.
MtCO2
Emission
2020
1,6
8,7
2,2
0,7
1,9 n.a.
mitigation
potential,
2030
3,1
17,5
4,2
1,2
3,6 n.a.
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
42 971
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
103,5
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
149,8
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
55,9
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
63,4
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
15
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
30
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Canada1
China2
Mandatory
standard
x
Voluntary
Label
x
Mandatory
label
x
x
Test standard
CAN/CSA-C 358-95
GB 4706.29-92 , GB 4706.22-2002 ,
QB/T 1236-91
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
EU3
Japan4
x
x
Korea5
USA6
44
v
x
x
x
x
x
JIS C 9250
JIC9212
KS C 9313-95
KS A 0801 , KS C 9310 , KS C 9312
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B App I , IEC
60705
Canada has mandatory MEP applied to household ranges that are free-standing appliances or build in as well as mandatory label the annual
energy consumption value.
1
China has introduced efficiency requirements for rice cookers in 1990, which are currently under revision, as September 2008 MEP
specifies the minimum allowable values of energy efficiency, evaluation values of energy conservation, energy efficiency grades, test methods
and inspection rules for household induction cookers with a rated power at 700-2800W per heating unit.
2
3Apart
from the 27 EU member states, European energy label for electric ovens is introduced in a number of countries including Turkey,
Croatia, Switzerland, Norway, Macedonia.
Japan does not have MEPS; instead it operates the Top Runner standards program. This program aims to dramatically improve energy
efficiency of appliances by setting target values based on the current highest efficiency level of each type of product instead of the current
average efficiency level. Manufacturers and importers have to ensure the average (sales weighted) efficiency of all their appliances meet this
standard by a specified date (the target year). The Top Runner standards are voluntary as there is no minimum level, however the program
itself is mandatory for all manufacturers and importers. Japan’s Top runner programme covers microwave oven and rice cookers. In addition
a mandatory retailer labelling scheme was introduced that mandates that retailers to provide information such as energy consumption and
expected electricity cost. For cook tops and ranges also the voluntary energy conservation labelling program applies.
4
5Microwave
ovens fall within the requirements of Korean e-Standby Program . For rice cookers mandatory efficiency requirements were set
and a label introduced under the Korean Energy Efficiency Label and Standard Program
USA Originally ovens, upright cookers, and microwave ovens were covered by the regulations but an investigation in 1999 decided that no
substantial benefit was being derived form these laws. Green Seal is a voluntary labelling scheme.
6
Source: APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
Test methods
There are some differences between the Canadian method (CAN/CSA-C358) and the IEC method (IEC60350).
Some experts feel that the IEC standard as published has significant problems that need to be resolved before it
could be recommended for alignment within APEC. Highly variable usage and habits make the development of a
representative test method problematic.
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
45
Product group: Domestic cooking – gas
Assumptions for Gas Oven UEC and Efficiency Improvement (Industrialized and Transition Economies
Only)
Base
Case
Ovens. kWh
Region Number
PAO+WEU+EER+FS
U
NAM
2010
Target
2020
Target
kWh
kWh
kWh
167
89
77
(Kasanen
2000)
114
(U.S.
Departme
nt of
Energy
1993)
248
131
Reference
Assumption
Economically acceptable target in
2010, maximum technical potential
in 2020
Same efficiency improvement as
Europe, 110cycles/year
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact (gas ovens)
Global market estimates, thousand
units
2005
2020
n.a
n.a
Electricity demand estimates,
TWh
2005
2030
n.a
n.a
Emission mitigation potential. MtCO2
2020
n.a
2030
n.a
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Brazil1
Japan2
1Minimum
x
Mandatory
standard
x
Voluntary
Label
x
x
Mandatory
label
x
x
Test standard
RESP/008-FOG
requirements and labelling programme were set in Brazil for gas ovens
2Japan
does not have MEPS; instead it operates the Top Runner standards program. This program aims to dramatically improve energy
efficiency of appliances by setting target values based on the current highest efficiency level of each type of product instead of the current
average efficiency level. Manufacturers and importers have to ensure the average (sales weighted) efficiency of all their appliances meet this
standard by a specified date (the target year). The program allows for improvement over time, making manufacturers constantly increase the
efficiency of appliances. Gas cooking appliances are part of TopRunner program, a label is applied that allows consumers to ascertain how an
appliance fairs in relation to the Top Runner Standard. Firstly the labels are colour coded; yellow to indicate the models that are below (failed
to meet) the efficiency target level and green for those above (i.e. better than) the efficiency target level. Secondly, the label displays the ratio
percentage of the standard that the model has achieved, i.e. if it operates at the Top Runner standard level then the ratio is 100%. Thirdly the
label displays the annual energy consumption of the appliance and also the year by which the target is to be attained.
Source: APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
Test methods
Highly variable usage and habits make the development of a representative test method problematic.
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
46
Product group: Domestic water heaters – gas & oil
Assumptions for Domestic Water Heating Fuel Shares
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
Useful Water
Heater Energy
kWh/Unit
2985
3994
2486
458
2075
955
414
414
CPA
SAS-PAS
1062
225
Fuel Share
Elec
Fuel
Other
43%
57%
0%
38%
62%
0%
34%
58%
8%
34%
58%
8%
13%
48%
38%
9%
54%
37%
1%
2%
97%
2%
73%
25%
Time dependent - see McNeil et al.
2008
0%
13%
87%
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Assumptions for Gas Water Heater UEC and Efficiency Improvement
Region
Gas WH, Efficiency
Source
Assumption
Base Case
2010
Target
2020
Target
PAO
0.83
0.83
0.83
Top Runner Website http://www.eccj.or.jp
NAM
0.59
0.62
0.62
WEU+EER+F
SU+LAM+SSA
+MEA+SASPAS
0.48
0.59
0.62
(U.S. Department of
Energy-Office of Energy
Efficiency and
Renewable Energy
2000)
CPA
0.86
0.88
0.96
(Lin J. 2006)
Efficiency for both boiler and
instantaneous already very high. No
further improvement
No further improvement after 2010
Base Case is the baseline from the last
rulemaking (1998), current US
standard adopted in 2010, and
probable next US standard level by
2020
All gas heaters are instantaneous
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, energy demand and expected carbon impact
Region
Global market
estimates,
thousand units
Energy
demand
estimates, TWh
Energy related
carbon
emissions,
MtCO2
Emission
mitigation
potential,
MtCO2
PAO
2005
2913
NAM
5616
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
6966
1522
3732
3473
SSA
MEA
CPA
SASPAS
GLOBAL
23
2728
13754
973
41700
62347
2020
3466
7396
8499
1711
4382
5235
63
3925
25703
1967
2005
195,8
540,5
543,5
22,4
233,0
77,6
0,1
26,5
92,1
3,1
1734,7
2030
248,2
776,6
674,1
25,1
307,0
176,2
1,1
60,4
439,6
15,5
2723,8
2005
32,7
90,2
90,7
3,7
38,9
12,9
0,0
4,4
15,4
0,5
289,5
2030
41,4
129,6
112,5
4,2
51,2
29,4
0,2
10,1
73,4
2,6
454,5
2020
0,0
1,0
2,7
0,1
1,3
0,7
0,0
0,2
0,5
0,1
7
2030
0,0
3,3
7,0
0,3
3,2
2,0
0,0
0,7
4,6
0,2
21
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
47
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Canada2
Japan3
USA4
Mandatory
standard
Voluntary
Label
X
Mandatory
label
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Test standard
AS4552 (gas WH)
AS4553 (gas space)
AS4556 (gas ducted)
CAN/CGA P.3-04
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App E
1 An energy labelling scheme apply for central gas heaters, gas room heaters and gas water heaters has been in place in Australia since the
late 1980’s. The scheme has been run by industry but is effectively mandatory (although not stringent). Government is in the processing of
regulating these gas products, with water heaters scheduled for 2010 with more stringent MEPS levels.
2Canada
has mandatory MEP applied to stationary gas-heated water containers with a capacity of not less than 76 litres (20 U.S. gallons) and
not more than 380 litres (100 U.S. gallons) that use propane or natural gas and that have an input rating of not more than 21.97 kW (75 000
Btu/h).
Canada's Environmental Choice Program provides consumers with a level of assurance that the product bearing the EcoLogo, ECP's symbol
of environmental excellence, meets stringent environmental criteria.
3Japan
does not have MEPS; instead it operates the Top Runner standards program. This program aims to dramatically improve energy
efficiency of appliances by setting target values based on the current highest efficiency level of each type of product instead of the current
average efficiency level. Manufacturers and importers have to ensure the average (sales weighted) efficiency of all their appliances meet this
standard by a specified date (the target year). The program allows for improvement over time, making manufacturers constantly increase the
efficiency of appliances.
The original water heater efficiency standards took effect in 1990 and established minimum efficiency requirements as a function of fuel
and capacity for an average size unit, the standard was 0.54 EF (Energy Factor) for gas water heaters and .86 EF for electric water heaters. In
January 2001, DOE published revised water heater standards, effective January 2004.а for an average-sized unit, the required EF is .59 for
gas and .90 for electricity. In November 2006, DOE began a rulemaking to revise the 2004 standard the rulemaking is scheduled to be
completed in April 2010 and take effect three years later.
7
Source: APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
Test methods
 Test method: Some IEC and ISO methods but not used much, mostly local or home grown – mostly very
poor in being able to reflect different ambient conditions and hot water usage patterns. Solar systems
are very complex.
 Efficiency metric: Heating output. Energy in vs energy out, plus user+climate impact
 Regulatory regimes: Regulated in many countries, usually a specific set of conditions and specific usage
patterns which are not at all global (local climate) with poor prospects for harmonisation.
 Poor prospects, multiple fuels creates many issues for a comparative system of metrics, many different
regulatory approaches
Best approach is to develop test procedures that measure key energy characteristics of each water heater type
which will allow simulation under a range of different ambient conditions and a wide range of hot water usage
patterns. This is the only feasible approach for solar systems.
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
48
Product group: Domestic water heaters – electricity
Assumptions for Domestic Water Heating Fuel Shares
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
Useful Water
Heater Energy
kWh/Unit
2985
3994
2486
458
2075
955
414
414
CPA
SAS-PAS
1062
225
Fuel Share
Elec
Fuel
Other
43%
57%
0%
38%
62%
0%
34%
58%
8%
34%
58%
8%
13%
48%
38%
9%
54%
37%
1%
2%
97%
2%
73%
25%
Time dependent - see McNeil et al.
2008
0%
13%
87%
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Assumptions for Electric Water Heater UEC and Efficiency Improvement
Region
PAO
Electric WH, Efficiency
Base Case
2010
2020
Target
Target
0.83
0.88
0.91
NAM
0.92
0.92
2.50
WEU
0.83
0.88
0.91
EER
0.79
0.83
0.88
LAM
0.79
0.88
0.91
FSU+SSA+ME
A+CPA+SASPAS
0.76
0.83
0.88
Source
Assumption
(Saluki and Hollinger
2000)
Level E to Level C in 2010, and Level
A in 2020
Heat Pump Water Heaters become
Mandatory in 2020
Level E to Level C in 2010, and Level
A in 2020
Level E to Level C in 2010, and Level
A in 2020
Level F to Level C in 2010, and Level A
in 2020
Level G to Level E in 2010, and Level
C in 2020
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, energy demand and expected carbon impact
Region
Global market
estimates,
thousand units
PAO
2005
2234
NAM
3456
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
4067
889
1033
598
999
1213
902
SSA
MEA
19
CPA
67
4539
SASPAS
GLOBAL
23
16925
23963
2020
2658
4552
4963
51
97
8482
47
Energy
demand
estimates,
TWh
Energy related
carbon
emissions,
MtCO2
2005
117,6
213,4
183,5
7,9
40,7
8,1
0,1
0,4
174,4
0,0
746,2
2030
149,0
306,6
227,6
8,9
53,7
18,4
0,6
0,9
331,3
0,2
1097,3
2005
75,2
125,7
69,9
4,3
22,3
8,2
0,1
0,2
195,9
0,0
501,8
2030
74,2
140,5
67,4
3,8
22,9
14,5
0,5
0,3
289,5
0,2
613,6
Emission
2020
1,6
0,0
1,4
0,1
0,6
0,5
0
0
7,8
0
12
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
mitigation
potential,
2030
3,7
106,0
3,3
0,2
1,5
1,2
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
49
0
0
20,5
0
137
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Australia/New
Zeeland1
China2
USA
Mandatory
standard
Voluntary
Label
Mandatory
label
Test standard
x
x
AS/NZS4692 (electric WH)
x
x
x
x
GB/T 20289-2006
Test Standard: 10 CFR Part
430 Subpart B App E , ANSI
/ ASHRAE 118.2-1993 ,
ASHRAE 41.1-1986 (RA 01)
, ASTM-D-2156-94 (1999)
Reference Test Standard:
ANSI / ASHRAE 118.2-1993
, ASHRAE 41.1-1986 (RA
01) , ASTM-D-2156-94
(1999)
1Australia
introduced MEPS for electric water heaters in 1999, with some additional products added and more stringent levels for smaller
products in 2005.
2In
2008 China introduced minimum allowable values of energy efficiency, evaluation values of energy conservation, energy efficiency
grades, test methods and inspection rules for electric storage water heaters accompanied by a 6 grade energy efficiency label.
The original water heater efficiency standards took effect in 1990 and established minimum efficiency requirements as a function of fuel
and capacity for an average size unit, the standard was 0.54 EF (Energy Factor) for gas water heaters and .86 EF for electric water heaters. In
January 2001, DOE published revised water heater standards, effective January 2004.а for an average-sized unit, the required EF is .59 for
gas and .90 for electricity. In November 2006, DOE began a rulemaking to revise the 2004 standard the rulemaking is scheduled to be
completed in April 2010 and take effect three years later.
3
Source: APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
50
Product group: Domestic boilers – gas & oil
Assumptions for Domestic Space Heating Fuel Shares
Region
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
Electricity
Fuel
46%
54%
30%
70%
8%
92%
0%
100%
0%
100%
Time Dependent- see McNeil
et al. 2008
CPA
Reference/Assumption
IEA Energy Indicators
(DOE/EIA 2001)
(European Commission 2002)
(Novikova A.)
Assumed to be like region 4
(Zhou, McNeil et al. 2007)
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Assumptions for Fuel Space Heating Efficiency Improvements 14
Baseline
Efficiency
0.71
0.77
0.77
0.71
0.70
Region
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
CPA
2010
Target
0.77
0.88
0.88
0.77
0.78
2020
Target
0.77
0.88
0.88
0.77
0.83
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact (residential space heating – gas and
oil)
Region
Global market
estimates,
thousand units
PAO
2005
NAM
2795
WEU
6353
10275
EEU
FSU
1559
LAM
2781
2020
3356
8368
12511
1740
3269
Energy
2005
331,5
1238,6
1668,6
542,5
1954,2
demand
estimates,
2030
448,3
1916,7
2214,1
655,0
2929,1
TWh
Energy related
2005
55,3
206,7
278,4
90,5
326,1
carbon
emissions,
2030
74,8
319,8
369,4
109,3
488,8
MtCO2
Emission
2020
1,8
13,2
14,4
1,6
6,4
mitigation
potential,
2030
3,8
28,2
31,0
4,3
24,9
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
SSA
-
MEA
-
CPA
-
14777
25614
SASPAS
GLOBAL
-
38540
-
54858
-
-
-
0,0
0,0
0,0
247,3
0,0
5982,7
0,0
0,0
0,0
1132,5
0,0
9295,7
0,0
0,0
0,0
41,3
0,0
998,3
0,0
0,0
0,0
189,0
0,0
1,551,1
0,0
0,0
0,0
5,6
0,0
43
0,0
0,0
0,0
17,7
0,0
110
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process (residential water boilers – oil)
Voluntary
standard
Canada1
EU2
14
Mandatory
standard
Voluntary
Label
x
x
Mandatory
label
Test standard
CAN/CSA-B 212-00
x
Space Heating UEC climate dependency is estimated for each country
EN 15034
EN 15035
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Korea3
51
x
USA4
x
x
x
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App N
Ref: ANSI / ASHRAE 1031993
1Canada
has mandatory MEP applied to oil-fired boilers that are intended for use in a low-pressure steam or hot water central heating
system and have an input rate of less than or equal to 88 kilowatts (300 000 Btu/h). Oil-fired boilers (less than or equal to 88 kW (300 000
Btu/h).
2 The European Commission has issued a Council Directive
92/42/EEC of 21 May 1992 on efficiency requirements for new hot-water boilers
fired with liquid or gaseous fuels put on the EU market. There is a preparatory study for gas-fired, oil-fired and electric central heating
(combi-) boilers in the context of the EcoDesign directive.
3 According high energy efficiency appliance program for Oil Burning Water Boilers products with energy efficiency and quality test results
above the standards set by the government are issued a high-efficiency appliance certificate.
4
The U.S. government established a mandatory compliance program in the 1970s requiring that certain types of new appliances bear a label
to help consumers compare the energy efficiency among similar products. The efficiency of manufactured boilers is governed by the National
Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 and regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy. The minimum allowed annual fuel utilization
efficiency (AFUE) rating for a noncondensing, fossil-fueled boiler is 80%; and the rating for a gas-fueled steam boiler is 75%. Boilers are also
covered by the Energy Star labelling program. Energy Star is jointly managed by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) and the US
Department of Energy (DOE) since 1992 as a voluntary, market-based partnership that seeks to reduce air pollution through increased
energy efficiency.
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process (residential water boilers – gas)
Voluntary
standard
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Mandatory
standard
Voluntary
Label
X
x
Canada2
EU3
x
x
x
x
Korea4
x
x
Mexico5
USA6
Mandatory
label
x
Test standard
AS/NZS4692 (electric WH)
AS4552 (gas WH)
AS4553 (gas space)
AS4556 (gas ducted)
CAN/CGA P.2-1991
EN 303-1 (general)
NEW: prEN 15502-1
KS B 8101
KS B 8109
KS B 8127
x
NOM-002-ENER-1995
x
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App N
Ref: ANSI / ASHRAE 1031993
x
x
An energy labelling scheme apply for central gas heaters, gas room heaters and gas water heaters has been in place in Australia since the
late 1980’s. The scheme has been run by industry but is effectively mandatory (although not stringent). Government is in the processing of
regulating these gas products, with water heaters scheduled for 2010 with more stringent MEPS levels.
1
2Canada
has mandatory MEP applied to self-contained gas-fired boilers that use propane or natural gas, are intended for use in low-pressure
steam or hot water central heating system, and have an input rate of less than 88 kilowatts (300 000 Btu/h). Environment Canada's
Environmental Choice Program provides consumers with a level of assurance that the product bearing the EcoLogo, ECP's symbol of
environmental excellence, meets stringent environmental criteria.
The European Commission has issued a Council Directive 92/42/EEC of 21 May 1992 on efficiency requirements for new hot-water boilers
fired with liquid or gaseous fuels put on the EU market. There is a preparatory study for gas-fired, oil-fired and electric central heating
(combi-) boilers in the context of the EcoDesign directive. In Addition some member states have voluntary labelling schemes Austria,
Slovakia, Czech Republic, and UK.
3
4 Minimum
efficiency requirements are applied for household gas boilers in Korea as of 2003 linked to mandatory labelling program. Under
the program, manufacturers (importers) are mandated to produce and sell energy efficiency products from the outset. The Energy Efficiency
Label and Standard Program enables consumers to identify high efficiency energy efficiency products easily by (1) mandatory indication of
energy efficiency grade from 1st to 5th grade; A voluntary high efficient certification scheme is also active from 1997.
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Mexico has minimum energy efficiency standards for packaged boilers introduced in 1996. Mexico is working with Canada and the US on a
program to harmonise energy labels and Standards.
6
The U.S. government established a mandatory compliance program in the 1970s requiring that certain types of new appliances bear a label
to help consumers compare the energy efficiency among similar products. The efficiency of manufactured boilers is governed by the National
Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 and regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy. The minimum allowed annual fuel utilization
efficiency (AFUE) rating for a noncondensing, fossil-fueled boiler is 80%; and the rating for a gas-fueled steam boiler is 75%. Energy Star is
jointly managed by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1992 as a voluntary, marketbased partnership that seeks to reduce air pollution through increased energy efficiency The program is originally covered only computers,
monitors and printers, but has now been expanded to cover a wide variety of appliances, equipment, building products and homes and
windows.
7
Source: APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
Test methods
 Test method: Some IEC and ISO methods but not used much, mostly local or home grown – mostly very
poor in being able to reflect different ambient conditions and hot water usage patterns. Solar systems
are very complex.
 Efficiency metric: Heating output. Energy in vs energy out, plus user+climate impact
 Regulatory regimes: Regulated in many countries, usually a specific set of conditions and specific usage
patterns which are not at all global (local climate) with poor prospects for harmonisation.
 Poor prospects, multiple fuels creates many issues for a comparative system of metrics, many different
regulatory approaches
Best approach is to develop test procedures that measure key energy characteristics of each water heater type,
which will allow simulation under a range of different ambient conditions and a wide range of hot water usage
patterns. This is the only feasible approach for solar systems.
52
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
53
Product group: Domestic boilers – electricity
Assumptions for Domestic Space Heating Fuel Shares
Region
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
CPA
Electricity
Fuel
46%
54%
30%
70%
8%
92%
0%
100%
0%
100%
Time Dependent- see McNeil
et al. 2008
Reference/Assumption
IEA Energy Indicators
(DOE/EIA 2001)
(European Commission 2002)
(Novikova A.)
Assumed to be like region 4
(Zhou, McNeil et al. 2007)
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Assumptions for Electric Space Heating UEC and Efficiency Improvement
Region
PAO
NAM
Other
2010
Target
2.0
2.0
1.0
Base Case
1.5
1.5
1.0
2020
Target
2.0
2.0
1.0
Assumption
Heat Pump Efficiency Improvement
weighted by Market Share
Electric Resistance Heating Only
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact (residential space heating –
electricity)
Region
Global market
estimates,
thousand units
PAO
2005
2381
NAM
2723
WEU
893
EEU
FSU
-
LAM
-
2020
2859
3586
1088
Energy
2005
133,7
272,5
111,7
0,0
0,0
demand
estimates,
2030
180,8
421,7
148,2
0,0
0,0
TWh
Energy related
2005
85,5
160,6
42,5
0,0
0,0
carbon
emissions,
2030
90,0
193,3
43,9
0,0
0,0
MtCO2
Emission
2020
16,7
34,4
0,0
0,0
0,0
mitigation
potential,
2030
30,6
66,4
0,0
0,0
0,0
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
SSA
-
MEA
-
CPA
-
7389
SASPAS
GLOBAL
-
13386
-
-
-
12807
-
20340
0,0
0,0
0,0
79,1
0,0
596,9
0,0
0,0
0,0
163,2
0,0
913,8
0,0
0,0
0,0
88,8
0,0
377,4
0,0
0,0
0,0
142,6
0,0
469,7
0,0
0,0
0,0
2,0
0,0
53
0,0
0,0
0,0
11,4
0,0
108
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
54
Product group: Domestic air-conditioning
Assumptions for Domestic Air Conditioning Unit Energy Consumption
EER (W/W)
Region
Base
2010
2020
Source
PAO
3.85
4.81
5.81
Top Runner Website http://www.eccj.or.jp
/top_runner/chapter7
_3_02.html, Korea
Standards
NAM
3.37
3.37
3.37
(Rosenquist, McNeil et
al. 2006)
WEU+
EEU+
FSU
2.80
3.20
4.00
(Bertoldi and Atanasiu
2006)
LAM
2.64
2.96
4.00
(McNeil and Letschert
2007)
CPA
2.60
3.20
4.00
SAS-PAS
2.55
3.20
4.00
Other
Regions
2.40
2.60
3.20
(Lin J. 2006)
(Danish Energy
Management 2004),
(McNeil and Iyer
2007)
Assumption
Top Runner heat pump standards are quite
high already, and are set to increase in 2010.
We take from (Murakami S., M.D., Yoshino et
al. 2006) the scenario that average efficiency
will improve from a EER of 4 to 6 by 2020.
Levels in AUS/NZ and Korea are assumed to
match the Japanese standards.15
U.S. Standard for Central Air Conditioners
currently set at 13 SEER, which we estimate
to be equivalent to COP of 3.37. Additional
improvements were not found to be cost
effective in the reference.
Current 'A' level set at 3.2, but some products
reported at 4 or 5. Assume that the EU
program will aggressive, with the market
average reaching the A level by 2010, and
reaching 4 by 2020. Further Assume that
market for this product in EEU and FSU is
largely harmonized with WEU from 2010 on.
Same as WEU, except baseline at 'E' level
Baseline Corresponds to 2005 Standard (Split
Systems). Reach Standard in 2009 is 3.2.
Assume new standards at 4 by 2020
Weighted average based on Baseline
efficiency in India, Malaysia and Thailand.
Assumes Harmonization with Chinese
standards by 2010
Estimate based on current lack of efficiency
programs. Will reach China 2009 standard by
2020.
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact
Region
Global market
estimates,
thousand units
Energy
demand
estimates, TWh
Energy related
carbon
emissions,
PAO
2005
3280
2020
2005
NAM
WEU
6712
2609
3972
8841
8,3
263,2
2030
12,2
2005
2030
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SASPAS
GLOBAL
n.a.
n.a.
1193
432
765
39549
1206
55748
3590
n.a.
n.a.
2459
759
1174
64197
2319
87311
31,6
n.a.
n.a.
24,8
9,6
13,4
2,1
47,8
400,8
478,5
90,9
n.a.
n.a.
109,5
32,0
40,9
8,8
157,0
929,9
5,3
155,1
12,0
n.a.
n.a.
25,0
10,1
5,2
2,4
43,4
6,1
219,3
26,9
n.a.
n.a.
85,9
26,1
12,5
7,7
111,0
15 Cooling only systems are rare in Japan. Japan scenario is slightly more conservative than the citation, since efficiencies in that report
relate to stock, while our assumed efficiencies refer to new products only. Updates to Top Runner standards which will come into effect in
2010 are somewhat difficult to interpret due to a change in the performance metric used by the program. Finally, comparison between
Japanese COPs and those in other countries is difficult due to differences in test procedures.
258,6
495,5
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
MtCO2
Emission
2020
0,5
0,0
1,4
n.a.
n.a.
3,7
mitigation
potential,
2030
1,6
0,0
5,6
n.a.
n.a.
22,1
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
55
0,9
0,4
0,5
3,4
11
7,2
3,3
2,2
31,8
74
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Brazil2
Mandatory
standard
x
Voluntary
Label
x
Mandatory
label
x
Test standard
AS/NZS 3823
RESP/003-CAD
x
Canada3
China4
EU5
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
India6
x
x
Japan7
Mexico8
x
x
CAN/CSA-C 273.3-M91
CAN/CSA-C 656-M92
CAN/CSA-C 744-M93
CAN/CSA-C 368.1-M90
GB 12021.3-2000
GB/T 7725-1996
x
EN14511
x
IS 1391 (part I)
IS 1391 (part II)
JIS B 8616
JIS C 9612
JIS B 8615-2
JIS B 8615-1
NOM-011-ENER-2006
NOM-021-ENER/SCFI-2008
10 CFR Part 430Subpart B App
M
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B App
F
USA9
x
x
x
x
US Energy Star
1 Single phase non-ducted air conditioners for household use are regulated for energy labelling and MEPS in Australia. All three phases and
single phase ducted air conditioners up to 65kW cooling capacity are regulated for MEPS. Manufacturers can choose to label three phase and
x
x
x
ducted air conditioners, but this is not mandatory. . New levels for all products in April 2010 including heating performance, power factor
and inclusion of non operating power.
2
Brazil applies voluntary MEPs for split AC as well as a mandatory labelling program.
3Canada has mandatory MEP to factory-assembled single-phase and three-phase split-system central air conditioners, packaged terminal air
conditioners and heat pumps intended for use in residential, commercial and industrial heating and cooling systems, single-phase electric
room air conditioners that are not "packaged terminal air conditioners" and that do not exceed 10.55 kilowatts (36 000 Btu/h). Mandatory
labelling is applied for RACs (split/window).
4 Mandatory efficiency requirements and a label are applied for Central AC (packaged terminal) in China. GB/T 7725-1996 is not equivalent
to ISO 5151-1994, however the cooling capacity tests are conducted at the ISO 5151-1994 T1 test condition.
5
AC are covered currently by the EU labelling scheme, EuP study is ongoing under the Eco Design directive.
6Single
phase split & unitary AC up to a rated cooling capacity of 11 kW fall under the voluntary minimum efficiency requirements in India.
Japan does not have MEPS; instead it operates the Top Runner standards program. This program aims to dramatically improve energy
efficiency of appliances by setting target values based on the current highest efficiency level of each type of product instead of the current
average efficiency level. Manufacturers and importers have to ensure the average (sales weighted) efficiency of all their appliances meet this
standard by a specified date (the target year). The program allows for improvement over time, making manufacturers constantly increase the
efficiency of appliances. The Top Runner standards are voluntary as there is no minimum level, however the program itself is mandatory for
all manufacturers and importers. Unitary air conditioners can be ducted or non-ducted and hence the provisions in this standard are
simultaneously comparable to both ISO 5151-94(E) (non-ducted air conditioners) and ISO 13253-93 (ducted air conditioners). Mandatory
retailer labelling scheme applies for split room AC, for the rest type a voluntary informative label is applied.
7
8MEP
was introduced in Mexico to central, package and split type air conditioners, powered by electricity, with nominal cooling capacities of
8,800W to 19,050W, which operate by mechanical compression and which include an air-cooling evaporator coil, a compressor and either an
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
56
air- or water-cooled condensing coil. In addition both split and packaged electrical central air conditioners should have the official yellow
energy label relative to the standard - NOM-011-ENER-2006. In 1998, the label design was similar to European design; currently applies
design of the United States and Canada (Energy Guide) in 2002.
9EnergyGuide
labels are applied to central AC, Split and window Racs. For The last two categories also MEPs were introduced in 1990 and
updated in 1997. Energy star label is also applicable for AC in US.
Source: APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
http://www.energyrating.gov.au/man1.html;
http://www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/e_02.html
Test methods
Overview of test standards per country and equipment type
Country
Australia
Equipment type
Central AC(split type)
National Test Standard
AS/ NZS 3823
Central AC and Heat Pump
AS/ NZS 3823
RACs (split/window)
AS/ NZS 3823
Central AC(split type)
RESP/003-CAD
Reference Test Standard
ISO 5151
ISO 13253
ISO 5151
ISO 13253
ISO 5151
ISO 13253
ISO 5151
RACs (window)
RESP/003-CAD
ISO 5151
Central AC(split type)
CAN/CSA-C 273.3-M 91
Central AC and Heat Pump
CAN/CSA C 656-M 92
RACs (Packaged Terminal)
CAN/CSA-C 744-93
ARI 210/240-94
ASHRAE 37-1988
ARI 210/240-94
ASHRAE 37-1988
ARI 310/380-93 (CSA C744-93)
China
RACs (split/window)
RACs (split/window)
India
RACs (split/window)
EU
Japan
Central AC(split type)
CAN/CSA-C 368.1-M90
GB 12021.3-2000
GB/T 7725-1996
IS 1391 (part I)
IS 1391 (part II)
EN14511
JIS B 8616
JIS C 9612
JIS B 8615-2
JIS B 8615-1
Brazil
Canada
Ducted AC and heat pumps
Non-ducted AC and heat pumps
RACs (Packaged Terminal)
USA
ISO 13253
ISO 5151
Central AC(split type)
Central AC(Packaged Terminal)
JIS B 8615-1
JIS B 8615-2
JIS B 8616
JIS C 9612
JIS B 8615-2
JIS C 9612
JIS B 8616
JIS B 8615-1
NOM-011-ENER-2006
NOM-011-ENER-2006
RACs (Packaged Terminal)
NOM-021-ENER/SCFI-2008
ANSI / ASHRAE 16 (RA99)
RACs (window)
Central AC(split type)
NOM-021-ENER/SCFI-2008
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App M
US Energy Star
ANSI / ASHRAE 16 (RA99)
ANSI/ASHRAE 116-1995
ARI 210/240-94
ASHRAE / AMCA 51-1999
ASHRAE 23-1993
ASHRAE 37-1988
ASHRAE 41.1-1986 (RA 01)
RACs (split/window)
Mexico
ASHRAE 90-1-1989
ISO 5151
JIS C 9612
JIS B 8616
JIS B 8616
ANSI / ASHRAE 37
ANSI / ASHRAE 37
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
RACs (split/window)
US Energy Star
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App F
APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php




57
ASHRAE 41.2-1987 (RA 92)
ASHRAE 41.6-1994 (RA 01)
ASHRAE 41.9-2000
ANS Z 234.1-1972
ANSI / ASHRAE 16 (RA99)
Test method: ISO used widely around the world, except for central and mini-splits in USA. However,
concern about variable output systems could create many approaches in the near future
Efficiency metric: Cooling or heating power output. How this varies by climate and output (inverters)
not yet quantified (issue)
Regulatory regimes: Widely regulated mostly using EER at T1, US different (SEER), Japan looking for
seasonal efficiency, inverters now common
Good prospects if key test points plus simulation can cover all climates and usage patterns
ISO test procedure is used widely but is currently inadequate for modelling actual use across a range of climatic
conditions, seasonal performance or part load operation (especially inverter models). This is the major criticism
of ISO AC test methods. In some areas major differences exist between the test procedures used in certain
member economies, which is as much a result of differences in how identical products are classified, as it is
through fundamental differences in the test conditions and testing practice. There appears to be a strong case for
the complete alignment of product definitions used in test procedures and efficiency regulations, as the existing
differences in definitions currently constitute arbitrary barriers to the free flow of goods that are not
prerequisites of the energy performance policy objectives.
Work is under way to establish a range of standardised test points and provide a method of calculation to
estimate seasonal performance. This will allow harmonisation of testing with adaptation of results to reflect local
climatic conditions. If successful, this will provide a sound basis for global alignment of both test methods and
closer cooperation on efficiency levels.
One issue of major concern for this product group is the rapid increase in penetration in many countries and the
associated large peak loads on national electricity grid, which have the capacity to create large scale blackouts in
extreme weather events. Countries like Australia are pursuing standardised demand response interfaces for air
conditioners (and other products) which may become mandatory in due course.
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
58
Product group: Commercial refrigeration
Assumptions for Commercial Refrigeration Efficiency Improvement
Region
2010
All Regions
34%
2020
Source
34%
(Rosenquist,
McNeil et al.
2006)
Assumption
U.S. cost-effective efficiency
improvement levels, weighted by market
share (percent of electricity
consumption) for each equipment type.
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact
Region
Surface
estimates, mln
m2
PAO
2005
165,5
NAM
WEU
612,2
366,4
EEU
11,4
FSU
LAM
16,3
SSA
MEA
CPA
SASPAS
GLOBAL
81,3
6,6
34,4
192,2
71,7
1557,9
2020
224,1
904,0
614,8
45,3
32,0
183,7
Energy
2005
32,6
104,8
72,2
2,4
3,2
11,3
demand
estimates,
2030
39,9
159,1
111,1
8,1
6,1
31,4
TWh
Energy Related
2005
20,8
61,7
27,5
1,3
1,7
11,4
carbon
emissions,
2030
19,8
72,9
32,9
3,4
2,6
24,6
MtCO2
Emission
2020
5
17
8
1
1
5
mitigation
potential,
2030
7
25
11
1
1
8
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
32,6
80,4
523,5
232,0
2872,4
0,0
4,4
28,0
8,2
267,2
4,6
13,9
95,1
39,3
508,5
0
1,7
31,5
7,4
165,3
3,7
4,2
83,1
27,8
275,2
0
1
14
4
54
1
1
28
9
94
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Canada2
Brazil3
EU4
Mandatory
standard
Voluntary
Label
Mandatory
label
x
x
x
UC
Mexico5
California6
x
x
USA7
UC- under consideration
UC
x
x
Test standard
AS 1731.14-2003
CANC657-04; CAN/CSAC827-98
RESP/001-REF
EN ISO23953
NOM-022ENER/SCFI/ECOL-2000
ANSI/ASHRAE 117-1992
ANSI/ASHRAE 72(1998)
117(2002)
Australian MEPs for remote and self-contained refrigerated display-cabinets came into force in October 2004. The test methods used to
determine compliance are based, but not equivalent on EN ISO 23953:2005.
1
2Voluntary
standards are applied in Canada, containing minimum performance criteria for annual energy consumption that vary with the
volume of the refrigerators or freezer, apply for food service refrigerators and freezers, display cabinets and merchandisers and vending
machines.
3The
Brazilian voluntary labelling program contains an efficiency rating along with energy consumption and freezer temperature
information. The program is conducted by PROCEL, the national energy efficiency program and the government agency INMETRO (Instituto
Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO - National Institute of Metrologia) is responsible for verifying the
manufacturers data.
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
4The
EU preparatory study for ecodesign requirements for Commercial refrigerators and freezers is ongoing as of November 2008
5Mexico’s
standard NOM-022-ENER/SCFI/ECOL-2000 has adopted specifications and testing methods of energy efficiency values, as well as
user safety and elimination of the use of chlor-fluoro-carbons for commercial-type refrigerators. Under the government MEPS scheme, it is
required that commercial refrigerators have the official yellow energy label relative to the standard.
California’s Minimum energy performance standards are applied as state low, no appliance may be sold or offered for sale unless it complies
with the applicable standard.
6
7 The
Energy Policy Act of 2005 prescribes new and amended energy conservation standards and test procedures to commercial refrigeration
equipment. In this context US DOE published a notice of proposed MEPs that will apply on or after January 1st 2012.
Sources: APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php; “Preparatory Studies for Eco-
design Requirements of EuPs:
Lot 12: Commercial refrigerators and freezers, Task 1, version 22nd”, March 2007, Bio Intelligence Service
Test methods
At this stage there is no international test method for the performance of commercial refrigeration. The relevant
published ASHRAE, CAN/CSA and European standards should be used as the initial basis for such an
international standard.
59
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
60
Product group: Commercial lighting
Assumptions for Aggregate Commercial Lighting Efficacy and Efficiency Improvement
Commercial lighting is estimated in an aggregate way taking into consideration all fixture and lamp types. In the
base year, differences in commercial lighting efficacy between regions are due to differences in lamp types in use
and also due to lamp efficacy differences. Difference in lamp efficacy between regions are related mostly to T12
and T8 lamp types and represents the various penetration levels of magnetic and electronic ballasts. The energy
efficiency target in 2010 includes the implementation of stringent lamp type efficacy for T12 and T8 of 3% for
Pacific OECD and North American countries and 5% for Non OECD countries and OECD Europe. It also includes
the replacement of half the stock of T12 with T8 for 80% of lamps, and T5 for 5%, in OECD countries and with T8
for 100% of lamps in non OECD countries as well as the replacement of 50% of incandescent lamps by CFL. The
2020 target includes the complete phase out of T12 replaced with T5 and the replacement of half the stock of T8
with T5 in OECD countries. In non OECD countries, the replacement with T5 target is less aggressive, T12 are
replaced with T5 for 50% of lamps, the rest are replaced with T8. The resulting efficiency factors by region are
shown in the Table below.
Region
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
MEA
SSA
CPA
SAS-PAS
Base
1,05
0,97
0,94
0,81
0,77
0,84
0,88
0,70
0,84
0,84
2010 Target
1,09
1,08
1,00
0,97
0,95
1,00
1,01
0,93
0,99
1,00
2020 Target
1,24
1,27
1,18
1,13
1,07
1,12
1,11
1,09
1,09
1,11
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact
Region
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
Surface
2005
142,5
524,7
321,1
11,0
18,8
76,3
estimates, mln
2020
193,2
767,1
531,8
40,7
31,4
173,7
m2
Energy
2005
85,4
295,3
214,2
9,7
15,4
44,5
demand
estimates,
2030
103,6
440,4
323,5
29,0
25,6
115,9
TWh
Energy Related
2005
54,6
174
81,6
5,3
8,5
44,9
carbon
emissions,
2030
51,6
201,9
95,8
12,4
10,9
91
MtCO2
Emission
2020
1
12
4
1
1
8
mitigation
potential,
2030
2
33
11
3
3
25
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
SSA
MEA
CPA
Australia1
California2
Mandatory
standard
x
x
Voluntary
Label
GLOBAL
16,2
34,9
209,6
98,6
1453,8
50,9
77,1
496,1
246,6
2608,5
10,7
17,4
129,0
51,0
872,6
37,8
50,7
356,4
164,5
1647,5
11,2
6,8
144,9
46,3
578,2
30,8
15,5
311,4
116,3
937,5
4
1
22
9
63
13
4
78
31
203
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
SASPAS
Mandatory
label
Test standard
AS/NZS 4783.2:2002
AS/NZS 4782.2:2004
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Canada3
China4
EU5
Japan6
Korea7
New Zealand8
USA9
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
X
x
x
x
x
x
x
1Australia
implemented MEPS for LFL ballasts in March 2003 and for LFLs in October 2004. The provisions for ballast MEPS are essentially
harmonised with the European Union’s MEPS. The minimum efficacy requirements for LFLs are essentially harmonised with those applied in
the United States and Canada but are adapted for Australian power supply and test conditions. They include requirements for a minimum
colour rendering index. Performance requirements for linear fluorescent lamps include a limit on mercury content. Within the program
Greenlight Australia a wide range of new policy measures are being developed or are under active consideration. MEPS for low-voltage
halogen transformers, CFLs, Halogen and reflector lamps are being introduced progressive during 2009/2010 (including a ban on standard
efficiency GLS incandescent lamps). MEPS for luminaries, HID lamps and ballasts are under development.
2To
date California is the only jurisdiction aside from Korea to have implemented mandatory or voluntary efficiency standards for GLS
incandescent lamps. These MEPS impose minimum efficacy levels as a function of the rated lamp power and seem to be roughly equivalent to
Korea’s target value for incandescent lamps operated at 110 V. California’s torchiere MEPS, which came into effect in March 2003, prohibit
the sale of torchières that consume more than 190 W and hence effectively outlaw all but the lowest-power halogen torchières.
3Canada
now applies MEPS for fluorescent lamps, incandescent reflector lamps and ballasts. These MEPS are harmonised with the equivalent
US regulations as are the associated lamp labelling regulations. In addition, both countries operate a voluntary performance requirement for
CFLs and both apply the ENERGY STAR label in their territory. Canada also has an extra CFL endorsement label operated by Environment
Canada.
4Lighting
MEPS have been implemented in China since June 2003 for fluorescent lamps, high pressure sodium and metal halide lamps as well
as for lamp ballasts. China operates an extensive endorsement labelling scheme, which sets performance criteria for efficient products,
including lighting, and certifies performance levels of eligible products via a third-party testing and certification process. Lighting products
that are addressed include high-pressure sodium lamp ballasts, tubular fluorescent lamp ballasts, two-end fluorescent lamps and CFLs. In
addition, certification labelling requirements are being developed for HID lamps and LEDs.
5So
far the European Union has introduced two mandatory regulations addressing lighting equipment: MEPS for ballasts, and energy
labelling for household lamps. The EU policy instruments are also adopted or under consideration in several non EU member states –
Norway, Switzerland, Croatia, Turkey, Macedonia, Albania, Ukraine. The European Union, the United Kingdom and Denmark operate CFLperformance certification schemes to ensure that consumers are able to distinguish and attain high-quality CFLs. In addition the European
Union’s voluntary eco-labelling scheme also specifies requirements for CFLs.
6Japan
first implemented efficiency standards for fluorescent lamps in 1993 in which the government called for an improvement in energy
efficiency by 2000 of 3–7% compared to the level of 1992. In 1999 the Top Runner Program started, where average efficacy targets have
been set for 12 individual fluorescent lamp technologies). Japan does not have MEPS; instead it operates the Top Runner standards program.
This program aims to dramatically improve energy efficiency of appliances by setting target values based on the current highest efficiency
level of each type of product instead of the current average efficiency level. Manufacturers and importers have to ensure the average (sales
weighted) efficiency of all their appliances meet this standard by a specified date (the target year). The program allows for improvement
over time, making manufacturers constantly increase the efficiency of appliances. In addition a voluntary labelling scheme has been initiated
in 2000 to indicate compliance with the set criteria. The Top Runner standards are voluntary as there is no minimum level, however the
program itself is mandatory for all manufacturers and importers. Fluorescent lamps also have mandatory energy label, such that when a
product has met or exceeded the Top Runner threshold it is colour-coded green, but when it is of a lower efficiency -coded orange. The label
also expresses the product’s efficiency as a percentage of the Top Runner target such that values above 100% have surpassed the target and
values below are yet to attain it. In addition to the product label, Japan has begun to implement an innovative retailer- labelling scheme,
where retailers who stock predominantly high efficiency equipment are eligible for an endorsement label that can be mounted as a plaque on
the store entrance and used in promotional materials.
7Korea
has one of the more established and comprehensive MEPS and labelling programmes addressing lighting equipment in the OECD, with
the first MEPS coming into effect in 1996 (incandescent lamps) and the most recent in 2000 (CFLs). In particular, Korea’s energy-labelling
certification scheme has one of the broadest coverage of any such schemes and is alone in addressing light sensors, reflectors and metal
halide lamps. The Korean energy efficiency standards and labelling programme, established in 1992 covers nine items, including
incandescent bulbs (October 1992), fluorescent lamps (October 1992), ballasts for fluorescent lamps (July 1994) and self-ballasted lamps
such as ballast-integrated CFLs (July 1999). To date, South Korea is the only national authority to have implemented MEPS for standard
incandescent lamps (GLS incandescent lamps). These MEPS do not prohibit the sale of incandescent lamps but they do prevent the sale of the
least efficient varieties. Mandatory energy labelling has also been introduced for all these products, using an efficiency grading scale
operating from 1 (most efficient) to 5 (least efficient).In addition to the MEPS and mandatory labels implemented for the products mentioned
above, a voluntary energy certification label exists known as the “Energy Boy”, which indicates that products carrying the label are energy
efficient and their performance has been certified by KEMCO.
61
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
62
8New
Zealand has MEPS for LFL ballasts and LFLs. The requirements for ballasts are harmonised with Australia’s, but those for LFLs are not.
New Zealand introduced its LFL MEPS in July 2002, before Australia did, and although LFLs are tested to the same standard in both countries
the New Zealand MEPS requirements are slightly more stringent than the Australian equivalents.
The United States have the most established and comprehensive lighting MEPS programme in the OECD, with provisions now either
covering r pending for all the main lamp types. In addition, labels are implemented for all products. The October 2005 Energy Policy Act
prohibited the manufacture or import of mercury vapour ballasts from 1 January 2008. The 1992 EPAct called for a voluntary national
testing and information programme for luminaries. A programme has been created jointly by a stakeholders’ working group called the
National Lighting Collaborative. The working group introduced a new tool for comparing luminaries, the luminaries’ efficacy rating (LER),
which is based on NEMA’s LE 5 standard for fluorescent luminaries. NEMA has since released several lighting performance testing standards
relevant to luminaries. ENERGY STAR sets performance specifications for LFLs, fluorescent ballasts, industrial HID luminaries and
fluorescent luminaries.
8
Sources: Light’s Labour Lost-Policies for Energy Efficient Lighting”, OECD/IEA, 2006;
APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
http://www.energyrating.gov.au/man1.html;
http://www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/e_02.html
Test methods overview
Country
Australia/New Zeeland
Canada
Equipment type
National Test Standard
Reference Test Standard
Electronic ballasts
AS/NZS 4783.1:2001
AS/NZS 60921:2002
AS/NZS 60929:2000
AS/NZS 4783.1:2001
AS/NZS 4782.1:2004
AS/NZS 60901:2003
CAN/CSA-C 654-M 91
CAN/CSA-C 654-M 91
CAN/CSA-C 861-95
CAN/CSA-C 819-95
CAN/CSA-C 862-01
CAN/CSA-C 239-94
CAN/CSA-C 653-94
GB 19574-2003
GB/T 15042-1994
GB/T 15144-1994
GB/T 17262-2002
GB/T13434-1992CAN/CSA-C
654-M91
IEC 60901
IEC 60929
GB/T 14044-1993
EN 50294
IEC 60921
IEC 60929
EN 50294
IEC 60081
IEC 60901
US DOE
US DOE
Magnetic Ballasts
Fluorescent lamps
Electronic ballasts
Magnetic Ballasts
CFLs
Fluorescent lamps
Incandescent lamps
Lighting systems
Electronic ballast
China
Magnetic ballast
CFLs
EU
Japan
Fluorescent lamps
Magnetic ballasts
Fluorescent lamps
Fluorescent lamps
GB 19044-2003
GB/T 17263-2002
GB/T 10682-2002
EN50294
EN60901
JIS C 7601
Associated ballasts
Magnetic ballasts
Electronic ballasts
CFLs
KS C 7621
KS C 8102-99
KS C 8100-01
KS C 7621-99
Fluorescent lamps
Incandescent lamps
KS C 7601-01
KS C 7501-99
Electronic ballasts
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App Q
Korea
USA
IES LM 31-95
IES RP 8-00
CAN/CSA-C 654-M 91
IEC 60921
IEC 60969
IEC 60081
IEC 60081
IEC 60901
JIS C 8108
IEC 60929
IEC 60969
JIS C 7601
JIS C 8108
JIS C 7601
IEC 60064
JIS C 7501
ANSI C 82.2
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Magnetic ballasts
CFLs
Fluorescent lamps
Incandescent lamps
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App Q
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App R
US Energy Star
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App R
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App R
63
ANSI C 82.2
IES LM 66
ANSI C 78.1
ANSI C 78.2
ANSI C 78.3
ANSI C 78.375
ANSI C 82.3
IESNA LM-58-94
IESNA LM-9-99
ANSI C 78.21
ANSI C 79.1
IESNA LM-20-94
IESNA LM-45-00
IESNA LM-58-94
Sources: Light’s Labour Lost-Policies for Energy Efficient Lighting”, OECD/IEA, 2006;
APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
http://www.energyrating.gov.au/man1.html;
http://www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/e_02.html
Test methods




Test method: Old IEC62087 method not applicable to flat screens, but strong global effort to develop
new procedure within IEC nearing completion
Efficiency metric: screen size, but picture can affect energy -standardised clips, some debate about
features and screen settings/brightness. Issue of store settings (bright picture) versus settings for
normal use.
Regulatory regimes: Not regulated in many places at this stage -Top Runner in Japan and China has
MEPS. Energy Star level. About to be regulated by AU, maybe EU and US soon
Good prospects as not much existing regulation and good participation in new IEC method, perhaps not
enough cooperation on metrics at this stage
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
64
Product group: Street lighting
Global market size, trends and expected carbon impact
Current
market size,
year
n.a
Baseline
energy
consumpti
on
Electricity
demand
114 TWh
Emission mitigation
potential. MtCO2
Around 10 TWh
annual saving by
2030
Light’s Labour Lost-Policies for Energy Efficient Lighting”, OECD/IEA, 2006
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Brazil2
China3
EU4
Mexico5
Turkey6
USA
Mandatory
standard
Under
consideration
Voluntary
Label
Mandatory
label
Test standard
x
x
GB 19574-2003
GB 19573-2003
x
x
x
Australia and New Zealand are preparing minimum energy performance standards for HID lamps and HID ballasts. A holistic energyperformance standard is being developed for lighting on main roads, taking into account the lamp, ballast, luminaries, control system and
overall design of each installation.
1
2
INMETRO is a Brazilian Labelling Program for Public Lighting Fixtures:
The Brazilian program is based on the bar style energy label. It contains an efficiency rating along with energy consumption. The program is
conducted by PROCEL, the national energy efficiency program and the government agency INMETRO (Instituto Nacional de Metrologia,
Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO – National Institute of Metrologia) is responsible for verifying the manufacturers data.
3China
has limited the lighting power density for roadways between 0.4 and 0.8 W/m² and also has adopted MEPs for high pressure sodium
lamps and ballasts for HPS lamps.
4
EuP study for street lighting has been conducted.
5Mexico
has lighting power density limitations for exterior lighting of pavements, bus stops, plazas and main squares. Lamps must have an
efficacy of > 40lm/W.
NOM-013-ENER-1996 (External Lighting Systems); NOM-013-ENER-1996 is used to set luminance levels and set efficacy levels (lumens per
watt) for outdoor lighting on roadways and buildings. It is based on the IES LEM-6 but also sets values for car parks and areas illuminated by
tower lights.
5In
2006 Turkey approved 2 directives on public lighting with date of obligation on new installations of public street lighting. The first
obligation is to use tubular, clear high pressure sodium lamps (NaHP-TC) with enhanced lumen output. The second obligation is to use
efficient luminaries with an IP-rating of at least IP 65.
6USA
The October 2005 Energy Policy Act introduced MEPS for exit signs, traffic signals, torchières, pedestrian walkway modules and
medium screw CFLs, effective from 1 January 2006.
Sources: “Preparatory Studies for Eco-design Requirements of EuPs, Lot 9: Public street lighting, VITO, 2007];
Light’s Labour Lost-Policies for Energy Efficient Lighting”, OECD/IEA, 2006;
APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Test methods


IEC60598-1 specifies general requirements for luminaries...and related tests
Some potential for energy management
65
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
66
Product group: Commercial ICT
Assumptions for Office Equipment Standby Power UEC and Efficiency Improvement
Kawamoto et.al. (2000) estimated that 8.6% of the electricity consumed by office equipment is used in ‘LowPower’ mode. We interpret this consumption as standby power losses. Accordingly, we construct an efficiency
scenario based on the following assumptions:
 The average standby power of each piece of office equipment in 2010 is 5 W.
 A standby requirement of 3W is implemented internationally in 2010 (40% reduction in low-power
consumption)
 A 1W standby requirement is in place in all countries by 2020 (80% reduction in low-power consumption).
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact (stand by power only)
Region
Surface
estimates, mln
m2
PAO
2005
165,5
NAM
WEU
612,2
366,4
EEU
11,4
FSU
LAM
16,3
SSA
MEA
SASPAS
CPA
GLOBAL
81,3
6,6
34,4
192,2
71,7
1557,9
2020
224,1
904,0
614,8
45,3
32,0
183,7
Energy
2005
36,3
116,6
80,4
2,7
3,6
12,6
demand
estimates,
2030
44,4
177,1
123,7
9,0
6,7
34,9
TWh
Energy Related
2005
23,2
68,7
30,6
1,5
1,9
12,7
carbon
emissions,
2030
22,1
81,2
36,6
3,8
2,9
27,4
MtCO2
Emission
2020
0
1
1
0
0
0
mitigation
potential,
2030
1
4
2
0
0
1
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
32,6
80,4
523,5
232,0
2872,4
0,0
4,9
31,2
9,1
297,3
5,1
15,5
105,9
43,7
565,8
0
1,9
35,1
8,3
183,9
4,1
4,7
92,5
30,9
306,2
0
0
1
0
5
0
0
5
2
15
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Canada2
China3
EU4
Japan5
Republic of
Korea6
USA7
Mandatory
standard
UC
x
Voluntary
Label
x
x
x
x
x
x
Mandatory
label
Test standard
CCEC/T22-2003
x
US EPA
x
1Two
voluntary labelling schemes apply for office equipment (computers, monitors, imaging equipment) in Australia and New Zeeland - the
“Energy Star” Program and “Good environmental choice”. The Australian eco-label program was launched in 2002 by the Australian
Environmental Labelling Association. Products need to meet environmental performance criteria including energy usage requirements.
Companies pay an annual fee to use the label.
2Apart
from Energy Star program, the Environmental Choice Program (ECP) also known as EcoLogo is acting in Canada. It allows companies
to apply to have a product or service certified if it improves energy efficiency. Certification is indefinite providing licensed companies to
confirm annually their continued compliance. ECP also conducts random inspections or product testing to confirm continued compliance.
3China
is considering introduction of minimum efficiency requirements for computers, monitors and other office equipment (copiers,
printers). So far only the Energy conservation certification scheme is applied for these products.
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
4The
EU EcoLabel and the Energy Star program are the main voluntary labels applied for office ICT in EU. There are also some national and
international labelling schemes such as GEEA label, TCO label, Blue Angel, Nordic Swan, etc.
Japan does not have MEPS; instead it operates the Top Runner standards program. This program aims to dramatically improve energy
efficiency of appliances by setting target values based on the current highest efficiency level of each type of product instead of the current
average efficiency level. Manufacturers and importers have to ensure the average (sales weighted) efficiency of all their appliances meet this
standard by a specified date (the target year). The program allows for improvement over time, making manufacturers constantly increase the
efficiency of appliances. The Top Runner standards are voluntary as there is no minimum level, however the program itself is mandatory for
all manufacturers and importers. Computers, hard disk drives and copying machines are part of the Top runners program. Computers are
also a mandatory retailer labelling programme. It mandates retailers to provide information of products at their stores using “National
standard Energy-saving Label” which includes information such as energy consumption and expected electricity cost. Energy Star and
EcoMark program are also applied as voluntary labelling schemes for office ICT products.
5
6Office
equipment is widely covered by the Korean e-Standby Program that has been implemented since April 1, 1999. The e-Standby
Program is managed according to the long-term road map, “Standby Korea 2010,” that is designed to reduce standby power usage to below
1W by 2010. The Energy-Saving Label is an endorsement label for office equipments and home electronics. The equipment eligibility
requirements are mostly the same as the International Energy Star program.
7US
Energy Star is jointly managed by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1992 as a
voluntary, market-based partnership that seeks to reduce air pollution through increased energy efficiency. The program is originally
covered only computers, monitors and printers, but has now been expanded to cover a wide variety of appliances, equipment, building
products and homes and windows. Products that have earned the Energy Star designation prevent greenhouse gas emissions by meeting
strict energy-efficiency specifications set by the government.
Sources: “Preparatory studies for Eco-Design requirements of EuP, LOT 3: Personal Computers (desktops and laptops) and Computer
Monitors, Final report”, IVF, August 2007;
“Preparatory studies for Eco-Design requirements of EuP, LOT 4: Imaging equipment, Task 1”, Fraunhofer IZM, November 2007;
APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
Test methods
Information technology (this relates to computers not EPS)
 Reasonable prospects for mode harmonisation, but energy management, especially in networks, is the
missing link
 Need to establish internationally developed test method for external power supplies within the IEC.
 Test method: Existing IEC measures energy consumption by mode (many modes)
 Efficiency metric: energy service is very unclear, large fixed energy requirement, incremental task energy
small, most normal usage is very small
 Regulatory regimes: Mostly Energy Star, some country requirements, being considered in some countries
External power supplies - IEC 62301 and Energy Star test methodology
 Test method: Agreed international method, but not yet published by IEC
 Efficiency metric: Efficiency no load plus 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% rated output widely agreed (curve is
ideal), range of efficiency levels now defined (I to V, VI in development)
 Regulatory regimes: Mandatory and voluntary programs in place China, USA, Australia and soon EU Korea
Japan, all using same metrics
 Already achieved if others copy the approach
67
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
68
Product group: Motors – electric
Assumptions for Efficiency Market Shares of Base Case and Efficiency Scenario for 3-Phase Industrial
Motors
2010 Baseline
Region
PAO
NAM
WEU
EEU
FSU
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SAS-PAS
NEMA
Premium
0%
16%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
eff1/
EPACT
1%
84%
7%
0%
0%
100%
2%
2%
1%
2%
2010 Efficiency
eff2
99%
0%
66%
73%
73%
0%
48%
48%
99%
48%
eff3
0%
0%
28%
28%
28%
0%
50%
50%
0%
50%
NEMA
Premium
0%
100%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
eff1/
EPACT
100%
0%
100%
75%
50%
100%
25%
25%
100%
25%
2020 Efficiency
eff2
0%
0%
0%
25%
50%
0%
75%
75%
0%
75%
NEMA
Premium
100%
100%
100%
100%
50%
100%
25%
25%
100%
25%
eff1/
EPACT
0%
0%
0%
0%
50%
0%
75%
75%
0%
75%
M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs for Industrial motors”, Lawrence Berkeley National
laboratory, April 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact (industrial motors))
Region
Surface
estimates, mln
m2
PAO
2005
NAM
n.a
WEU
n.a
n.a
EEU
FSU
n.a
LAM
n.a
n.a
2020
n.a
n.a
n.a
n.a
n.a
n.a
Energy
2005
415,4
714,7
739,9
64,3
304,3
255,8
demand
estimates,
2030
606,9
1271,8
1212,0
195,3
707,6
485,1
TWh
Energy Related
2005
265,8
421,2
281,7
35,2
166,6
258
carbon
emissions,
2030
302
582,9
358,9
83,1
301,2
380,6
MtCO2
Emission
2020
5
5
6
1
3
0
mitigation
potential,
2030
12
9
16
4
11
4
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
SSA
MEA
n.a
CPA
n.a
n.a
SASPAS
n.a
Australia1
Mandatory
standard
x
Voluntary
Label
Brazil2
n.a
n.a
n.a
n.a
n.a
117,2
909,1
266,2
3892,7
232,8
226,0
1842,8
875,5
7655,7
110,7
46
1021,4
242
2848,5
189,6
69
1611,2
619
4497,7
2
1
22
4
48
6
2
65
20
150
Mandatory
label
x
Canada3
x
China4
x
EU5
Korea6
x
x
x
n.a
105,7
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
GLOBAL
Test standard
AS 1359.5:2006
NBR 7094 / 2000
NBR 5383-1 / 1999
CAN/CSA-C 390-98 ,
CAN/CSA C390 , CSA C 39093
GBT13007 –1991
GB12021
GB/T 1032-1985 , GB 7552000
KS C 9301
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Mexico7
x
Voluntary
standard
Mandatory
standard
USA8
x
x
Voluntary
Label
Mandatory
label
69
KSC 4204
KS C IEC 61972
KSC 4201
KSC 4203
NOM14-ENER
NOM-004-ENER-2008;
NOM-006-ENER-1995;
NOM-010-ENER-2004
Test standard
10 CFR Part 431 Subpart B
App. A , ANSI/IEEE 1121984 (Method B)
1
Three phase electric motors manufactured or imported in Australia must comply with MEPS set in AS 1359.5:2000 (from October 2001)
and these levels were upgraded in AS/NZS1359.5-2004 (from April 2006) which are more or less equivalent to US MEPS (1997) and EU
Efficiency Level 1. MEPS does not apply to submersible motors, integral motor-gear systems, variable or multi-speed motors or those rated
only for short duty cycles (IEC 60034-2 duty rating S2). Rewound motors are not required to comply with MEPS.
2INMETRO
is the Brazilian Labelling Program for Electric Motors. A draft regulation has been proposed which lays down minimum levels of
energy efficiency to be conformed by three-phase electric engines of induction.
3
MEPs apply for electric motors in Canada from 1999.
4China
has published minimum efficiency standards for fans (electric fans; table fan, wall-mounted fan, floor table fan, floor standard fan and
ceiling fan) as well as three phase motors. Chinese pump manufacturers apply a scheme that gives a graph of efficiency against specific flow
for each of the types of pump included in the scheme. There is also a correction factor (or efficiency allowance) that is added to the actual
pump efficiency, which takes account of the actual head and flow.
5In
1998 a voluntary agreement supported by European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (CEMEP)
and the European Commission was established to promote more efficient AC 3-phase induction motors. The European Association of Pump
Manufacturers (EUROPUMP) launched a Voluntary EU Energy Label scheme for comprised circulators in January 2005. Various voluntary
schemes exist member countries in Germany (circulators), Denmark (fans), Sweden (ventilation system). Currently discussions are ongoing
on possible ecodesign requirements proposed by EC for motors, fans, pumps and circulators.
6Korea has recently introduced minimum efficiency requirements for 3 phase electric motors as follows (37kW < Rated output power ; less
than or equal to; 200kW : From 1st of July, 2008; 0.75kW < Rated output power; lest than or equal to; 37kW : From 1st of January, 2010).
Also MEPs and the Energy Efficiency Rating Labelling Program apply for electric fans in Korea. For pumps efficiency a voluntary certification
scheme was introduced with the objective of encouraging the development of new efficient pumps. The pumps targeted are centrifugal water
supply pumps of the single stage and multistage types with discharge branches from 25 to 200mm bore, running at 2 pole and 4 pole speeds.
7In
Mexico NOM-014-ENER is intended to establish the minimum efficiency ratings, the test method for evaluation, and specifications for
marking the rated efficiency on the plates of motors. This standard applies to single-phase squirrel cage induction AC motors, for general use,
with a rated output of 0.180 kW to 1.500 kW nominal rated power. MEPs were also introduced Clean-Water Pumps and Motor Pumps With a
Power Rating of 0.187 kW to 0.746 kW, electromechanical pumping systems of vertical turbine pumps with external or submersible motor of
5.5 kW to 261 kW (7.5 to 350 hp) used in deep agricultural wells submersible clean water pumps
Enforced in October 1997 the US Energy Policy Act (EPAct 1992) requires that motors manufactured or imported for sale in the USA (alone
or as a component in another piece of equipment) meet minimum efficiency levels. EPAct motors now constitute 54% of the integral
horsepower induction motor market share. Because many utilities and industry associations were promoting motors with a higher efficiency
than EPAct mandatory levels, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) felt a need to define a classification scheme for
premium higher efficiency motors. In 2005 NEMA Premium motors constituted 16% of the market share in USA. Energy Star is jointly
managed by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1992 as a voluntary, market-based
partnership that seeks to reduce air pollution through increased energy efficiency. The program covers both ceiling fans and ventilating fans.
8
Sources:
A. de Almeida et.al, “Preparatory studies for Eco-Design requirements of EuP, LOT 11: Motors, Final report”, University of Coimbra, February
2008;
.“Preparatory studies for Eco-Design requirements of EuP, LOT 11: Water Pumps (in commercial buildings, drinking water pumping, food
industry, agriculture, Final report”, AEA Energy and Environment, April 2008
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
.“Preparatory studies for Eco-Design requirements of EuP, LOT 11: Circulators in buildings, Final report”, AEA Energy and Environment, April
2008;
.“Preparatory studies for Eco-Design requirements of EuP, LOT 11: Fans for ventilation in non residential buildings, Final report”, Fraunhofer
Institute Systems and Innovation research, April 2008;
APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
http://www.energyrating.gov.au/motor2.html
Test methods
 IEC 60034-30- Specifies efficiency classes for single-speed, three-phase, 50 Hz and 60 Hz, cage-induction
motors
 Test method: IEC and NEMA now aligned (direct measurement stray losses), but old IEC still widely used
 Efficiency metric: Efficiency vs shaft power over a wide output range widely agreed (curve)
 Regulatory regimes: Wide range of different mandatory and voluntary programs in place, range of test
methods (old IEC, JIS, new IEC with various options)
 Reasonable prospects, work under way
70
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
71
Product group: Commercial boilers – oil & gas
Assumptions for Commercial Fuel Space Heating Efficiency
Region
Baseli
ne
2010
2020
Reference
Remark
Cost Effective Efficiency Improvement for
commercial gas and oil fired furnaces and
boilers, weighted by shares of floor space
Same efficiency levels as U.S. but assumes
Boilers only
NAM
0.76
0.79
0.85
(Rosenquist, McNeil et al.
2006)
Other
Regions
0.74
0.78
0.81
(Rosenquist, McNeil et al.
2006)
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, energy demand and expected carbon impact (commercial space heating – gas and oil)
Region
Surface
estimates, mln
m2
PAO
2005
NAM
104,3
359,3
WEU
257,3
EEU
FSU
12,4
29,5
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SASPAS
GLOBAL
82,2
75,7
44,5
325,7
210,2
1501,1
2020
142,2
498,8
401,4
37,1
35,0
191,2
Energy
2005
119,3
587,6
726,1
52,1
142,6
0,0
demand
estimates,
2030
137,5
817,7
988,1
118,6
175,0
0,0
TWh
Energy Related
2005
19,9
98,1
121,2
8,7
23,8
0
carbon
emissions,
2030
23
136,4
164,9
19,8
29,2
0
MtCO2
Emission
2020
0
2
3
0
0
0
mitigation
potential,
2030
1
9
9
1
1
0
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
137,4
84,1
550,7
357,6
2435,4
0,0
0,0
619,9
0,0
2247,6
0,0
0,0
1092,0
0,0
3328,8
0
0
103,4
0
375
0
0
182,2
0
555,4
0
0
3
0
10
0
0
12
0
32
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Korea1
Mandatory
standard
Voluntary
Label
Mandatory
label
Test standard
x
According high energy efficiency appliance program for Industrial Oil Boilers products with energy efficiency and quality test results above
the standards set by the government are issued a high-efficiency appliance certificate.
1
Source: APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
Test methods
n.a.
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
72
Product group: Commercial boilers – electricity
Assumptions for Commercial Electric Space Heating Efficiency 16
Region
Baseli
ne
2010
2020
PAO
247%
300%
NAM
313%
358%
Other
Regions
100%
100%
Remark
400%
Reference
Top Runner Website http://www.eccj.or.jp/top_r
unner/chapter7_3_02.html
368%
(Rosenquist, McNeil et al.
2006)
Cost Effective Efficiency Improvement for
commercial Heat Pumps
Heat pumps assumed to have roughly the
same heating as cooling efficiency
Electric Space Heating small, or dominated
by resistance Heating, with no significant
efficiency improvement possible
100%
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact (commercial space heating –
electricity)
Region
Surface
estimates, mln
m2
PAO
6,7
39,9
WEU
13,5
EEU
0,4
FSU
3,3
LAM
SSA
MEA
0,0
2,8
2020
9,1
55,4
21,1
1,1
3,9
1,9
Energy
2005
24,0
61,1
46,7
0,0
0,0
0,0
demand
estimates,
2030
27,7
85,1
63,6
0,0
0,0
0,0
TWh
Energy Related
2005
15,4
36
17,8
0
0
0
carbon
emissions,
2030
13,8
39
18,8
0
0
0
MtCO2
Emission
2020
1
2
0
0
0
0
mitigation
potential,
2030
2
5
0
0
0
0
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
0,0
0,0
Space Heating UEC climate dependency is estimated for each country
SASPAS
CPA
0,8
16
2005
NAM
GLOBAL
3,3
6,5
77,2
5,4
5,6
11,1
114,6
0,0
151,4
0,0
283,3
0,0
0,0
266,7
0,0
443,0
0
0
170,1
0
239,3
0
0
233
0
304,6
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
7
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
73
Product group: Commercial water heating – oil & gas
Assumptions for Commercial Water Heating Efficiency (Fuel Only)
Region
Baseli
ne
2010
2020
Reference
Remark
PAO+NA
M
0.78
0.81
0.82
(Rosenquist, McNeil et al.
2006)
Cost Effective Efficiency Improvement for
commercial gas and oil fired water heaters
and boilers, including instantaneous water
heaters
Other
Regions
0.74
0.78
0.81
(Rosenquist, McNeil et al.
2006)
Same efficiency levels as U.S. but assumes
boilers only
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact (commercial water heating – gas and
oil)
Region
Surface
estimates, mln
m2
PAO
2005
104,3
NAM
187,6
WEU
222,1
EEU
11,5
FSU
22,6
LAM
SSA
MEA
CPA
SASPAS
GLOBAL
80,6
75,7
37,4
325,7
192,8
1260,4
2020
142,2
260,5
346,5
34,4
26,8
187,4
Energy
2005
102,5
334,8
214,7
9,8
12,7
25,7
demand
estimates,
2030
119,4
457,0
298,7
22,0
16,0
56,9
TWh
Energy Related
2005
17,1
55,9
35,8
1,6
2,1
4,3
carbon
emissions,
2030
19,9
76,3
49,8
3,7
2,7
9,5
MtCO2
Emission
2020
0
1
2
0
0
0
mitigation
potential,
2030
0
2
4
0
0
1
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
137,4
70,7
550,7
328,1
2084,6
0,3
8,3
85,0
2,4
796,1
0,7
19,6
153,4
4,6
1148,4
0,1
1,4
14,2
0,4
132,8
0,1
3,3
25,6
0,8
191,6
0
0
1
0
6
0
0
2
0
11
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
74
Product group: Commercial water heating – electricity
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact (commercial water heating –
electricity)
Region
Surface
estimates, mln
m2
PAO
2005
6,7
NAM
211,6
WEU
48,7
EEU
1,3
FSU
LAM
10,2
2020
9,1
293,7
76,1
3,8
12,0
Energy
2005
62,9
164,8
92,8
4,2
2,6
demand
estimates,
2030
73,2
225,0
129,1
9,5
3,3
TWh
Energy Related
2005
40,2
97,1
35,3
2,3
1,4
carbon
emissions,
2030
36,4
103,1
38,2
4
1,4
MtCO2
Emission
2020
0
0
0
0
0
mitigation
potential,
2030
0
0
0
0
0
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
SSA
MEA
SASPAS
CPA
2,5
0,0
9,9
5,8
0,0
3,3
0,2
7,3
GLOBAL
3,3
23,8
318,0
18,8
5,6
40,6
465,4
0,2
20,8
0,0
351,7
0,4
0,4
37,5
0,1
485,7
3,3
0,2
0,1
23,3
0
203,4
5,7
0,3
0,1
32,7
0,1
222,2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
75
Product group: Commercial air-conditioning
Assumptions for Commercial air-conditioning UEC
Base
Case
EER
2010
Target
2020
Target
PAO
2.47
3.00
4.00
Source
Top Runner Website http://www.eccj.or.jp/top_ru
nner/chapter7_3_02.html
NAM
8.49
9.01
9.01
(Rosenquist, McNeil et al.
2006)
Region
WEU
3.27
3.75
4.07
EER+FSU
3.14
3.75
4.07
Other
Regions
3.14
3.75
4.07
((SAHEB, Becirspahic and
Simon) quoted in (Bertoldi
and Atanasiu 2006)), (Adnot
and Waide 2003)
((SAHEB, Becirspahic et al.)
quoted in (Bertoldi and
Atanasiu 2006)), (Adnot and
Waide 2003)
((SAHEB, Becirspahic et al.)
quoted in (Bertoldi and
Atanasiu 2006)), (Adnot and
Waide 2003)
Assumption
Multisplits dominate. Top Runner
Target for multisplits raised to 3
by 2010 and 4 by 2020.
Minimum LCC for Commercial
AC+HP weighted by floor space
share. No improvement for
chillers
Market average rating for chillers
and package terminal units
reaches 'B' level by 2010, 'A' level
by 2020. RAC improvement same
as residential.
Same as WEU, except baseline at
'E' level
Same as WEU, except baseline at
'E' level
Source: M. McNeil, et al, “Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling Programs”, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory,
Nov 2008
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact
Region
Surface
estimates, mln
m2
PAO
2005
165,5
NAM
WEU
612,2
366,4
EEU
11,4
FSU
LAM
16,3
SSA
MEA
CPA
SASPAS
GLOBAL
81,3
6,6
34,4
192,2
71,7
1557,9
2020
224,1
904,0
614,8
45,3
32,0
183,7
Energy
2005
69,6
220,2
94,6
3,1
4,3
35,5
demand
84,1
331,6
148,0
10,1
8,6
96,5
estimates, TWh 2030
Energy Related 2005
44,5
129,8
36
1,7
2,4
35,8
carbon
emissions,
2030
41,8
152
43,8
4,3
3,7
75,7
MtCO2
Emission
2020
4
4
4
0
0
8
mitigation
potential,
2030
11
7
10
1
1
28
MtCO2
Source: M. McNeil, V. E. Letschert, Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Feb 2009
32,6
80,4
523,5
232,0
2872,4
0,0
15,5
70,4
43,4
556,5
17,8
51,8
244,5
204,7
1197,7
0
6,1
79,1
39,4
374,8
14,5
15,8
213,7
144,7
710,1
1
1
23
12
58
6
7
85
59
214
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Australia/New
Zeeland1
Brazil2
Mandatory
standard
x
x
Voluntary
Label
Mandatory
label
Test standard
x
x
AS/NZS 3823 (AC)
AS/NZS 4965 (close control AC
– computers)
AS/NZS4776 (chillers)
x
x
RESP/003-CAD
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Canada3
China4
x
x
x
x
x
x
EU5
Voluntary
standard
Mandatory
standard
Voluntary
Label
India6
x
x
Japan7
x
x
Mexico8
76
CAN/CSA-C 273.3-M91
CAN/CSA-C 656-M92
CAN/CSA-C 744-M93
CAN/CSA-C 368.1-M90
GB 12021.3-2000
GB/T 7725-1996
x
Mandatory
label
x
Test standard
IS 1391 (part I)
IS 1391 (part II)
JIS B 8616
JIS C 9612
JIS B 8615-2
JIS B 8615-1
NOM-011-ENER-2006
NOM-021-ENER/SCFI-2008
10 CFR Part 430Subpart B App
M
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B App
USA9
x
x
x
x
F
US Energy Star
1 Single phase non-ducted air conditioners for household use are regulated for energy labelling and MEPS in Australia. All three phase and
single phase ducted air conditioners up to 65kW cooling capacity are regulated for MEPS. Manufacturers can choose to label three phase and
ducted air conditioners, but this is not mandatory. MEPS for close controlled air conditioners (computers rooms) and chillers (350-1500kW)
commence in June 2009.
2
x
x
x
Brazil applies voluntary MEPs for split AC as well as a mandatory labelling program.
3Canada
has mandatory MEP to factory-assembled single-phase and three-phase split-system central air conditioners, packaged terminal air
conditioners and heat pumps intended for use in residential, commercial and industrial heating and cooling systems, single-phase electric
room air conditioners that are not "packaged terminal air conditioners" and that do not exceed 10.55 kilowatts (36 000 Btu/h). Mandatory
labelling is applied for RACs(split/window).
4 Mandatory efficiency requirements and a label are applied for Central AC (packaged terminal) in China. GB/T 7725-1996 is not equivalent
to ISO 5151-1994, however the cooling capacity tests are conducted at the ISO 5151-1994 T1 test condition.
5
AC are covered currently by the EU labelling scheme, EuP study is ongoing under the Eco Design directive.
6Single
phase split & unitary AC up to a rated cooling capacity of 11 kW fall under the voluntary minimum efficiency requirements in India.
7Japan
does not have MEPS; instead it operates the Top Runner standards program. This program aims to dramatically improve energy
efficiency of appliances by setting target values based on the current highest efficiency level of each type of product instead of the current
average efficiency level. Manufacturers and importers have to ensure the average (sales weighted) efficiency of all their appliances meet this
standard by a specified date (the target year). The program allows for improvement over time, making manufacturers constantly increase the
efficiency of appliances. The Top Runner standards are voluntary as there is no minimum level, however the program itself is mandatory for
all manufacturers and importers. Unitary air conditioners can be ducted or non-ducted and hence the provisions in this standard are
simultaneously comparable to both ISO 5151-94(E) (non-ducted air conditioners)and ISO 13253-93 (ducted air conditioners). Under the
Japanese definition unitary air conditioners are packaged (in one assembly or are designed to be used in one assembly), can be singlepackaged or split packaged. Mandatory retailer labelling scheme applies for split room AC, for the rest type a voluntary informative label is
applied.
8MEP
was introduced in Mexico to central, package and split type air conditioners, powered by electricity, with nominal cooling capacities of
8,800W to 19,050W, which operate by mechanical compression and which include an air-cooling evaporator coil, a compressor and either an
air- or water-cooled condensing coil. In addition both split and packaged electrical central air conditioners should have the official yellow
energy label relative to the standard - NOM-011-ENER-2006. In 1998, the label design was similar to European design; currently applies
design of the United States and Canada (Energy Guide) in 2002.
9EnergyGuide
labels is applied to central AC, Split and window Racs. For The last two categories also MEPs were introduced in 1990 and
updated in 1997. Energy star label is also applicable for AC in US.
Source: APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
Test methods
Country
Equipment type
National Test Standard
Reference Test Standard
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Australia
77
Central AC(split type)
AS/ NZS 3823
Central AC and Heat Pump
AS/ NZS 3823
RACs (split/window)
AS/ NZS 3823
Close controlled AC
Chillers
Central AC(split type)
AS/NZS 4965
AS/NZS 4776.1.1 and
AS?NZS4776.1.2
RESP/003-CAD
RACs (window)
RESP/003-CAD
ISO 5151
Central AC(split type)
CAN/CSA-C 273.3-M 91
Central AC and Heat Pump
CAN/CSA C 656-M 92
RACs (Packaged Terminal)
CAN/CSA-C 744-93
ARI 210/240-94
ASHRAE 37-1988
ARI 210/240-94
ASHRAE 37-1988
ARI 310/380-93 (CSA C744-93)
China
RACs (split/window)
RACs (split/window)
India
RACs (split/window)
CAN/CSA-C 368.1-M90
GB 12021.3-2000
GB/T 7725-1996
IS 1391 (part I)
IS 1391 (part II)
Japan
Central AC(split type)
Brazil
Canada
Ducted AC and heat pumps
Non-ducted AC and heat pumps
RACs (Packaged Terminal)
USA
ARI 550/590
ISO 5151
ASHRAE 90-1-1989
ISO 5151
ISO 13253
ISO 5151
Central AC(split type)
Central AC(Packaged Terminal)
JIS B 8615-1
JIS B 8615-2
JIS B 8616
JIS C 9612
JIS B 8615-2
JIS C 9612
JIS B 8616
JIS B 8615-1
NOM-011-ENER-2006
NOM-011-ENER-2006
RACs (Packaged Terminal)
NOM-021-ENER/SCFI-2008
ANSI / ASHRAE 16 (RA99)
RACs (window)
Central AC(split type)
NOM-021-ENER/SCFI-2008
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App M
US Energy Star
ANSI / ASHRAE 16 (RA99)
ANSI/ASHRAE 116-1995
ARI 210/240-94
ASHRAE / AMCA 51-1999
ASHRAE 23-1993
ASHRAE 37-1988
ASHRAE 41.1-1986 (RA 01)
ASHRAE 41.2-1987 (RA 92)
ASHRAE 41.6-1994 (RA 01)
ASHRAE 41.9-2000
ANS Z 234.1-1972
ANSI / ASHRAE 16 (RA99)
RACs (split/window)
Mexico
JIS B 8616
JIS C 9612
JIS B 8615-2
JIS B 8615-1
ISO 5151
ISO 13253
ISO 5151
ISO 13253
ISO 5151
ISO 13253
ASHRAE 127
RACs (split/window)
US Energy Star
10 CFR Part 430 Subpart B
App F
Source: APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
JIS C 9612
JIS B 8616
JIS B 8616
ANSI / ASHRAE 37
ANSI / ASHRAE 37
 Test method: ISO used widely around the world, except for central and mini-splits in USA. However, concern
about variable output systems could create many approaches in the near future
 Efficiency metric: Cooling or heating power output. How this varies by climate and output (inverters) not yet
quantified (issue)
 Regulatory regimes: Widely regulated mostly using EER at T1, US different (SEER), Japan looking for seasonal
efficiency, inverters now common
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
 Good prospects if key test points plus simulation can cover all climates and usage patterns
78
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
79
Product group: Heat pumps (heating and cooling)
Global market size, electricity demand and expected carbon impact
Global market estimates, thousand
units
2005
2020
n.a
n.a
Electricity demand estimates,
TWh
2005
2030
n.a
n.a
Emission mitigation potential. MtCO2
2020
n.a
2030
n.a
Overview of international efficiency policy and collaboration process
Voluntary
standard
Canada1
Mandatory
standard
x
Voluntary
Label
Mandatory
label
x
Test standard
CAN/CSA C273.5-1980
CAN/CSA C273.3-M1991
CAN/CSA-C 446-94
CAN/CSA-C 655-M91 ,
CAN/CSA-C13256-1-01
EU2
x
USA3
x
1 Canada has mandatory MEP applied to ground-or water-source heat pumps. ENERGY STAR is applied to air-source heat
pumps that are about 20% more efficient than standard models. The energy efficiency of this product is measured by a
Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF), a Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) and an Energy Efficiency Ratio(EER).
EU Eco-Labelling program is applicable to heat pumps. Apart from it the Nordic countries voluntary labelling schemes for
small heat pumps - Nordic Swan Label.
2
Heat Pumps Group-sources are labelled according US compliance program. Federal efficiency standards require that
conventional heat pumps have an HSPF rating of at least 6.8 and a seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) rating of at least
10.0.
3
Source: APEC-ESIS energy standards information system at http://www.apec-esis.org/index.php
Test methods
Water source heat pumps are covered by ISO13256, which is used in all countries. Ground source heat pumps
are geographically limited (Canada is the most common).
Market Transformation Programme: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
Contact:
Market Transformation Programme
AEA Group
Harwell
Didcot
OX11 0QR
MTP Helpline
Tel: +44 (0)845 600 8951
Email: [email protected]
www.mtprog.com
Report title: Global Carbon Impacts of Energy Using Products
April 2009
80
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