Appalachian State University C I 3553 Issues of Language and Culture in Public Schools Professor Greg McClure Department of Curriculum and Instruction Fall 2012 Instructor: Greg McClure, PhD Class Days: Tuesdays Office: 412D Class Time: 5:00-­‐7:40 pm Office hours: Mon 8-­‐11am, Wed 8-­‐11am Location: 430 Phone: (o): 262-­‐2146; (c): 706.254.5912 E-­‐mail: [email protected] Course Site: Course materials, readings, and Library Resources: information are available on our AsuLearn site: http://www.library.appstate.edu http://asulearn.appstate.edu/ Course Description: This course examines the concepts of language and culture, and their relationships to teaching and learning in US public schools. Students will develop an understanding of the history of linguistic diversity and language education in the US. Additionally, we will explore the theoretical foundations of relationships among language, culture, and identity, and the influences of immigration on the cultural and linguistic diversity of schools. Through the use of case studies, students will develop applied knowledge of how these issues interact in public school settings. Course Rationale: Between 1990 and 2000, NC had the fastest growing immigrant population in the United States. Since 2000, the rate has slowed somewhat, but according to the 2008 US Census American Community Survey, NC still had the 7th fastest growing immigrant population in the nation. The implications for NC public schools are clear; teachers who plan to teach in NC must be prepared to successfully work with a student population that is increasingly linguistically and culturally diverse. This course aims to address this reality by increasing pre-­‐service teachers’ understanding of how issues of language and culture impact the teaching and learning process. REQUIRED TEXTS Commins, N. L., & Miramontes, O. B. (2005). Linguistic diversity and teaching. Lawrence Erlbaum. Suárez-­‐Orozco, C., & Suárez-­‐Orozco, M. M. (2001). Children of immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Additional required readings will be made available on AsuLearn: Crawford, J. (2004). Educating English learners: Language diversity in the classroom (5th ed.). Pp. 80-­‐104. Fillmore, L. W. (2000). Loss of family languages: Should educators be concerned? Theory into Practice, 39(4), 203-­‐210. Wright, W. E. (2006). A catch-­‐22 for language learners. Educational Leadership, 64(3), 22-­‐27. Films/Multimedia Resources: The New Americans film and companion website http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/newamericans/index.html American Tongues: http://video.pbs.org/video/1553932059/ Do You Speak American? http://www.pbs.org/speak/ Speaking in Tongues: http://speakingintonguesfilm.info/ The North Carolina Language and Life Project-­‐ http://www.ncsu.edu/linguistics/ncllp/ Profiles of language learners: http://www.edweek.org/ew/qc/2009/17profiles.h28.html?intc=ml Larry Ferlazzo’s English-­‐Bilingual Links: http://larryferlazzo.com/englishbil.html#s ASU Library & RCOE Resource Guides http://library.appstate.edu/imc/bibliographies/index.html -­‐ bilingual children’s books and books on various world cultures http://guides.library.appstate.edu/SLA -­‐ professional resources for teachers working with ELLs http://ellstrategies.rcoe.appstate.edu/ -­‐ A annotated bibliography of EL teaching resources COURSE ASSIGNMENTS 1. Participation and Reading Responses (20 pts): Learning is a multi-­‐directional process. As such, we will undoubtedly influence one another’s learning this semester. To facilitate this, it is expected that we all read carefully and critically, and come to class prepared to have engaging and informed conversations about the topics for the week. You are expected to write down your reactions to each reading and bring these to class each week along with your readings. I will check these some weeks so you should always be prepared. Sometimes I will prompt you with questions or scenarios to guide your responses; other times you will simply need to reflect, question, or comment on the readings. We may also have other class assignments or quizzes that will pertain to this aspect of your grade. 2. Service Learning (20 pts): Service learning is “a teaching and learning strategy that integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen communities” (http://www.servicelearning.org/what-­‐service-­‐learning). With social justice at its philosophical root, service learning naturally combines the life of the mind with habits of the heart. Thus, a service-­‐learning course integrates academic work with community service. In this way, students have the opportunity to apply what they learn in a class through a hands-­‐on project in the community. It becomes a win-­‐win situation—students’ service work will add dimension to the course lectures and readings, while the students will have the opportunity to do some much needed work in the community. Service learning projects for this class will focus on one or more of projects listed below, which align with the goals for this course: • Developing outreach materials, a film screening, and/or a symposium to raise awareness around issues related to language and cultural diversity, immigrants, migrants and refugees in North Carolina and the US • Tutor an adult immigrant who is learning English • Interviewing local teachers and developing a newcomer kit to assist students who are new to US culture and/or may be acquiring English as an additional language • Developing parent resources for immigrant parents and parents whose native language is not English • Tutoring a child who is bilingual or is acquiring English as an additional language • Have other ideas of ways you can learn more about language and culture in a field-­‐based setting—let me know! 3. Language and Culture Memoir (20 pts): Concerning language, culture, and identity, Chicana scholar Gloria Anzaldua wrote the following: “So, if you want to really hurt me, talk badly about my language. Ethnic identity is twin skin to linguistic identity – I am my language.” For educators interested in issues of language and culture, self-­‐reflection on the relationship between the two is vital. For this project you will explore your own cultural and linguistic roots as a starting point for examining language and culture in public schools. By examining our own attitudes, beliefs, cultural values, and behaviors, we begin to discover what has influenced the ways we see and interpret the world. This may involve an exploration into your family’s experiences with immigration and/or relocation. What languages have been spoken in your family? Consider regional differences and the ways dialects come into play. You might describe a time when you felt extremely proud of your cultural and/or linguistic heritage and a time when you felt embarrassed. The final product for this project may take many forms, but will ultimately include a written reflection on the linguistic and cultural aspects of your identity. Some examples will be provided. 4. Literature Circle Book Study (20%) As part of our exploration of the experiences of various language learning communities in the U.S., you will form a small group literature circle to read and review one of the books below. Your group will meet periodically throughout the semester to discuss the book and its themes. For this assignment you will write up an individual 3-­‐5 page review and response. You will also work with your group to prepare for a final whole class discussion to share the text with one another. Paper should be organized as follows: • • • • Begin with a brief summary of the book (1 page at most). Your summary can describe, for instance, the structure of the book or chapters, the main themes, the conclusions, the style, etc. Discuss how this book helps illustrate concepts we have addressed in this course. You may want to include brief excerpts, or quotes where appropriate. Consult outside sources to explore the language and culture represented in the book. Incorporate information from these sources into your paper. You should also explicitly address how this book may be helpful in preparing teachers for working with linguistically and culturally diverse students and interacting with their families. Presentation: We will conduct a panel/ fishbowl discussion to present, share and discuss the texts with one another. More information will be forthcoming regarding the requirements for this final presentation/ discussion. Literature Circle Books (or propose your own idea-­‐-­‐ your literature circle should include 3-­‐4 people): Ada, A. F. (2009). Vivir en dos idiomas: Memorias. Doral, FL: Aguilar. Cuadros, P. (2007). A home on the field: How one championship team inspires hope for the revival of small town America. Rayo Press. Dumas, F. (2003). Funny in Farsi: A memoir of growing up Iranian in America. New York: Villard. Fadiman, A. (1998). The spirit catches you and you fall down: A Hmong child, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures. Griest, S. E.(2008). Mexican enough: My life between the borderlines. Washington Square Press. Hoffman, E. (1990). Lost in translation: A life in a new language. New York: Penguin. Martinez, R. (2002). Crossing over: A Mexican family on the migrant trail. New York: Picador. Mote, S. M. (2004). Hmong and American: Stories of transition to a strange land. McFarland & Co. Rodriguez, R. (2005). Hunger of memory: The education of Richard Rodriguez. New York: Dial Press. Rosay, R.(2007). Journey of hope: Memoirs of a Mexican girl. Yang, K. K. (2008). The latehomecomer: A Hmong family memoir. Coffee House Press. 5. Ethnographic Interview (20%): Conduct a 30 minute interview with someone who is either a second language learner or who speaks a language variety not commonly accepted as “standard English” (i.e.-­‐ Appalachian English, African American Vernacular English, Spanglish, ASL, etc.). This could be a student, a parent, a neighbor, a community member, or a friend. The purpose of this assignment is to gain insight about the individual’s experiences as a language minority speaker in schools and society in general. • For ex. How did conducting this interview influence your understanding on the issues that came up in the interview? What did you learn about yourself, the ways you think about language and culture, and about the culture/person you interviewed? What you will DO: • Conduct an interview (approx. 30 mins). • Transcribe the interview (typed, double-­‐spaced, 12-­‐point font). • Analyze the transcript and interview to identify “stories” and important themes that are evident. Focus on the participant’s perspective here. • Use course texts & notes to analyze the themes you identified in the interview. We will provide tools/graphic organizer to facilitate your analysis. • Put it all together into a coherent 5-­‐7 page paper. Be sure to include quotes/passages from your interview and also make direct connections to course readings. • Include a reference page in APA format. Also include your transcript as an Appendix to your paper. These are not included in the page count. GRADING POLICY FOR THE COURSE A 90-­‐100 95-­‐100 = A 90-­‐94 = A-­‐ B 80-­‐89 88-­‐89 = B+ 85-­‐87 = B 80-­‐84 = B-­‐ C 70-­‐79 78-­‐79 = C+ 75-­‐77 = C 70-­‐74 = C-­‐ D 65-­‐69 68-­‐69 = D+ 65-­‐67 = D 64= D-­‐ F below 64 REQUIREMENTS & POLICIES Attendance, Preparation, and Participation: Class participation is critical to your success in this course. Please read assigned readings before coming to class and bring them with you to class. Attendance is expected at ALL class meetings. If you are absent, you are responsible for contacting a peer for notes, handouts, and information. You are also responsible for any assignments due on that day. If you know are going to be absent, I do appreciate an e-­‐mail. One absence will be allowed without deduction. For each additional absence, up to 5 points will be deducted from your final earned course points. You may lose additional points if your absence results in late work. Two late arrivals will equal one absence. Please use your ASU email account and check it before class if in doubt about the weather. If class is cancelled, you will be notified. Service Learning: This class is designated as a service-­‐learning class and requires that students complete a service-­‐learning project during the semester for a total of 20 contact hours. 1. Assignments will be assessed for depth of thinking, power of synthesis and analysis, clarity of expression, and adherence to the standard rules of grammar, punctuation and spelling. • A note on grading: A “C” reflects work that is adequate. In most cases, this represents work that is complete, but not supported by connections to research, theory, critical thinking, or evidence of creativity and independent thought. A “B” reflects good, strong work. In most cases, this represents work that is complete and supported by connections to research or theoretical constructs we have read about or discussed in class. And some attempt has been made to connect ideas to critical thinking, creativity and independent thought. An “A” will only be given for work that is excellent. This work is represented by appropriate references, evidence of a strong attempt at creativity, evidence of critical thinking and relevant links of independent thought and theory. 2. Paper Format: typed, 12 pt font, 1.5 or double-­‐spaced, with 1” margins. Please edit your papers closely prior to submitting and follow the citation format of the 6th edition of the American Psychological Association Manual (APA). 3. Late assignments: Assignments should be submitted by the assigned deadline. One late assignment will be accepted under the following conditions: 1) the assignment is submitted within 24 hours of the original deadline; and 2) the assignment is of high quality. 4. Class Format, Etiquette, & Climate: • • The format of this course will be primarily seminar and discussion. We will engage in discussions, small group activities, and student/group presentations. Help create a safe space: Many materials in the course will be learned experientially, and the class as a group will develop, maintain and adhere to norms of behavior, conduct and communication that are confirming, supportive, and respectful. To create and preserve a • classroom atmosphere that optimizes teaching and learning, all participants will share a responsibility in building a civil forum. In this atmosphere, each individual will have the freedom of thought and expression. Finally, the course will promote the acceptance, respect, worth, and value of individuals and cultures. There will be no need to TEXT anyone during this course. Please TURN OFF all cell phones before entering class. After an initial warning, you will lose 5 points from your final course grade for each transgression. Important Policies STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS: Please inform the instructor during the first week of classes about any disability or special needs that you may have that may require specific arrangements related to attending class sessions, carrying out class assignments, or writing papers or examinations. According to Appalachian State University policy, students with disabilities must document their disabilities at the Disabled Student Services Office in order to be accommodated in their courses. Appalachian State University is committed to making reasonable accommodations for individuals with documented qualifying disabilities in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Those seeking accommodations based on a substantially limiting disability must contact and register with The Office of Disability Services (ODS) at http://www.ods.appstate.edu or 828-­‐262-­‐3056. Once registration is complete, individuals will meet with ODS staff to discuss eligibility and appropriate accommodations. ACADEMIC INTEGRITY CODE: All work completed for this class must be the original work of the student. Students who commit academic misconduct will be at risk for failure. “Students attending Appalachian State University agree to abide by the following Code: *Students will not lie, cheat, or steal to gain academic advantage. *Students will oppose every instance of academic dishonesty.” From http://academicaffairs.appstate.edu/files/academic_integrity_code.pdf Academic dishonesty includes such things cheating, inventing false information or citations, plagiarism, and helping someone else commit an act of academic dishonesty. It usually involves an attempt by a student to show a possession of a level of knowledge or skill, which he/she in fact does not possess. Cheating is defined as the act of obtaining or attempting to obtain credit for work by the use of any dishonest, deceptive, fraudulent, or unauthorized means. Plagiarism is defined as the act of taking the work of another and offering it as one’s own without giving credit to that source. Please see the student conduct website for more specific information http://studentconduct.appstate.edu/ Excused Absences for Religious Observance: Per the Board of Governors of North Carolina, students who need to miss a class due to religious observance are permitted 2 excused absences per academic year. Students are responsible for requesting excused absences for religious observances required by the faith of a student. In the event that you will need to miss class for religious reasons, please inform me at least 1 week in advance in writing. Students will be permitted to make up any tests or other work missed due to an excused absence for a religious observance. The following statement has been approved by the Faculty Senate and the Academic Policies and Procedures Committee. In its mission statement, Appalachian State University aims at “providing undergraduate students a rigorous liberal education that emphasizes transferable skills and preparation for professional careers” as well as “maintaining a faculty whose members serve as excellent teachers and scholarly mentors for their students.” Such rigor means that the foremost activity of Appalachian students is an intense engagement with their courses. In practical terms, students should expect to spend two to three hours of studying for every hour of class time. Hence, a fifteen hour academic load might reasonably require between 30 and 45 hours per week of out-­‐of-­‐class work. Workload: You should plan to spend 2-­‐3 hours studying for every course hour. So for this 3-­‐hour course, you may expect up to 9 hours per week of out-­‐of-­‐class work. In the event of an emergency, contact the University Police at 828-­‐262-­‐8000. Emergency Closings: (828) 262-­‐SNOW North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards: The following standards from the 2010 North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards are addressed or introduced throughout this course: Standard 2: Teachers establish a respectful environment for diverse student populations. 2a. Teachers provide an environment in which each child has a positive, nurturing relationship with caring adults. Teachers encourage an environment that is inviting, respectful, supportive, inclusive, and flexible. 2b.Teachers embrace diversity in the school community and in the world. Teachers demonstrate their knowledge of the history of diverse cultures and their role in shaping global issues. They actively select materials and develop lessons that counteract stereotypes and incorporate histories and contributions of all cultures. Teachers recognize the influence of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, and other aspects of culture on a student’s development and personality. Teachers strive to understand how a student’s culture and background may influence his or her school performance. Teachers consider and incorporate different points of view in their instruction. 2c. Teachers treat students as individuals. Teachers maintain high expectations, including graduation from high school, for students of all backgrounds. Teachers appreciate the differences and value the contributions of each student in the learning environment by building positive, appropriate relationships. Standard 4: Teachers facilitate learning for their students. 4a. Teachers know the ways in which learning takes place, and they know appropriate levels of intellectual, physical, social, and emotional development of their students. Teachers understand the influences that affect individual student learning (development, culture, language proficiency, etc.) and differentiate their instruction accordingly. Teachers respond to cultural diversity and learning needs of students. NC Teaching Standards for English as a Second Language: Given that this course is designed to help prepare classroom teachers for working with English language learners (ELLs), and that ELLs spend the vast majority of their school day in mainstream classrooms, this course is also informed by the following NC Teaching Standards for English as a Second Language: Standard 2: Teachers have knowledge and understanding of the interaction between language and culture, and how sociocultural factors impact second language acquisition. 2.a. Teachers have an understanding of how language functions within society. 2.b. Teachers have knowledge of how language varies with respect to non-­‐linguistic variables including region, socio-­‐economic class, and register. 2.e. Teachers inform their practice by expanding knowledge about world cultures and languages, including concepts such as cultural diversity, dynamic relativism, universalism, acculturation, and assimilation, and their relationship to English language learners and their families. Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages/National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education Standards: 2.a.4. Understand and apply concepts about the interrelationship between language and culture. 2.b.1. Use a range of resources, including the internet, to learn about world cultures and cultures of students in their classrooms and apply that learning to instruction. 2.b.2. Understand and apply knowledge about how an individual’s cultural identity affects their ESL learning and how levels of cultural identity will vary widely among students.