Table Exams Table of of Information Information and and Equation Equation Tables Tablesfor forAP AP® Physics Physics Exams The accompanying Table of Information and Equation Tables will be provided to students when they take the AP Physics Exams. Therefore, students may NOT bring their own copies of these tables to the exam room, although they may use them throughout the year in their classes in order to become familiar with their content. Table of Information For both the Physics B and Physics C Exams, the Table of Information is printed near the front cover of the multiple-choice section and on the green insert provided with the free-response section. The tables are identical for both exams except for one convention as noted. Equation Tables For both the Physics B and Physics C Exams, the equation tables for each exam are printed only on the green insert provided with the free-response section. The equation tables may be used by students when taking the free-response sections of both exams but NOT when taking the multiple-choice sections. The equations in the tables express the relationships that are encountered most frequently in AP Physics courses and exams. However, the tables do not include all equations that might possibly be used. For example, they do not include many equations that can be derived by combining other equations in the tables. Nor do they include equations that are simply special cases of any that are in the tables. Students are responsible for understanding the physical principles that underlie each equation and for knowing the conditions for which each equation is applicable. The equation tables are grouped in sections according to the major content category in which they appear. Within each section, the symbols used for the variables in that section are defined. However, in some cases the same symbol is used to represent different quantities in different tables. It should be noted that there is no uniform convention among textbooks for the symbols used in writing equations. The equation tables follow many common conventions, but in some cases consistency was sacrificed for the sake of clarity. Some explanations about notation used in the equation tables: 1. The symbols used for physical constants are the same as those in the Table of Information and are defined in the Table of Information rather than in the right-hand columns of the tables. 2. Symbols in bold face represent vector quantities. 3. Subscripts on symbols in the equations are used to represent special cases of the variables defined in the right-hand columns. 4. The symbol D before a variable in an equation specifically indicates a change in the variable (i.e., final value minus initial value). 5. Several different symbols (e.g., d, r, s, h, A ) are used for linear dimensions such as length. The particular symbol used in an equation is one that is commonly used for that equation in textbooks. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. TABLE OF INFORMATION FOR 2008 and 2009 CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Proton mass, m p 1.67 10 27 kg Neutron mass, mn 1.67 10 27 kg Electron mass, me 9.11 10 31 kg 8.31 J (mol<K) R Universal gas constant, 1 electron volt, 1 eV 1.60 10 19 J 3.00 108 m s c 6.67 10 11 m3 kg<s2 G 9.8 m s2 g 1.38 10 23 J K Boltzmann’s constant, k B 1 unified atomic mass unit, 1u 1.66 10 27 kg 931 MeV c2 Planck’s constant, h 6.63 10 34 J <s 4.14 10 15 eV <s hc 1.99 10 25 J <m 1.24 10 3 eV < nm �0 8.85 10 12 C2 N <m 2 Vacuum permittivity, Coulomb’s law constant, k Vacuum permeability, Magnetic constant, k 1 atmosphere pressure, UNIT SYMBOLS 1.60 10 19 C Speed of light, Universal gravitational constant, Acceleration due to gravity at Earth’s surface, 6.02 1023 mol-1 Avogadro’s number, N 0 e Electron charge magnitude, meter, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, PREFIXES Factor Prefix Symbol m kg s A K mole, hertz, newton, pascal, joule, 1 4 p�0 9.0 109 N <m 2 C2 m0 4 p 10 7 (T <m) A m0 4 p 1 atm mol Hz N Pa J 10 7 (T <m) A 1.0 105 N m2 watt, coulomb, volt, ohm, henry, W C V W H 1.0 105 Pa farad, tesla, degree Celsius, electron-volt, F T C eV VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS FOR COMMON ANGLES D q 30D 0 37D 45D 53D 60D 90D 109 giga G sin q 0 12 35 2 2 4 5 3 2 1 106 mega M cosq 1 3 2 4 5 2 2 35 12 0 103 kilo k tanq 0 3 3 3 4 1 43 3 2 centi c 10 3 milli m 10 6 micro m 9 nano n 12 pico p 10 10 10 The following conventions are used in this exam. I. Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference of any problem is assumed to be inertial. II. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive charge (conventional current). III. For any isolated electric charge, the electric potential is defined as zero at an infinite distance from the charge. *IV. For mechanics and thermodynamics equations, W represents the work done on a system. *Not on the Table of Information for Physics C, since Thermodynamics is not a Physics C topic. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009 NEWTONIAN MECHANICS u u0 at x x0 u0 t u2 u02 2a x x0 ÇF ma Fnet F fric m N ac u2 r t r F sin q p mv J K FDt mgh F Dr cos q W Dt Pavg P Dp 1 2 mu 2 DUg W 1 2 at 2 F u cos q Fs k x Us 1 2 kx 2 m k Ts 2p Tp A 2p g T 1 f Gm1m2 FG UG Gm1m2 r r2 a F f h J K k A m N P p r T t U u W x m q t = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = acceleration force frequency height impulse kinetic energy spring constant length mass normal force power momentum radius or distance period time potential energy velocity or speed work done on a system position coefficient of friction angle torque ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM F 1 q1q2 4 p�0 r 2 E F q UE Eavg V C C Uc 1 q1q2 4 p�0 r qV V d q 1 4 p�0 Ç rii i Q V �0 A d 1 QV 2 1 CV 2 2 DQ Dt I avg R rA A V IR P IV Cp Ç Ci 1 Cs ÇC Rs Ç Ri 1 Rp ÇR FB qu B sin q FB BI A sin q B fm i 1 i 1 i i m0 I 2p r BA cos q eavg e i i B Au © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). Dfm Dt A B C d E e F I A P Q q R r t U V = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = u = r = q = fm = area magnetic field capacitance distance electric field emf force current length power charge point charge resistance distance time potential (stored) energy electric potential or potential difference velocity or speed resistivity angle magnetic flux ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009 FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS WAVES AND OPTICS P u fl n c u P0 r gh Fbuoy rVg A1u1 A2 u2 1 P r gy ru 2 2 DA a A 0 DT H kA DT L P F A PV nRT Nk BT K avg 3 k T 2 B urms 3 RT M W PDV DU const. Q W e W QH ec TH TC TH 3k BT m A = area e = efficiency F = force h = depth H = rate of heat transfer k = thermal conductivity Kavg = average molecular kinetic energy A = length L = thickness M = molar mass n = number of moles N = number of molecules P = pressure Q = heat transferred to a system T = temperature U = internal energy V = volume u = velocity or speed urms = root-mean-square velocity W = work done on a system y = height a = coefficient of linear expansion m = mass of molecule r = density ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS E hf K max l DE pc hf f h p ( Dm ) c 2 E= f = K= m= p = l= f= energy frequency kinetic energy mass momentum wavelength work function n 1 sin q1 n 2 sin q2 n2 n1 sin qc 1 1 si s0 M 1 f hi h0 R 2 d sin q s i s0 f xm ml d = separation f = frequency or focal length h = height L = distance M = magnification m = an integer n = index of refraction R = radius of curvature s = distance u = speed x = position l = wavelength q = angle m lL d GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY Rectangle A bh Triangle 1 A bh 2 Circle A pr2 C 2p r Parallelepiped V Awh Cylinder V p r 2A A= C= V= S = b = h = A= w= r = area circumference volume surface area base height length width radius S 2p r A 2p r 2 Sphere 4 3 pr V 3 S 4p r 2 Right Triangle a 2 b2 c 2 a sin q c b cos q c a tan q b c q a 90q b © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009 MECHANICS u u0 at x x0 u0 t u2 ÇF 1 2 at 2 u0 2 2a x x0 ma Fnet F dp dt J Ô F dt p mv Dp F fric m N W Ô F<dr K 1 2 mu 2 P dW dt P F<v DUg ac t Çt I rcm mgh 2 u r t net Ô r dm 2 L rp K 1 2 Iw 2 q F 1 q1q2 4 p�0 r 2 E F q Ia Ç mr w0 at q0 w0t 1 2 at 2 dV dr V 1 4 p�0 UE q Ç rii i 1 q1q2 4 p�0 r qV C Q V C k �0 A d Cp Ç Ci 1 Cs ÇC I i 1 i i dQ dt k x Uc 1 QV 2 Us 1 2 kx 2 R rA A E rJ I Neud A V IR 2 Iw �0 E T 2p w 1 f m k Ts 2p Tp A 2p g Gm1m2 FG UG Gm1m2 r r2 Rs rˆ 1 Rp P FM Ç Ri A B C d E e Q vÔ E < d A Fs Ç mr Ç m rw acceleration force frequency height rotational inertia impulse kinetic energy spring constant length angular momentum mass normal force power momentum radius or distance position vector period time potential energy velocity or speed work done on a system position coefficient of friction angle torque angular speed angular acceleration w2 r rF u w a = F = f = h = I = J = K = k = A = L = m= N = P = p = r = r = T = t = U= u = W= x = m= q = t = w = a = ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 1 CV 2 2 F I J L A n = = = = = = = = = = = = N = = = = = = = = V= u = r = fm = k = P Q q R r t U vÔ B< d � F IV qv B © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). m0 I m0 I d � r 4p r3 dB Ô I d� B Bs m0 nI fm Ô B<dA i 1 ÇR i i area magnetic field capacitance distance electric field emf force current current density inductance length number of loops of wire per unit length number of charge carriers per unit volume power charge point charge resistance distance time potential or stored energy electric potential velocity or speed resistivity magnetic flux dielectric constant d fm dt e e L UL dI dt 1 2 LI 2 ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009 GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY Rectangle A bh Triangle 1 bh 2 A Circle pr2 A C 2p r Parallelepiped V Awh Cylinder V p r 2A S 2p r A 2p r 2 A= C= V= S = b = h = A = w= r = CALCULUS df dx area circumference volume surface area base height length width radius Sphere d f du du dx d n x dx nx n 1 d x e dx ex d 1n x dx 1 x d sin x dx cos x d cos x dx sin x Ôx n dx 1 x n 1 , n 1 n 1 Ôe x dx ex dx x V 4 3 pr 3 Ô S 4p r 2 Ô cos x dx sin x Ô sin x dx cos x Right Triangle a2 b2 c2 sin q a c cos q b c tan q a b c q ln x a 90q b © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).